Slide #1.

The Last Ape Standing
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Slide #2.

It is therefore probable that Africa was formerly inhabited by extinct apes closely allied to the gorilla and chimpanzee: and as these two species are now man’s nearest allies, it is somewhat more probable that our early progenitors lived on the African continent than elsewhere. -Darwin (1871) The Descent of Man
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Slide #3.

Mt-DNA Primate Tree
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Slide #4.

Our Living Sisters Pan Gorilla http://www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/a_tree.html
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Slide #5.

Living Asian Apes Gibbon (Hyalobates) Orangutan (Pongo)
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Slide #6.

Apes in the Primates
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Slide #7.

Features that distinguish the Hominins from other living apes • • • • • Bipedal Locomotion Loss of fur Reduced dentition Enlargement of the brain Vocal communication
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Slide #8.

Possible origins of bipedal locomotion Figure 1 from Richmond, B. G., D. R. Begun, and D. S. Strait. 2001. Origin of human bipedalism: The knuckle-walking hypothesis revisited. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 44:70-105.
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Slide #9.

Bipedalism • Freed the hands and • Widened feeding allowed more potential manipulative • Reduced predation capabilities pressures • Led to a higher • Was more thermoregulatory energetically efficiency efficient mode of locomotion
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Slide #11.

Oldest evidence of bipedalism Australopithecus afarensis
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Slide #12.

Footprint experiment (Raichlen et al. 2010) A. Normal gait in sand (H.sapiens) B. Bent-knee, benthip gait in sand (similar to walk of apes) C. Footprint from Laetoli, Tanzania
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Slide #13.

Neoteny • An explanation for: – Nakedness – Large Brain Size – Reduced Dentition
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Slide #14.

The Neotenic Apes
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Slide #15.

Hair loss and lice
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Slide #16.

Phylogeny of some living primates and their lice
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Slide #17.

Tales of the Lice • Human head louse vs chimp louse (how long ago we diverged) ~6-7MYA • Human head louse vs human body louse (how long ago we began to wear clothes) ~50-100KYA • Human pubic louse vs gorilla body louse (how long ago we began to lose fur to patches of hair) ~3-4MYA
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Slide #18.

Large Brain Potts 2011 Navarette et al. 2011
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Slide #19.

Reduced dentition
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Slide #20.

Vocal communication • Lower larynx • Fox P2 gene http://www.voice.northwestern.edu/VOICEBOX/Larynx.htm
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Slide #21.

PBS NOVA
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Slide #22.

Proconsul Likely a sister to the apes with a mix of ape-monkey characters 14-23 MYA Africa
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Slide #23.

Dryopithecus Early ape 15-9 MYA Africa, Eurasia
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Slide #24.

Ardipithecus • • • • • Africa Brain ~300-350cc 120 (f) cm tall 50 (f) kg ~6.0 – 4.2 MYA
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Slide #25.

Miocene Epoch • • 23-5.3 MYA Epoch of ape radiation (>100 species of apes in the latter part of the Miocene) • They ranged though Africa, Europe, and Asia • The end of the Miocene saw the separation between the African Apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas) and the Hominin Apes • Africa moved northward and formed the Mediterranean Sea, which dried out multiple times. Data from NASA, USGS, NOAA
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Slide #26.

Pliocene Epoch • • 5.3-2.5 MYA Epoch of bipedal ape radiation. • They ranged though Africa • Gracile and robust lines • Pliocene relatively warm Data from NASA, USGS, NOAA
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Slide #27.

Human Phylogeny The Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History http://www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/a_tree.html
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Slide #28.

Hominin Series (A) Pan troglodytes, chimpanzee, modern (B) Australopithecus africanus, 2.6 My (C) Australopithecus africanus, 2.5 My (D) Homo habilis, 1.9 My (E) Homo habilis, 1.8 My (F) Homo rudolfensis, 1.8 My (G) Homo erectus, 1.75 My http://www.talkingorigins.com (H) Homo ergaster (early H. erectus), 1.75 My (I) Homo heidelbergensis, 300,000 - 125,000 y (J) Homo neanderthalensis, 70,000 y (K) Homo neanderthalensis, 60,000 y (L) Homo neanderthalensis, 45,000 y (M) Homo sapiens, 30,000 y (N) Homo sapiens, modern
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Slide #29.

Australopithecus afarensis • • • • • Africa Brain 375-550 cc 107 (f)-152 (m) cm tall 29 (f) – 42 (m) kg ~3.0-3.9 MYA British Museum of Natural History and Smithsonian Museum
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Slide #30.

