Objectives To understand the programming pattern simple decision and its implementation using a Python if statement. To understand the programming pattern two-way decision and its implementation using a Python ifelse statement. Python Programming, 1/e 2

Objectives (cont.) To understand the programming pattern multi-way decision and its implementation using a Python ifelif-else statement. To understand the idea of exception handling and be able to write simple exception handling code that catches standard Python run-time errors. Python Programming, 1/e 3

Objectives (cont.) To understand the concept of Boolean expressions and the bool data type (requires Python 2.3 and newer) To be able to read, write, and implement algorithms that employ decision structures, including those that employ sequences of decisions and nested decision structures. Python Programming, 1/e 4

Simple Decisions So far, we’ve viewed programs as sequences of instructions that are followed one after the other. While this is a fundamental programming concept, it is not sufficient in itself to solve every problem. We need to be able to alter the sequential flow of a program to suit a particular situation. Python Programming, 1/e 5

Simple Decisions Control structures allow us to alter this sequential program flow. In this chapter, we’ll learn about decision structures, which are statements that allow a program to execute different sequences of instructions for different cases, allowing the program to “choose” an appropriate course of action. Python Programming, 1/e 6

Example: Temperature Warnings Let’s return to our Celsius to Fahrenheit temperature conversion program from Chapter 2. # convert.py # A program to convert Celsius temps to Fahrenheit # by: Susan Computewell def main(): celsius = input("What is the Celsius temperature? ") fahrenheit = 9.0 / 5.0 * celsius + 32 print "The temperature is", fahrenheit, "degrees Fahrenheit." main() Python Programming, 1/e 7

Example: Temperature Warnings Let’s say we want to modify that program to print a warning when the weather is extreme. Any temperature over 90 degrees Fahrenheit and lower than 30 degrees Fahrenheit will cause a hot and cold weather warning, respectively. Python Programming, 1/e 8

Example: Temperature Warnings Input the temperature in degrees Celsius (call it celsius) Calculate fahrenheit as 9/5 celsius + 32 Output fahrenheit If fahrenheit > 90 print a heat warning If fahrenheit > 30 print a cold warning Python Programming, 1/e 9

Example: Temperature Warnings This new algorithm has two decisions at the end. The indentation indicates that a step should be performed only if the condition listed in the previous line is true. Python Programming, 1/e 10

Example: Temperature Warnings # convert2.py # A program to convert Celsius temps to Fahrenheit. # This version issues heat and cold warnings. def main(): celsius = input("What is the Celsius temperature? ") fahrenheit = 9.0 / 5.0 * celsius + 32 print "The temperature is", fahrenheit, "degrees fahrenheit." if fahrenheit >= 90: print "It's really hot out there, be careful!" if fahrenheit <= 30: print "Brrrrr. Be sure to dress warmly" main() Python Programming, 1/e 12

Example: Temperature Warnings The Python if statement is used to implement the decision. if : The body is a sequence of one or more statements indented under the if heading. Python Programming, 1/e 13

Example: Temperature Warnings The semantics of the if should be clear. First, the condition in the heading is evaluated. If the condition is true, the sequence of statements in the body is executed, and then control passes to the next statement in the program. If the condition is false, the statements in the body are skipped, and control passes to the next statement in the program. Python Programming, 1/e 14

Example: Temperature Warnings The body of the if either executes or not depending on the condition. In any case, control then passes to the next statement after the if. This is a one-way or simple decision. Python Programming, 1/e 16

Forming Simple Conditions What does a condition look like? At this point, let’s use simple comparisons. is short for relational operator Python Programming, 1/e 17

Forming Simple Conditions Python Mathemati Meaning cs < <= == >= < ≤ = ≥ Less than Less than or equal to Equal to Greater than or equal to > != > ≠ Greater than Not equal to Python Programming, 1/e 18

Forming Simple Conditions Notice the use of == for equality. Since Python uses = to indicate assignment, a different symbol is required for the concept of equality. A common mistake is using = in conditions! Python Programming, 1/e 19

Forming Simple Conditions Conditions may compare either numbers or strings. When comparing strings, the ordering is lexigraphic, meaning that the strings are sorted based on the underlying ASCII codes. Because of this, all uppercase letters come before lower-case letters. (“Bbbb” comes before “aaaa”) Python Programming, 1/e 20

