IMPORTANCE OF REFLECTIVE PRACTICE • CTL Reflective Writing Workshop • Introduced the concept of reflection • Discussed his personal feedback to students • Encourage Thinking • How to Think Alan Jacobs • Kahneman & Haidt – “relatively few people want to think” • Thinking troubles us • Thinking tires us • Thinking forces us out of familiar, comforting habits etc. • Speed of social media traffic • We use our intuitive thinking (fast) snap-judgements, instantaneous reads on a given situation, bias views • Conscious decision-making kicks in only when we perceive a problem, an inconsistency, an anomaly that needs to be addresses
WHY • Provides a platform for student writing (little opportunity in clinical practice) • Encourages problem solving for issues or situations that occur during clinical practice. • Encourages student to be present during clinical practice. • Faculty understand the student process of learning. • Faculty able to troubleshoot any problems that arise during clinic. • Faculty is able to provide feedback to each student to support confidence and learning. • Students learn from the past and can make changes for future events. • Increase students knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and skills in specific areas of performance. • Students interact with patients, classmates, faculty, staff, patient assessments and time management • Where we have been and where we want to go
HOW • Reflect once-a-week on clinical situations by answering one predetermined question from 5 different topics: • • • • • Learning Self-Assessment Communication Professionalism Emotion and Personal Growth • Refer to Reflective Journaling Tools
REFLECTIVE JOURNALING TOOLS Reflective J ournalingTools LEARNING: • How is practice different from theory? Did this exercise help you to understand your theory and the application of theory better? How? Why? • Did you learn anything that helped you to better understand a theory, the use of a test that you were taught in lectures/labs? • What did you learn that were not taught in lectures (e.g. communication with patients), and how did you cope or learn more about this to improve your performance? Or how can this be incorporated into lectures? • Did this exercise help you to remember or recall later other aspects of previous experiences that you have forgotten? • Did this exercise help you identify areas that need to be changed, improved etc. in yourself/peers/staff/clinical training etc. Why and how? • What actions did you take you take and what are the results (what did you learn)? SELF ASSESSMENT: • Did you identify areas/issues that you were unclear of, or disagreed with your supervisors/peers, or different from what you have learned in your past lectures? Justify the actions taken. Did this help you in your learning? How? • Have you been open to share with others and to listen what others have to say? • Have you paid attention to both your strong and weak points? Can you identify them? What are you going to do about them? • How did faculty supervision/RW help you in your clinical experiences in relation to your professional growth? (eg. did it encourage you to be more independent, to become more confident in professional activities and behaviors etc) • What have you noted about yourself, your learning altitude, your relationship with peers/supervisors etc. that has changed from doing this exercise? COMMUNICATION: • What have you learned from interacting with others (peers/supervisors/staff etc)? • Did your peers gain anything from YOUR involvement in this exercise and vice versa? • Did this exercise encourage and facilitate communication? • Did you clarify with your supervisors/peers about problematic issues identified? Why (not)? What are the results? • How could you/your peers/staff help you overcome negative emotions arising from your work? Did your show empathy for your peers? PROFESSIONALISM: • Did you learn that different situations call for different strategies in management? • What are the good and bad practices that you have identified? How would you suggest to handle the bad/poor practices identified (if any)? • Did you learn to accept and use constructive criticism? • Did you accept responsibility for your own actions? • Did you try to maintain high standard of performance? • Did you display a generally positive altitude and demonstrate self-confidence? • Did you demonstrate knowledge of the legal boundaries and ethics of contact lens practice? EMOTION & PERSONAL GROWTH: • Did you reflect on your feelings when dealing with the case/peers/supervisor (eg. frustration, embarrassment, fear) for this exercise? If not, why not? If yes, who should be responsible — you, your patient or your supervisor? Why? • Did you find reflection (as required for this exercise) helpful, challenging, and enjoyable, change the way you learn? How? Why (not)? • How and what did you do to handle negative emotions arising from doing this subject? How could these feelings be minimized? • Did you try to find out if your feelings were different from your peers? Why? What did you do to help your peers? • Did you reflect on your learning altitude? How was it? Is there room for improvement? How? Why (not)? • What did you learn about your relationship with your peers/supervisors? What did you learn about working with others? Ideas for Reflective Journaling Writing Contributor(s): Dr. Michael Ying and Dr. Pauline Cho
WHERE • BlackBoard • Recitation will be graded on consistency, content and appropriate answers to the Reflective Journal questions. • Refer to the Rubric when answering questions and remember to write the question and then answer it. • You must complete all weekly journals to receive a grade of 10. This is an all or nothing assignment. If you do not complete all of the weekly journals, you will get 0. No partial credit given. • Time limit to write Sunday PM but one additional day to complete.