Australopithecus africanus • • • • • Africa Brain 420-500 cc 110 (f)-140 (m) cm tall 30 (f) - 41 (m) kg ~2.4-2.8 MYA British Museum of Natural History and the Smithsonian Museum
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Slide #31.

Paranthropus robustus • • • • • Africa Brain ~530cc 110 (f)-130 (m) cm tall 32 (f) – 40 (m) kg ~1.0 – 2.0 MYA http://www.maropeng.co.za
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Slide #32.

Pleistocene Epoch • • 2.5-0.012 MYA Appearance and radiation of Homo. • They ranged though Africa and emerged into the rest of the earth. • Global climates extremely unsettled and variable Data from NASA, USGS, NOAA
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Slide #33.

Homo habilis • • • • • Africa Brain ~500-800 cc 100 (f) – 135 (m) cm tall 32 (f) – 37 (m) kg ~1.44-2.3 MYA http://macscience.files.wordpress.com
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Slide #34.

Olduwan stone tools in Ethiopia • 2.6 -1.8 MYA • Chipped pebbles and choppers, usually lava • Likely made by H. habilis
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Slide #35.

Homo erectus • • • • • Africa, Eurasia ~Brain 750-1225 cc 145 (f) – 185 (m) cm tall 40 (f) – 68 (m) kg ~0.3-1.8 MYA http://www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/a_tree.html
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Slide #36.

Range of H. erectus • Evidence for controlled use of fire • Acheulean tools (1.70.1 MYA) http://anthro.palomar.edu
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Slide #37.

Homo heidelbergensis • • • • • Africa, Eurasia Brain ~1100-1400 cc 157 (f) - 175 (m) cm tall 51 (f) – 62 (m) kg ~0.2-0.6 MYA Smithsonian Institution
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Slide #38.

Homo neanderthalensis • • • • • Eurasia Brain ~1100-1400 cc 155 (f) – 164 (m) cm tall 54 (f) – 64 (m) kg ~0.03-0.3 MYA Neanderthal Museum
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Slide #39.

Range of the Neanderthals http://www.rhesusnegative.net
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Slide #40.

Behaviors of H. neanderthalensis Neanderthal vs rodeo trama patterns (redrawn Berger & Trinkhaus 1995) • Scavengers and up close spear hunting of large animals (see Figure) • Relatively complex stone tools (Mousterian, see Figure) • Tools from wood, bone, tusks, and antlers • Evidence of burials and ceremony • Possible verbal communication 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 NEANDERTHAL RODEO
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Slide #41.

Homo floresiensis • • • • • Asia (Indonesia) Brain ~380-417 cc ~106 (f?) cm tall 30 (f?) kg ~0.013-0.095 MYA
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Slide #42.

Homo sapiens • Africa to all land surfaces • ~1350 cc (975-1499) • US ave: 162 (f) – 175.8 (m) cm tall • US ave: 74 (f) – 86.4 (m) kg • ~present-0.2 MYA
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Slide #43.

Homo sapiens • Appeared ~200,000 years ago with a suite of behaviors similar to neanderthals • Likely in small populations (~140) with a total number of 100,000 • Bottleneck reduced to ~10,000 individuals
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Slide #44.

Theories regarding the origin of Homo sapiens Recent Out of Africa – More consistent with the genetic data • Mitochondrial • Y-chromosome • Genetic variability – Consistent with language families – Neanderthals a different species Multiregional Hypothesis – Explains racial differences by isolation and periodic mixing between populations – Connects H. erectus directly to H. sapiens – Neanderthal a step in the evolution of modern humans
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Slide #46.

Genetic variation in Homo sapiens
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Slide #47.

Classic archaeologically-accessible evidence of behavioral modernity includes: • finely-made tools • fishing • evidence of long-distance exchange or barter among groups • systematic use of pigment (such as ochre) and jewelry for decoration or selfornamentation • figurative art (cave paintings, petroglyphs, figurine) • game playing and music • foods being cooked and seasoned instead of being consumed in the raw • burial Calvin. 2003. A Brief History of Mind; Stringer. 2011. Origin of our Species
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Slide #48.

Homo sapiens, the generalist Rick Potts of the Smithsonian Institution
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Slide #49.

Why are we the last ape standing? • We were lucky • We outcompeted the other bipedal apes • We killed the other bipedal apes
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