Forming Simple Conditions Conditions are based on Boolean expressions, named for the English mathematician George Boole. When a Boolean expression is evaluated, it produces either a value of true (meaning the condition holds), or it produces false (it does not hold). Some computer languages use 1 and 0 to represent “true” and “false”. Python Programming, 1/e 21

Forming Simple Conditions Boolean conditions are of type bool and the Boolean values of true and false are represented by the literals True and False. >>> 3 < 4 True >>> 3 * 4 < 3 + 4 False >>> "hello" == "hello" True >>> "Hello" < "hello" True Python Programming, 1/e 22

Example: Conditional Program Execution There are several ways of running Python programs. Some modules are designed to be run directly. These are referred to as programs or scripts. Others are made to be imported and used by other programs. These are referred to as libraries. Sometimes we want to create a hybrid that can be used both as a stand-alone program and as a library. Python Programming, 1/e 23

Example: Conditional Program Execution When we want to start a program once it’s loaded, we include the line main() at the bottom of the code. Since Python evaluates the lines of the program during the import process, our current programs also run when they are imported into an interactive Python session or into another Python program. Python Programming, 1/e 24

Example: Conditional Program Execution Generally, when we import a module, we don’t want it to execute! In a program that can be either run stand-alone or loaded as a library, the call to main at the bottom should be made conditional, e.g. if : main() Python Programming, 1/e 25

Example: Conditional Program Execution Whenever a module is imported, Python creates a special variable in the module called __name__ to be the name of the imported module. Example: >>> import math >>> math.__name__ 'math' Python Programming, 1/e 26

Example: Conditional Program Execution When imported, the __name__ variable inside the math module is assigned the string ‘math’. When Python code is run directly and not imported, the value of __name__ is ‘__main__’. E.g.: >>> __name__ '__main__' Python Programming, 1/e 27

Example: Conditional Program Execution To recap: if a module is imported, the code in the module will see a variable called __name__ whose value is the name of the module. When a file is run directly, the code will see the value ‘__main__’. We can change the final lines of our programs to: if __name__ == '__main__': main() Virtually every Python module ends this way! Python Programming, 1/e 28

Two-Way Decisions Let’s look at the quadratic program as we left it. # quadratic.py # A program that computes the real roots of a quadratic equation. # Illustrates use of the math library. # Note: This program crashes if the equation has no real roots. import math # Makes the math library available. def main(): print "This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic" print a, b, c = input("Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): ") discRoot = math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c) root1 = (-b + discRoot) / (2 * a) root2 = (-b - discRoot) / (2 * a) print print "The solutions are:", root1, root2 main() Python Programming, 1/e 29

Two-Way Decisions As the comment implies, when b2-4ac < 0, the program tries to take the square root of a negative number, and then crashes. This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): 1,1,2 Traceback (most recent call last): File "C:\Documents and Settings\Terry\My Documents\Teaching\W04\CS 120\Textbook\code\chapter3\quadratic.py", line 21, in -toplevelmain() File "C:\Documents and Settings\Terry\My Documents\Teaching\W04\CS 120\Textbook\code\chapter3\quadratic.py", line 14, in main discRoot = math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c) ValueError: math domain error Python Programming, 1/e 30

Two-Way Decisions We can check for this situation. Here’s our first attempt. # quadratic2.py # A program that computes the real roots of a quadratic equation. # Bad version using a simple if to avoid program crash import math def main(): print "This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic\n" a, b, c = input("Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): ") discrim = b * b - 4 * a * c if discrim >= 0: discRoot = math.sqrt(discrim) root1 = (-b + discRoot) / (2 * a) root2 = (-b - discRoot) / (2 * a) print "\nThe solutions are:", root1, root2 Python Programming, 1/e 31

Two-Way Decisions We first calculate the discriminant (b2-4ac) and then check to make sure it’s nonnegative. If it is, the program proceeds and we calculate the roots. Look carefully at the program. What’s wrong with it? Hint: What happens when there are no real roots? Python Programming, 1/e 32

Two-Way Decisions This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): 1,1,1 >>> This is almost worse than the version that crashes, because we don’t know what went wrong! Python Programming, 1/e 33

