Slide #1.

Python Programming: An Introduction to Computer Science Chapter 6 Defining Functions Python Programming, 2/e 1
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Slide #2.

Objectives    To understand why programmers divide programs up into sets of cooperating functions. To be able to define new functions in Python. To understand the details of function calls and parameter passing in Python. Python Programming, 2/e 2
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Slide #3.

Objectives (cont.)  To write programs that use functions to reduce code duplication and increase program modularity. Python Programming, 2/e 3
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Slide #4.

The Function of Functions  So far, we’ve seen four different types of functions:     Our programs comprise a single function called main(). Built-in Python functions (abs) Functions from the standard libraries (math.sqrt) Functions from the graphics module (p.getX()) Python Programming, 2/e 4
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Slide #5.

The Function of Functions  Having similar or identical code in more than one place has some drawbacks.    Issue one: writing the same code twice or more. Issue two: This same code must be maintained in two separate places. Functions can be used to reduce code duplication and make programs more easily understood and maintained. Python Programming, 2/e 5
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Slide #6.

Functions, Informally   A function is like a subprogram, a small program inside of a program. The basic idea – we write a sequence of statements and then give that sequence a name. We can then execute this sequence at any time by referring to the name. Python Programming, 2/e 6
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Slide #7.

Functions, Informally   The part of the program that creates a function is called a function definition. When the function is used in a program, we say the definition is called or invoked. Python Programming, 2/e 7
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Slide #8.

Functions, Informally  Happy Birthday lyrics… def main(): print("Happy print("Happy print("Happy print("Happy  birthday to you!" ) birthday to you!" ) birthday, dear Fred...") birthday to you!") Gives us this… >>> main() Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday, dear Fred... Happy birthday to you! Python Programming, 2/e 8
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Slide #9.

Functions, Informally   There’s some duplicated code in the program! (print("Happy birthday to you!")) We can define a function to print out this line: def happy(): print("Happy birthday to you!")  With this function, we can rewrite our program. Python Programming, 2/e 9
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Slide #10.

Functions, Informally  The new program – def singFred(): happy() happy() print("Happy birthday, dear Fred...") happy()  Gives us this output – >>> singFred() Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday, dear Fred... Happy birthday to you! Python Programming, 2/e 10
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Slide #11.

Functions, Informally   Creating this function saved us a lot of typing! What if it’s Lucy’s birthday? We could write a new singLucy function! def singLucy(): happy() happy() print("Happy birthday, dear Lucy...") happy() Python Programming, 2/e 11
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Slide #12.

Functions, Informally  We could write a main program to sing to both Lucy and Fred def main(): singFred() print() singLucy()  This gives us this new output >>> main() Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday, dear Fred.. Happy birthday to you! Happy Happy Happy Happy birthday to you! birthday to you! birthday, dear Lucy... birthday to you! Python Programming, 2/e 12
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Slide #13.

Functions, Informally    This is working great! But… there’s still a lot of code duplication. The only difference between singFred and singLucy is the name in the third print statement. These two routines could be collapsed together by using a parameter. Python Programming, 2/e 13
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Slide #14.

Functions, Informally  The generic function sing def sing(person): happy() happy() print("Happy birthday, dear", person + ".“) happy()  This function uses a parameter named person. A paramater is a variable that is initialized when the function is called. Python Programming, 2/e 14
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Slide #15.

Functions, Informally  Our new output – >>> sing("Fred") Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday, dear Fred. Happy birthday to you!  We can put together a new main program! Python Programming, 2/e 15
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Slide #16.

Functions, Informally  Our new main program: def main(): sing("Fred") print() sing("Lucy")  Gives us this output: >>> main() Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday to you! Happy birthday, dear Fred. Happy birthday to you! Happy Happy Happy Happy birthday to you! birthday to you! birthday, dear Lucy. birthday to you! Python Programming, 2/e 16
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Slide #17.

Future Value with a Function  In the future value graphing program, we see similar code twice: # Draw bar for initial principal bar = Rectangle(Point(0, 0), Point(1, principal)) bar.setFill("green") bar.setWidth(2) bar.draw(win) bar = Rectangle(Point(year, 0), Point(year+1, principal)) bar.setFill("green") bar.setWidth(2) bar.draw(win) Python Programming, 2/e 17
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Slide #18.

