Slide #1.

Residential Community Supervision Programs
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Slide #2.

Intermediate Sanctions are sentencing options between prison & probation that provide more freedom than prison but less freedom than traditional probation  There are both residential & nonresidential intermediate sanctions  Residential options include:  • Halfway houses/community corrections centers • Work release programs • Shock incarceration/boot camps
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Slide #3.

 Halfway houses, known as Community Corrections Centers (CCC) or Residential Community Corrections Facilities (RCCF), are staffed 24 hours/day, 7 days/week, providing residential services for offenders who are: Halfway-in:  high risk/high need probationers  graduated sanctions for probation & parole violators OR Halfway-out:  preparole/prerelease prisoners  parolees who need assistance transitioning from prison to the community
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Slide #4.

      Halfway houses date to early 1800s in England & Ireland, originating in the U.S. in 1816 State & public support for halfway houses was lacking in U.S., so private, nonprofit corporations opened them After only partial success, halfway houses received government assistance for the first time in the 1960s Today private halfway houses have a permanent niche as alternatives to prison Some jurisdictions rely on them more than others Private halfway houses choose their clients, contract with the government for a specific amount per day per offender, & offenders are expected to assist financially
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Slide #5.

 While there is no “average” residential facility, they share certain features: • Residents live in the facility • Residents must be employed • They can leave the facility for work at a verified job. • Residents must be preapproved to leave for any other reason • There are restrictions on leaving for other than work, school, rehabilitation, or medical needs, & approval depends on good behavior
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Slide #6.

Increased freedom must be earned, based on: • good behavior • the amount of time in the program • client’s financial situation The bottom level is most restrictive As offenders move up levels, they earn passes to leave the facility for longer periods of time & for more reasons, curfews are later in the evening, weekend passes become available, & some offenders are allowed to own their own vehicle Clients released from the residential phase are assigned to supervising officer & some may return to the facility for aftercare treatment
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Slide #7.

 Two different type of staff work at halfway houses: • Those involved in security activities: population counts, searches, signing residents in & out, dispensing medications, conducting breathalyzers & urine screens • Case managers & counselors involved in treatment & rehabilitation: assessing needs & risks, counseling, teaching classes, preparing prerelease plans • The different roles often result in role conflict, as the goals of punishment & treatment clash
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Slide #8.

Many women offenders are good candidates for RCCFs, as nonviolent offenders  RCCFs that address gender-specific issues have grown, especially the issue of dependent children  Children of incarcerated parents are at risk  John Craine House in Indiana is an example of an RCCF that allows women offenders to reside with their children  • It is more expensive than incarceration but provides prevention programs for the children & recidivism rates are low
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Slide #9.

  Evaluations of RCCFs often examine program success or failure rates by comparing recidivism of residents with a matched sample of probationers or parolees Evaluations conclude: • Successful programs use cognitive behavioral treatment with trained staff • RCCF clients most likely to fail: younger, use drugs/alcohol, lack job skills, have few community ties, & more extensive criminal histories • RCCF clients are more successful than high risk parolees, • Low risk parolees have lower recidivism rates than RCCF clients
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Slide #10.

    Work release is both a type of institutional corrections & community corrections program Offenders are only released to go to work or attend school Jail-based work release may allow weekender programs & some pretrial programs, along with traditional work release Traditional work release includes: • unsupervised release where offenders leave the jail every day to go to work on their own • Supervised release where a group of offenders are transported under supervision & security to the same work site  Research is scant about the effectiveness of work release programs to reduce recidivism
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Slide #11.

Restitution centers: residential community correctional facilities for work-capable offenders who owe victim restitution or community service, are minimum custody, & have 6 months or less until their release date  Focus is on gainful employment & payment of child support, restitution, court-ordered fees, & rent/food. 
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Slide #12.

A 120-day alternative to prison residential program based on cognitive-behavioral treatment  Similar to a halfway house in that it combines work & treatment  CREST is a program that combines the therapeutic community concept with work release 
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Slide #13.

 Shock incarceration: a brief period of imprisonment that precedes a term of supervised probation & is variously referred to as: • Shock probation • Shock parole • Intermittent incarceration • Split sentence • Boot camp  The hope is the period of incarceration will convince the offender to avoid criminal behavior
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Slide #14.

   After beginning in Georgia in 1983, boot camps were the most common form of shock incarceration from 1983-late 1990s They adopt the military concept of discipline, intense physical training, hard labor, drill & ceremony, and rigid structure Eligible offenders generally: • • • • Are young, first-time felony offenders Have been convicted of a nonviolent offense Meet certain physical requirements Volunteer to participate
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Slide #15.

 The two main types of boot camp programs are: • Prison boot camps: participants are selected by prison administrators, are separated from general population, & they graduate to parole • Probation/jail boot camps: Judges assign offenders to facilities maintained by the county, & they graduate to probation Programs are typically 90-180 days  Successful boot camps also provide therapeutic & educational programs  Counseling is especially important for juvenile boot camps 
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Slide #16.

 Criticisms include: • They widen the net • The confrontational style may have negative consequences & make camps targets of civil lawsuits  Evaluations of boot camps: • Show boot camps have a positive impact in the short term, but do not reduce recidivism in the long term • Most successful programs have a significant treatment component, voluntary participation, selection from prison-bound offenders, longer program duration, & aftercare • Interest in boot camps has diminished since 2000, & many of them have closed
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Slide #17.

 Rapper T.I. (Clifford Harris) was released in September 2011, from an Atlanta halfway house. He had spent 10 months in federal prison on a probation violation.  He was arrested in 2010 on drug charges & sentenced to 11 months for violating probation he had received after he was convicted of federal firearms charges.  He was sent to the halfway house after being released from prison.
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Slide #18.

 http://www.doc.ks.gov/communitycorrections/resources/Community%20Corrections %20Residential%20Center%20Standards.pdf  Check out the link above to review an example of the standards that adult residential community corrections facilities must meet in order to operate in Kansas. Similar standards apply in every state
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