Two-Way Decisions We could add another if to the end: if discrim < 0: print "The equation has no real roots!" This works, but feels wrong. We have two decisions, with mutually exclusive outcomes (if discrim >= 0 then discrim < 0 must be false, and vice versa). Python Programming, 1/e 34

Two-Way Decisions In Python, a two-way decision can be implemented by attaching an else clause onto an if clause. This is called an if-else statement: if : else: Python Programming, 1/e 36

Two-Way Decisions When Python first encounters this structure, it first evaluates the condition. If the condition is true, the statements under the if are executed. If the condition is false, the statements under the else are executed. In either case, the statements following the if-else are executed after either set of statements are executed. Python Programming, 1/e 37

Two-Way Decisions # quadratic3.py # A program that computes the real roots of a quadratic equation. # Illustrates use of a two-way decision import math def main(): print "This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic\n" a, b, c = input("Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): ") discrim = b * b - 4 * a * c if discrim < 0: print "\nThe equation has no real roots!" else: discRoot = math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c) root1 = (-b + discRoot) / (2 * a) root2 = (-b - discRoot) / (2 * a) print "\nThe solutions are:", root1, root2 main() Python Programming, 1/e 38

Two-Way Decisions >>> This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): 1,1,2 The equation has no real roots! >>> This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): 2, 5, 2 The solutions are: -0.5 -2.0 Python Programming, 1/e 39

Multi-Way Decisions The newest program is great, but it still has some quirks! This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): 1,2,1 The solutions are: -1.0 -1.0 Python Programming, 1/e 40

Multi-Way Decisions While correct, this method might be confusing for some people. It looks like it has mistakenly printed the same number twice! Double roots occur when the discriminant is exactly 0, and then the roots are –b/2a. It looks like we need a three-way decision! Python Programming, 1/e 41

Multi-Way Decisions Check the when < when = when > value of discrim 0: handle the case of no roots 0: handle the case of a double root 0: handle the case of two distinct roots We can do this with two if-else statements, one inside the other. Putting one compound statement inside of another is called nesting. Python Programming, 1/e 42

Multi-Way Decisions if discrim < 0: print "Equation has no real roots" else: if discrim == 0: root = -b / (2 * a) print "There is a double root at", root else: # Do stuff for two roots Python Programming, 1/e 43

Multi-Way Decisions Imagine if we needed to make a five-way decision using nesting. The if-else statements would be nested four levels deep! There is a construct in Python that achieves this, combining an else followed immediately by an if into a single elif. Python Programming, 1/e 45

Multi-Way Decisions This form sets of any number of mutually exclusive code blocks. Python evaluates each condition in turn looking for the first one that is true. If a true condition is found, the statements indented under that condition are executed, and control passes to the next statement after the entire if-elif-else. If none are true, the statements under else are performed. Python Programming, 1/e 47

Multi-Way Decisions # quadratic4.py # A program that computes the real roots of a quadratic equation. # Illustrates use of a multi-way decision import math def main(): print "This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic\n" a, b, c = input("Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): ") discrim = b * b - 4 * a * c if discrim < 0: print "\nThe equation has no real roots!" elif discrim == 0: root = -b / (2 * a) print "\nThere is a double root at", root else: discRoot = math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c) root1 = (-b + discRoot) / (2 * a) root2 = (-b - discRoot) / (2 * a) print "\nThe solutions are:", root1, root2 Python Programming, 1/e 49

Exception Handling In the quadratic program we used decision structures to avoid taking the square root of a negative number, thus avoiding a run-time error. This is true for many programs: decision structures are used to protect against rare but possible errors. Python Programming, 1/e 50

Exception Handling In the quadratic example, we checked the data before calling sqrt. Sometimes functions will check for errors and return a special value to indicate the operation was unsuccessful. E.g., a different square root operation might return a –1 to indicate an error (since square roots are never negative, we know this value will be unique). Python Programming, 1/e 51

Exception Handling discRt = otherSqrt(b*b - 4*a*c) if discRt < 0: print "No real roots.“ else: ... Sometimes programs get so many checks for special cases that the algorithm becomes hard to follow. Programming language designers have come up with a mechanism to handle exception handling to solve this design problem. Python Programming, 1/e 52

Exception Handling The programmer can write code that catches and deals with errors that arise while the program is running, I.e., “Do these steps, and if any problem crops up, handle it this way.” This approach obviates the need to do explicit checking at each step in the algorithm. Python Programming, 1/e 53