Future Value with a Function  To properly draw the bars, we need three pieces of information.     The year the bar is for How tall the bar should be The window the bar will be drawn in These three values can be supplied as parameters to the function. Python Programming, 2/e 18
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Slide #19.

Future Value with a Function  The resulting function looks like this: def drawBar(window, year, height): # Draw a bar in window starting at year with given height bar = Rectangle(Point(year, 0), Point(year+1, height)) bar.setFill("green") bar.setWidth(2) bar.draw(window)  To use this function, we supply the three values. If win is a Graphwin, we can draw a bar for year 0 and principal of $2000 using this call: drawBar(win, 0, 2000) Python Programming, 2/e 19
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Slide #20.

Functions and Parameters: The Details   It makes sense to include the year and the principal in the drawBar function, but why send the window variable? The scope of a variable refers to the places in a program a given variable can be referenced. Python Programming, 2/e 20
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Slide #21.

Functions and Parameters: The Details   Each function is its own little subprogram. The variables used inside of a function are local to that function, even if they happen to have the same name as variables that appear inside of another function. The only way for a function to see a variable from another function is for that variable to be passed as a parameter. Python Programming, 2/e 21
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Slide #22.

Functions and Parameters: The Details   Since the GraphWin in the variable win is created inside of main, it is not directly accessible in drawBar. The window parameter in drawBar gets assigned the value of win from main when drawBar is called. Python Programming, 2/e 22
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Slide #23.

Functions and Parameters: The Details    A function definition looks like this: def (): The name of the function must be an identifier Formal-parameters is a possibly empty list of variable names Python Programming, 2/e 23
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Slide #24.

Functions and Parameters: The Details  Formal parameters, like all variables used in the function, are only accessible in the body of the function. Variables with identical names elsewhere in the program are distinct from the formal parameters and variables inside of the function body. Python Programming, 2/e 24
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Slide #25.

Functions and Parameters: The Details   A function is called by using its name followed by a list of actual parameters or arguments. () When Python comes to a function call, it initiates a four-step process. Python Programming, 2/e 25
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Slide #26.

Functions and Parameters: The Details     The calling program suspends execution at the point of the call. The formal parameters of the function get assigned the values supplied by the actual parameters in the call. The body of the function is executed. Control returns to the point just after where the function was called. Python Programming, 2/e 26
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Slide #27.

Functions and Parameters: The Details  Let’s trace through the following code: sing("Fred") print() sing("Lucy")   When Python gets to sing("Fred"), execution of main is temporarily suspended. Python looks up the definition of sing and sees that it has one formal parameter, person. Python Programming, 2/e 27
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Slide #28.

Functions and Parameters: The Detail  The formal parameter is assigned the value of the actual parameter. It’s as if the following statement had been executed: person = "Fred" Python Programming, 2/e 28
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Slide #29.

Functions and Parameters: The Details Note that the variable person has just been initialized. Python Programming, 2/e 29
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Slide #30.

Functions and Parameters: The Details     At this point, Python begins executing the body of sing. The first statement is another function call, to happy. What happens next? Python suspends the execution of sing and transfers control to happy. happy consists of a single print, which is executed and control returns to where it left off in sing. Python Programming, 2/e 30
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Slide #31.

Functions and Parameters: The Details   Execution continues in this way with two more trips to happy. When Python gets to the end of sing, control returns to main and continues immediately following the function call. Python Programming, 2/e 31
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Slide #32.

Functions and Parameters: The Details    Notice that the person variable in sing has disappeared! The memory occupied by local function variables is reclaimed when the function exits. Local variables do not retain any values from one function execution to the next. Python Programming, 2/e 32
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Slide #33.

Functions and Parameters: The Details   The next statement is the bare print, which produces a blank line. Python encounters another call to sing, and control transfers to the sing function, with the formal parameter “Lucy”. Python Programming, 2/e 33
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Slide #34.

Functions and Parameters: The Details  The body of sing is executed for Lucy with its three side trips to happy and control returns to main. Python Programming, 2/e 34
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Slide #35.

