Slide #1.

The The Nature Nature of of Motivation Motivation • Motivation The psychological forces acting on an individual that determine: • Direction—possible behaviors the individual could engage in • Effort—how hard the individual will work • Persistence—whether the individual will keep trying or give up This is one of the factors that explains why people behave the way they do in organizations. • What are some other factors? © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–1
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Slide #2.

The The Nature Nature of of Motivation Motivation (cont’d) (cont’d) • Extrinsic Motivation Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment. • Examples? – What motivate you? – What motivates others you know? • Intrinsic Motivation Behavior that is performed for its own sake. • Examples? – What motivates you? – What motivates others you know? © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–2
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Slide #3.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation (Expectancy (Expectancy Theory) Theory) • Expectancy Theory Motivation will be highest when: Effort  Performance  Desired Outcomes © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–3
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Slide #4.

Expectancy Expectancy Theory, Theory, cont’d cont’d Source: © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Figure 12.3 12–4
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Slide #5.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation (Needs (Needs Theories) Theories) • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Five basic needs Lowest level of unmet need is the primary motivator © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–5
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Slide #6.

Maslow’s Maslow’s Hierarchy Hierarchy of of Needs Needs Needs Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs Description Examples SelfSelfactualization actualization Realize Realizeone’s one’s full potential full potential Use Useabilities abilities to the to thefullest fullest Esteem Esteem Feel Feelgood good about oneself about oneself Promotions Promotions and andrecognition recognition Belongingness Belongingness Social Social interaction, interaction,love love Interpersonal Interpersonal relations, relations,parties parties Safety Safety Security, Security,stability stability Job Jobsecurity, security, health healthinsurance insurance Physiological Physiological Food, Food,water, water, shelter shelter Basic Basicpay paylevel level to buy items to buy items Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Table 12.1 12–6
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Slide #7.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation (Needs (Needs Theories, Theories, cont’d) cont’d) • Alderfer’s ERG Theory Three needs categories Needs at more than one level can be the motivator at any time © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–7
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Slide #8.

Alderfer’s Alderfer’s ERG ERG Theory Theory Needs Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs Description Examples Growth Growth Self-development, Self-development, creative creativework work Continually Continually improve improveskills skills Relatedness Relatedness Interpersonal Interpersonal relations, relations,feelings feelings Good Goodrelations, relations, accurate accuratefeedback feedback Existence Existence Food, Food,water, water, clothing, clothing,and andshelter shelter Adequate Adequatepay pay for fornecessities necessities After lower level needs satisfied, person seeks higher needs. When unable to satisfy higher needs, lower needs motivation is raised. Source: © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. Table 12.2 12–8
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Slide #9.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation (Needs (Needs Theories) Theories) Let’s stop for a minute … Why should a manager care about all these “needs theories”? © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–9
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Slide #10.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation (Needs (Needs Theories, Theories, cont’d) cont’d) • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itself—autonomy, responsibility, interesting work. Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context of the work—comfortable work environment, pay, job security. • Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene needs does not lead to motivation or job satisfaction. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–10
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Slide #11.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation (Needs (Needs Theories, Theories, cont’d) cont’d) McClelland’s Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power • Need for Achievement A strong need to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence • Need for Affiliation A concern for good interpersonal relations, being liked, and getting along • Need for Power A desire to control or influence others © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–11
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Slide #12.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation (Adam’s (Adam’s Equity Equity Theory) Theory) Focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness (or lack of fairness) of their work outcomes in proportion to their work inputs.  Equity: input/output ratios are equal  How would you “restore” equity in … … underpayment … overpayment © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–12
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Slide #13.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation (Goal (Goal Setting Setting Theory) Theory) • Focuses on identifying the types of goals that are effective in producing high levels of motivation and explaining why goals have these effects. • Goals must be: Specific Difficult Include feedback © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–13
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Slide #14.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation (Learning (Learning Theories) Theories) • Theories that focus on increasing motivation and performance by linking outcomes to performance and the attainment of goals. • Learning A relatively permanent change in person’s knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–14
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Slide #15.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation ((Learning Learning Theories: Theories: Operant Operant Conditioning Conditioning Theory) Theory) Operant Conditioning Theory People learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences. • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Extinction • Punishment • OB MOD © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–15
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Slide #16.

Steps Stepsin in Organization Organization al alBehavior Behavior Modification Modification FigureAdapted 12.4 from Source: Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond by F. Luthans and R. Kreitner (Scott, Foresman, 1985). With permission of the authors. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–16
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Slide #17.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation ((Learning Learning Theories: Theories: Social Social Learning Learning Theory) Theory) • A theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by people’s thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other people’s behavior. • Vicarious Learning (Observational Learning) Learning that occurs when a learner is motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform and be rewarded. • People are motivated to imitate models who are highly competent, expert, receive attractive reinforcers, and are friendly or approachable. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–17
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Slide #18.

Theories Theories in in Motivation Motivation (Where (Where does does pay pay fit fit in?) in?) • Pay as a Motivator???? Expectancy: pay is an instrumentality (and outcome), must be high for motivation to be high. Need Theory: pay is used to satisfy many needs. Equity Theory: pay is given in relation to inputs. Goal Setting Theory: pay is linked to attainment of goals. Learning Theory: outcomes (pay), is distributed upon performance of functional behaviors. © Copyright McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved. 12–18
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