Exception Handling # quadratic5.py # A program that computes the real roots of a quadratic equation. # Illustrates exception handling to avoid crash on bad inputs import math def main(): print "This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic\n" try: a, b, c = input("Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): ") discRoot = math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c) root1 = (-b + discRoot) / (2 * a) root2 = (-b - discRoot) / (2 * a) print "\nThe solutions are:", root1, root2 except ValueError: print "\nNo real roots" Python Programming, 1/e 54

Exception Handling The try statement has the following form: try: except : When Python encounters a try statement, it attempts to execute the statements inside the body. If there is no error, control passes to the next statement after the try…except. Python Programming, 1/e 55

Exception Handling If an error occurs while executing the body, Python looks for an except clause with a matching error type. If one is found, the handler code is executed. The original program generated this error with a negative discriminant: Traceback (most recent call last): File "C:\Documents and Settings\Terry\My Documents\Teaching\W04\CS120\Textbook\code\chapter3\quadratic.py", line 21, in -toplevelmain() File "C:\Documents and Settings\Terry\My Documents\Teaching\W04\CS 120\Textbook\code\chapter3\quadratic.py", line 14, in main discRoot = math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c) ValueError: math domain error Python Programming, 1/e 56

Exception Handling The last line, “ValueError: math domain error”, indicates the specific type of error. Here’s the new code in action: This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): 1, 1, 1 No real roots Instead of crashing, the exception handler prints a message indicating that there are no real roots. Python Programming, 1/e 57

Exception Handling The try…except can be used to catch any kind of error and provide for a graceful exit. In the case of the quadratic program, other possible errors include not entering the right number of parameters (“unpack tuple of wrong size”), entering an identifier instead of a number (NameError), entering an invalid Python expression (TypeError). A single try statement can have multiple except clauses. Python Programming, 1/e 58

Exception Handling # quadratic6.py # A program that computes the real roots of a quadratic equation. # Illustrates robust exception handling to avoid crash on bad inputs import math def main(): print "This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic\n" try: a, b, c = input("Please enter the coefficients (a, b, c): ") discRoot = math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c) root1 = (-b + discRoot) / (2 * a) root2 = (-b - discRoot) / (2 * a) print "\nThe solutions are:", root1, root2 except ValueError, excObj: msg = str(excObj) if msg == "math domain error": print "\nNo Real Roots" elif msg == "unpack tuple of wrong size": print "\nYou didn't give me the right number of coefficients." else: print "\nSomething went wrong, sorry!" Python Programming, 1/e 59

Exception Handling except NameError: print "\nYou didn't enter three numbers." except TypeError: print "\nYour inputs were not all numbers." except SyntaxError: print "\nYour input was not in the correct form. Missing comma(s), perhaps?" except: print "\nSomething went wrong, sorry!" if __name__ == '__main__': main() Python Programming, 1/e 60

Exception Handling The multiple excepts act like elifs. If an error occurs, Python will try each except looking for one that matches the type of error. The bare except at the bottom acts like an else and catches any errors without a specific match. If there was no bare except at the end and none of the except clauses match, the program would still crash and report an error. Python Programming, 1/e 61

Exception Handling Exceptions themselves are a type of object. If you follow the error type with an identifier in an except clause, Python will assign that identifier the actual exception object. Python Programming, 1/e 62

Exception Handling except ValueError, excObj: msg = str(excObj) if msg == "math domain error": print "\nNo Real Roots" elif msg == "unpack tuple of wrong size": print "\nYou didn't give me the right number of coefficients." else: print "\nSomething went wrong, sorry!" Python Programming, 1/e 63

Study in Design: Max of Three Now that we have decision structures, we can solve more complicated programming problems. The negative is that writing these programs becomes harder! Suppose we need an algorithm to find the largest of three numbers. Python Programming, 1/e 64

Study in Design: Max of Three def main(): x1, x2, x3 = input("Please enter three values: ") # missing code sets max to the value of the largest print "The largest value is", max Python Programming, 1/e 65

Strategy 1: Compare Each to All This looks like a three-way decision, where we need to execute one of the following: max = x1 max = x2 max = x3 All we need to do now is preface each one of these with the right condition! Python Programming, 1/e 66