Functions and Parameters: The Details Python Programming, 2/e 35
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Slide #36.

Functions and Paramters: The Details  One thing not addressed in this example was multiple parameters. In this case the formal and actual parameters are matched up based on position, e.g. the first actual parameter is assigned to the first formal parameter, the second actual parameter is assigned to the second formal parameter, etc. Python Programming, 2/e 36
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Slide #37.

Functions and Parameters: The Details  As an example, consider the call to drawBar: drawBar(win, 0, principal)  When control is passed to drawBar, these parameters are matched up to the formal parameters in the function heading: def drawBar(window, year, height): Python Programming, 2/e 37
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Slide #38.

Functions and Parameters: The Details  The net effect is as if the function body had been prefaced with three assignment statements: window = win year = 0 height = principal Python Programming, 2/e 38
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Slide #39.

Getting Results from a Function    Passing parameters provides a mechanism for initializing the variables in a function. Parameters act as inputs to a function. We can call a function many times and get different results by changing its parameters. Python Programming, 2/e 39
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Slide #40.

Functions That Return Values  We’ve already seen numerous examples of functions that return values to the caller. discRt = math.sqrt(b*b – 4*a*c)   The value b*b – 4*a*c is the actual parameter of math.sqrt. We say sqrt returns the square root of its argument. Python Programming, 2/e 40
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Slide #41.

Functions That Return Values  This function returns the square of a number: def square(x): return x*x   When Python encounters return, it exits the function and returns control to the point where the function was called. In addition, the value(s) provided in the return statement are sent back to the caller as an expression result. Python Programming, 2/e 41
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Slide #42.

Functions That Return Values     >>> 9 >>> 16 >>> >>> >>> 25 >>> 34 square(3) print(square(4)) x = 5 y = square(x) print(y) print(square(x) + square(3)) Python Programming, 2/e 42
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Slide #43.

Functions That Return Values   We can use the square function to write a routine to calculate the distance between (x1,y1) and (x2,y2). def distance(p1, p2): dist = math.sqrt(square(p2.getX() - p1.getX()) + square(p2.getY() - p1.getY())) return dist Python Programming, 2/e 43
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Slide #44.

Functions That Return Values    Sometimes a function needs to return more than one value. To do this, simply list more than one expression in the return statement. def sumDiff(x, y): sum = x + y diff = x – y return sum, diff Python Programming, 2/e 44
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Slide #45.

Functions That Return Values    When calling this function, use simultaneous assignment. num1, num2 = eval(input("Enter two numbers (num1, num2) ")) s, d = sumDiff(num1, num2) print("The sum is", s, "and the difference is", d) As before, the values are assigned based on position, so s gets the first value returned (the sum), and d gets the second (the difference). Python Programming, 2/e 45
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Slide #46.

Functions That Return Values   One “gotcha” – all Python functions return a value, whether they contain a return statement or not. Functions without a return hand back a special object, denoted None. A common problem is writing a value-returning function and omitting the return! Python Programming, 2/e 46
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Slide #47.

Functions That Return Values  If your value-returning functions produce strange messages, check to make sure you remembered to include the return! Python Programming, 2/e 47
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Slide #48.

Functions that Modify Parameters    Return values are the main way to send information from a function back to the caller. Sometimes, we can communicate back to the caller by making changes to the function parameters. Understanding when and how this is possible requires the mastery of some subtle details about how assignment works and the relationship between actual and formal parameters. Python Programming, 2/e 48
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Slide #49.

Functions that Modify Parameters   Suppose you are writing a program that manages bank accounts. One function we would need to do is to accumulate interest on the account. Let’s look at a first-cut at the function. def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance Python Programming, 2/e 49
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Slide #50.

Functions that Modify Parameters   The intent is to set the balance of the account to a new value that includes the interest amount. Let’s write a main program to test this: def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print(amount) Python Programming, 2/e 50
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Slide #51.

Functions that Modify Parameters    We hope that that the 5% will be added to the amount, returning 1050. >>> test() 1000 What went wrong? Nothing! Python Programming, 2/e 51
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Slide #52.

