The Achievement Lens • Provides a measure of what students know and are able to do relative to the Ohio standards, benchmarks and grade level indicators. • Achievement tests are an important measure of the academic learning students have accumulated since birth. • Creates a set of criteria for a statewide accountability system.
• Issues that arise as we connect Achievement and Accountability Different starting points require different growth rates. • A judgment of school quality is flawed if it is based solely on the achievement levels of its students. • Problematic diagnostic value • What part of academic achievement is due to SES and what part is due to the school? • Achievement Targets tend to motivate students and teachers who are within reach of those targets.
The Progress Lens • Uses existing achievement measures to do the analysis. • Reliable measure of student academic growth from one test to the next, i.e., spring to spring. • Substantial diagnostic value as well as accountability value.
4. The profiles of other students with similar performance histories are then used to create statistically reliable projected scores for each student . Student Projection1 Student Projection 2 Student Projection 3 The Pool Student Projection 4 Student Projection 5 Student Projection 6 Student Projection 7 The actual results of other students who have profiles very similar to Student One are used to create a statistical projection of where Student One is likely to be at the end of a given academic year. Student Projection 8 Student Projection 9 Student Projection 10 Student Projection 11 Student Projection 12 Student Projection 13 Student Projection 14 Student Projection 15 Student Projection 16 Student Projection 17 Student Projection 18 Student Projection 19 Student Projection 20
Information provided by Progress Measures • The average progress of students in each subject and grade level. • The average progress of students at different prior achievement levels. • Comparisons of progress across curricular areas. • Individual student progress relative to the state and federal benchmarks.
Research Nuggets Teachers matter • The difference between having a high and a low quality teacher 3 years in a row is roughly 50 percentile points. • Differences within schools are typically greater than differences across schools. • Only the most effective teachers - the top 20 per cent – are providing instruction that produces adequate gain in high-achieving students, while students in the lower achievement levels profit from all but the least effective teachers.
• Research Nuggets (cont.) Low achieving students are the first to benefit from improvements in teacher effectiveness. • Students of different ethnicities respond equivalently within the same quintile of teacher effectiveness. • Having a high quality teacher throughout elementary school can substantially offset or even eliminate the disadvantage of low socioeconomic background.
Measurement of Learning Types Achievement Status Achievement Gain Is the ultimate metric for student post-secondary opportunities Simply put, achievement status conveys the degree to which a student or cohort demonstrates performance mastery Is significantly related to student family background Much of the foundational research using this form reported discouraging school influence on student achievement Compares year to year performances of unlike cohorts on School Report Card Measures the progress students make between two points in time Often use Standardized Test Scores Reflect School Quality Both are important to parents, teachers, and community Is largely unrelated to student background factors Though the calculations require involved data structures, capacity, and statistical technology, the concept is straightforward – student progress The more recent research using this metric found the school’s / teacher’s influence to be paramount for facilitating student academic progress A usable gauge for measuring school program effectiveness for anyway that students are grouped