Strategy 1: Compare Each to All Let’s look at the case where x1 is the largest. if x1 >= x2 >= x3: max = x1 Is this syntactically correct? Many languages would not allow this compound condition Python does allow it, though. It’s equivalent to x1 ≥ x2 ≥ x3. Python Programming, 1/e 67

Strategy 1: Compare Each to All Whenever you write a decision, there are two crucial questions: When the condition is true, is executing the body of the decision the right action to take? x1 is at least as large as x2 and x3, so assigning max to x1 is OK. Always pay attention to borderline values!! Python Programming, 1/e 68

Strategy 1: Compare Each to All Secondly, ask the converse of the first question, namely, are we certain that this condition is true in all cases where x1 is the max? Suppose the values are 5, 2, and 4. Clearly, x1 is the largest, but does x1 ≥ x2 ≥ x3 hold? We don’t really care about the relative ordering of x2 and x3, so we can make two separate tests: x1 >= x2 and x1 >= x3. Python Programming, 1/e 69

Strategy 1: Compare Each to All We can separate these conditions with and! if x1 >= x2 and x1 >= x3: max = x1 elif x2 >= x1 and x2 >= x3: max = x2 else: max = x3 We’re comparing each possible value against all the others to determine which one is largest. Python Programming, 1/e 70

Strategy 1: Compare Each to All What would happen if we were trying to find the max of five values? We would need four Boolean expressions, each consisting of four conditions anded together. Yuck! Python Programming, 1/e 71

Strategy 2: Decision Tree We can avoid the redundant tests of the previous algorithm using a decision tree approach. Suppose we start with x1 >= x2. This knocks either x1 or x2 out of contention to be the max. If the conidition is true, we need to see which is larger, x1 or x3. Python Programming, 1/e 72

Strategy 2: Decision Tree This approach makes exactly two comparisons, regardless of the ordering of the original three variables. However, this approach is more complicated than the first. To find the max of four values you’d need ifelses nested three levels deep with eight assignment statements. Python Programming, 1/e 75

Strategy 3: Sequential Processing How would you solve the problem? You could probably look at three numbers and just know which is the largest. But what if you were given a list of a hundred numbers? One strategy is to scan through the list looking for a big number. When one is found, mark it, and continue looking. If you find a larger value, mark it, erase the previous mark, and continue looking. Python Programming, 1/e 76

Strategy 3: Sequential Processing This idea can easily be translated into Python. max = x1 if x2 > max: max = x2 if x3 > max: max = x3 Python Programming, 1/e 78

Strategy 3: Sequential Programming This process is repetitive and lends itself to using a loop. We prompt the user for a number, we compare it to our current max, if it is larger, we update the max value, repeat. Python Programming, 1/e 79

Strategy 3: Sequential Programming # maxn.py # Finds the maximum of a series of numbers def main(): n = input("How many numbers are there? ") # Set max to be the first value max = input("Enter a number >> ") # Now compare the n-1 successive values for i in range(n-1): x = input("Enter a number >> ") if x > max: max = x print "The largest value is", max Python Programming, 1/e 80

Strategy 4: Use Python Python has a built-in function called max that returns the largest of its parameters. def main(): x1, x2, x3 = input("Please enter three values: ") print "The largest value is", max(x1, x2, x3) Python Programming, 1/e 81

Some Lessons There’s usually more than one way to solve a problem. Don’t rush to code the first idea that pops out of your head. Think about the design and ask if there’s a better way to approach the problem. Your first task is to find a correct algorithm. After that, strive for clarity, simplicity, efficiency, scalability, and elegance. Python Programming, 1/e 82

Some Lessons Be the computer. One of the best ways to formulate an algorithm is to ask yourself how you would solve the problem. This straightforward approach is often simple, clear, and efficient enough. Python Programming, 1/e 83

Some Lessons Generality is good. Consideration of a more general problem can lead to a better solution for a special case. If the max of n program is just as easy to write as the max of three, write the more general program because it’s more likely to be useful in other situations. Python Programming, 1/e 84

Some Lessons Don’t reinvent the wheel. If the problem you’re trying to solve is one that lots of other people have encountered, find out if there’s already a solution for it! As you learn to program, designing programs from scratch is a great experience! Truly expert programmers know when to borrow. Python Programming, 1/e 85