Slide #1.

Water Movements
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Slide #2.

Laminar and Turbulent Flow
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Slide #3.

Reynolds Number (Re) Laminar Re<2300 Transient 23004000 Re = inertial forces: viscous forces
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Slide #4.

Turbulence is significant in: • conduction of heat (eddy conduction) • diffusion of dissolved substances (eddy diffusion) • viscosity (eddy viscosity)
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Slide #5.

Surface Waves
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Slide #6.

Deep Water Wave
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Slide #7.

Water Movement in a Surface Wave
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Slide #8.

Shallow Water Waves
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Slide #9.

Fetch
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Slide #10.

Lake Thunderbird
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Slide #11.

Whitecaps on Lake Michigan
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Slide #12.

Langmuir Circulation
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Slide #13.

Causes of Surface Currents • • • • Wind Change in atmospheric pressure Horizontal density gradients Influx of water
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Slide #14.

Surface Currents in Lake Erie
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Slide #15.

Rip Current in Lake Erie
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Slide #16.

Currents in a Stratified Lake Layers remain stable if the shearing force between them is low; Richardson number (Ri) remains higher than 0.25.
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Slide #18.

Coriolis Effect on water movement
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Slide #19.

Thermal Bars
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Slide #20.

Formation of a Seiche
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Slide #21.

Bimodal Seiche
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Slide #22.

Seiche on Lake Erie
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Slide #23.

Seiche traces from different parts of Lake Huron
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Slide #24.

Inflow and outflow in Galich Lake
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Slide #25.

Lake Sam Reyburn, TX
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Slide #27.

Richardson number = shearing force between layers From Fernandez and Imberger (2006)
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Slide #28.

Table 7-1 Velocity (cm/sec) Substrate Diameter range (mm) 3-20 Silt, mud, organic debris <0.02 20-40 Fine sand 0.1 - 0.3 40-60 Coarse sand to fine gravel 0.5 – 8 60-120 Small - large gravel 8 – 64 120-200 Large cobbles to boulders >128
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Slide #29.

Movement of Water in a Stream Channel
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Slide #31.

Run and Riffle
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Slide #32.

Standing Wave in Stream
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Slide #33.

Standing waves on the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon
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Slide #36.

Discharge and Gage Height 78 years of record: Min = 1460cfs (1964) Max = 399,000cfs (2011) Median = 4930cfs Mean = 12200cfs
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Slide #37.

Water-level Fluctuations Inflow Outflow Flushing Rate Rivers Reservoirs Natural Lakes Large, rapid, irregular; flooding Runoff from surface irregular and seasonal; groundwater stable Discharge irregular Large, irregular Small, stable From river and tributaries; internal flows complex From low order streams, groundwater Highly irregular Rapid, unidirectional, horizontal Short, variable (weeks) Stable; outflow shallow and groundwater Long, years
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