Slide #1.

SMALL LAKES, PONDS, & SEDIMENTS
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Slide #2.

Small Ponds • Most common form of limnetic environment • Usually in depressions in lowland areas • Tend to accumulate organic and mineral sediments
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Slide #3.

• Shallow lakes also tend to be dominated by macrophytes • Submerged macrophytes become established in water that is protected
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Slide #4.

Submerged Macrophytes and Phytoplankton • Macrophytes dominate by – Sequestering nitrogen and phosphorus – Providing refugia for large zooplankton that feed on phytoplankton – Providing large surface area for growth of periphyton, which competes with phytoplankton – Releasing compounds that inhibit growth of phytoplankton – Causing large fluctuations in daily oxygen, pH, etc.
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Slide #5.

Submerged Macrophytes and Phytoplankton • Phytoplankters dominate by – Shading out submerged macrophytes, especially in conditions of high nutrient loading – Surviving in conditions of high turbidity – Thriving in conditions of the absence of refugia for zooplankton; situations which usually support sight-feeding fish
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Slide #6.

Temporary Pools
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Slide #7.

Temporary Streams
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Slide #8.

Components of Sediments • Organics • Particulate minerals (e.g. carbonates, clays, and silicates) • Inorganics of biogenic origin (frustules, scales, calcium carbonate)
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Slide #10.

Humus
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Slide #11.

Dy • • • • • Pronounced dee Slightly acidic with unsaturated colloids Soft and brown >50% organic If C:N ratio > 10, it is acid and sediment is dy
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Slide #12.

Gyttja • • • • • Pronounced yit-ya Neutral Soft, gray-green to black <50% organic If C:N ratio <10 humus is neutral and sediment is gyttja
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Slide #13.

Humics from littoral and wetland floras • Lignins degrade to humic compounds • Heavily lignified emergent flora make more humics • If alkaline, sapropel • See Table 21-1
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Slide #17.

Decomposition rates in sediments Carbohydrates-amino acids-amino sugars > Humic compounds > Lipids
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Slide #24.

autolysis most bacterial decay
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