DEN 219/229 Reflection Journal Rubric GRADING Criteria Reflective Student Aware Student Reflective Novice BelowExpectations Clarity Language is clear and expressive. The reader can create a mental picture of the situation being described. Abstract concepts are explained accurately. Explanation makes sense to an uninformed reader. The learning experience being reflected upon is relevant and meaningful to student and course learning goals. Minor, infrequent lapses in clarity and accuracy. There are frequent lapses in clarity and accuracy. Language is unclear and confusing throughout. Concepts are either not discussed or are presented inaccurately. The learning experience being reflected upon is relevant and meaningful to student and course learning goals. Student makes attempts to demonstrate relevance, but the relevance is unclear to the reader. Most of the reflection is irrelevant to student and/ or course learning goals. The reflection demonstrates connections between the experience and material from other courses, but lacks relevance and depth. There is little to no attempt to demonstrate connections between the learning experience and previous other personal and/ or learning experiences. Student makes attempts at applying the learning experience to understanding of self, others, and/ or course concepts but fails to demonstrate depth of analysis. There is some attempt at self-criticism, but the selfreflection fails to demonstrate a new awareness of personal biases, etc. No attempt to demonstrate connections to previous learning or experience. Student’s language is clear and expressive Relevance The learning experience is relevant and meaningful to student. Interconnections The reflection demonstrates connections between the experience and material from The reflection demonstrates other courses; past connections between the experience and material from experience; and/ or personal goals. other courses. Analysis The reflection moves beyond simple description of the experience Self-criticism Ability of the student to question their own biases, stereotypes, preconceptions, and/ or assumptions. The reflection moves beyond simple description of the experience to an analysis of how the experience contributed to student understanding of self, others, and/ or course concepts. The reflection demonstrates student attempts to analyze the experience but analysis lacks depth. The reflection demonstrates ability of the student to question their own biases, stereotypes, preconceptions, and/ or assumptions and define new modes of thinking as a result. The reflection demonstrates ability of the student to question their own biases, stereotypes, preconceptions. Adapted from University of Iowa, Office of Service Learning Reflection does not move beyond description of the learning experience(s). No attempt at selfcriticism.
GRADING • If Below expectations I send it back to student without a grade. • If student doesn’t clearly answer or give examples of clinical situations I remind them in the feedback to follow the rubric for the next assignment. • 10 points of final grade. (The effort is what I am looking for)
OBSERVATIONS 1. Many students answer the same question in each topic area…especially •Communication •What have you learned from interacting with others? (peers, supervisor, staff etc. •Emotional and Personal Growth •What did you learn about your relationship with your peers/supervisors 2.Students are Reflective Novice or Aware Student in rubric 3.By second semester some students have become Reflective Student. 4.Students balked at the assignments during the first semester but accepted it as routine for the second semester. 5.Students reflected on how the appreciated having a forum to discuss troubling situations and while I may not have changed a situation they felt “listened to”
OBSERVATIONS • Need to look at data for further information • Actually Grade Them • Don’t want to discourage the writing process • Don’t want them to become frustrated • I want them to use this after school as a tool for clinical practice.