Functions that Modify Parameters  The first two lines of the test function create two local variables called amount and rate which are given the initial values of 1000 and 0.05, respectively. def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print(amount) Python Programming, 2/e 52
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Slide #53.

Functions that Modify Parameters    Control then transfers to the addInterest function. The formal parameters balance and rate are assigned the values of the actual parameters amount and rate. Even though rate appears in both, they are separate variables (because of scope rules). def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print(amount) Python Programming, 2/e 53
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Slide #54.

Functions that Modify Parameters  The assignment of the parameters causes the variables balance and rate in addInterest to refer to the values of the actual parameters! def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance*(1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print(amount) Python Programming, 2/e 54
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Slide #55.

Functions that Modify Parameters Python Programming, 2/e 55
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Slide #56.

Functions that Modify Parameters   Executing the first line of addInterest creates a new variable, newBalance. balance is then assigned the value of newBalance. def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print(amount) Python Programming, 2/e 56
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Slide #57.

Functions that Modify Parameters  balance now refers to the same value as newBalance, but this had no effect on amount in the test function. def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print (amount) Python Programming, 2/e 57
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Slide #58.

Functions that Modify Parameters Python Programming, 2/e 58
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Slide #59.

Functions that Modify Parameters   Execution of addInterest has completed and control returns to test. The local variables, including the parameters, in addInterest go away, but amount and rate in the test function still refer to their initial values! def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) balance = newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 addInterest(amount, rate) print(amount) Python Programming, 2/e 59
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Slide #60.

Functions that Modify Parameters   To summarize: the formal parameters of a function only receive the values of the actual parameters. The function does not have access to the variable that holds the actual parameter. Python is said to pass all parameters by value. Python Programming, 2/e 60
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Slide #61.

Functions that Modify Parameters   Some programming languages (C++, Ada, and many more) do allow variables themselves to be sent as parameters to a function. This mechanism is said to pass parameters by reference. When a new value is assigned to the formal parameter, the value of the variable in the calling program actually changes. Python Programming, 2/e 61
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Slide #62.

Functions that Modify Parameters  Since Python doesn’t have this capability, one alternative would be to change the addInterest function so that it returns the newBalance. Python Programming, 2/e 62
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Slide #63.

Functions that Modify Parameters def addInterest(balance, rate): newBalance = balance * (1 + rate) return newBalance def test(): amount = 1000 rate = 0.05 amount = addInterest(amount, rate) print(amount) test() Python Programming, 2/e 63
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Slide #64.

Functions that Modify Parameters   Instead of looking at a single account, say we are writing a program for a bank that deals with many accounts. We could store the account balances in a list, then add the accrued interest to each of the balances in the list. We could update the first balance in the list with code like: balances[0] = balances[0] * (1 + rate) Python Programming, 2/e 64
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Slide #65.

Functions that Modify Parameters   This code says, “multiply the value in the 0th position of the list by (1 + rate) and store the result back into the 0th position of the list.” A more general way to do this would be with a loop that goes through positions 0, 1, …, length – 1. Python Programming, 2/e 65
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Slide #66.

Functions that Modify Parameters # addinterest3.py # Illustrates modification of a mutable parameter (a list). def addInterest(balances, rate): for i in range(len(balances)): balances[i] = balances[i] * (1+rate) def test(): amounts = [1000, 2200, 800, 360] rate = 0.05 addInterest(amounts, 0.05) print(amounts) test() Python Programming, 2/e 66
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Slide #67.

Functions that Modify Parameters  Remember, our original code had these values: [1000, 2200, 800, 360]  The program returns: [1050.0, 2310.0, 840.0, 378.0]  What happened? Python passes parameters by value, but it looks like amounts has been changed! Python Programming, 2/e 67
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Slide #68.

Functions that Modify Parameters   The first two lines of test create the variables amounts and rate. The value of the variable amounts is a list object that contains four int values. def addInterest(balances, rate): for i in range(len(balances)): balances[i] = balances[i] * (1+rate) def test(): amounts = [1000, 2200, 800, 360] rate = 0.05 addInterest(amounts, 0.05) print(amounts) Python Programming, 2/e 68
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Slide #69.

