Slide #1.

Scientific Societies
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The Royal Society of London • Middle 17th century • From ‘invisible college’ of natural philosophers who were influenced by Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis • Abandon authority and appeal only to empirical evidence
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• Origin of Royal Society linked to a faculty of 12 at Gresham College. • Meeting following a talk by Christopher Wren on 28 November 1660 • Resolved to create a new ‘college’ Sir Christopher Wren, 1632-1723
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• Group of 12 formed a club for ‘Promoting the Physico-Mathematical Experimental Learning’ • 28 November 1660 • Meet weekly to discuss scientific topics and conduct experiments Nullius in Verba
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• Founded as a formal society after the Restoration • Charles II granted royal charter 1662 and 1663 called The Royal Society of London • To be the scientific advisor to the king
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Agendas of meetings included • Reports: oral or written • Discussions • Experiments: Robert Hooke first Demonstrator of Experiments
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• Formal members known as fellows (FRS as a title) • Early members physicians and independentlywealthy upper class • 1843 members admitted only on basis of scientific merit • Led to the profession of scientist
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Journal Publications First issue of Journal des Scavans and Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1665
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First record of peer review by Henry Oldenburg, founding editor of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1665 1619-1677, Germany and England
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Types of Scientific Societies • Honorary  Royal Society  National Academy of Sciences • Interdisciplinary American Association for the Advancement of Science American Institutes of Biological Sciences • Regional Northeasten Naturalist Association New England Botanical Club Pennsylvania Academy of Science • Disciplinary American Society of Mammalogists Phycological Society of America Society for Freshwater Science
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Slide #12.

Cost of publication supported by • Membership dues • Journal subscriptions • Page charges Thousands of scientific journals Rise of electronic publishing
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Other forms of communications: • Scientific Meetings – Abstracts – Posters – Presentations • Seminars • Special publications
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