Functions that Modify Parameters Python Programming, 2/e 69
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Slide #70.

Functions that Modify Parameters  Next, addInterest executes. The loop goes through each index in the range 0, 1, …, length –1 and updates that value in balances. def addInterest(balances, rate): for i in range(len(balances)): balances[i] = balances[i] * (1+rate) def test(): amounts = [1000, 2200, 800, 360] rate = 0.05 addInterest(amounts, 0.05) print(amounts) Python Programming, 2/e 70
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Slide #71.

Functions that Modify Parameters Python Programming, 2/e 71
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Slide #72.

Functions that Modify Parameters   In the diagram the old values are left hanging around to emphasize that the numbers in the boxes have not changed, but the new values were created and assigned into the list. The old values will be destroyed during garbage collection. def addInterest(balances, rate): for i in range(len(balances)): balances[i] = balances[i] * (1+rate) def test(): amounts = [1000, 2200, 800, 360] rate = 0.05 addInterest(amounts, 0.05) print amounts Python Programming, 2/e 72
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Slide #73.

Functions that Modify Parameters   When addInterest terminates, the list stored in amounts now contains the new values. The variable amounts wasn’t changed (it’s still a list), but the state of that list has changed, and this change is visible to the calling program. Python Programming, 2/e 73
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Slide #74.

Functions that Modify Parameters   Parameters are always passed by value. However, if the value of the variable is a mutable object (like a list of graphics object), then changes to the state of the object will be visible to the calling program. This situation is another example of the aliasing issue discussed in Chapter 4! Python Programming, 2/e 74
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Slide #75.

Functions and Program Structure    So far, functions have been used as a mechanism for reducing code duplication. Another reason to use functions is to make your programs more modular. As the algorithms you design get increasingly complex, it gets more and more difficult to make sense out of the programs. Python Programming, 2/e 75
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Slide #76.

Functions and Program Structure   One way to deal with this complexity is to break an algorithm down into smaller subprograms, each of which makes sense on its own. This topic will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 9. Python Programming, 2/e 76
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Slide #77.

Functions and Program Structure def main(): # Introduction print("This program plots the growth of a 10 year investment.") # Get principal and interest rate principal = eval(input("Enter the initial principal: ")) apr = eval(input("Enter the annualized interest rate: ")) # Create a graphics window with labels on left edge win = GraphWin("Investment Growth Chart", 320, 240) win.setBackground("white") win.setCoords(-1.75,-200, 11.5, 10400) Text(Point(-1, 0), ' 0.0K').draw(win) Text(Point(-1, 2500), ' 2.5K').draw(win) Text(Point(-1, 5000), ' 5.0K').draw(win) Text(Point(-1, 7500), ' 7.5k').draw(win) Text(Point(-1, 10000), '10.0K').draw(win) # Draw bar for initial principal drawBar(win, 0, principal) # Draw a bar for each subsequent year for year in range(1, 11): principal = principal * (1 + apr) drawBar(win, year, principal) input("Press to quit.") win.close() Python Programming, 2/e 77
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Slide #78.

Functions and Program Structure  We can make this program more readable by moving the middle eight lines that create the window where the chart will be drawn into a value returning function. Python Programming, 2/e 78
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Slide #79.

Functions and Program Structure def createLabeledWindow(): window = GraphWin("Investment Growth Chart", 320, 240) window.setBackground("white") window.setCoords(-1.75,-200, 11.5, 10400) Text(Point(-1, 0), ' 0.0K').draw(window) Text(Point(-1, 2500), ' 2.5K').draw(window) Text(Point(-1, 5000), ' 5.0K').draw(window) Text(Point(-1, 7500), ' 7.5k').draw(window) Text(Point(-1, 10000), '10.0K').draw(window) return window def main(): print("This program plots the growth of a 10 year investment.") principal = eval(input("Enter the initial principal: ")) apr = eval(input("Enter the annualized interest rate: ")) win = createLabeledWindow() drawBar(win, 0, principal) for year in range(1, 11): principal = principal * (1 + apr) drawBar(win, year, principal) input("Press to quit.") win.close() Python Programming, 2/e 79
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