Why use plasma? Easily obtained Widely used clinically Contains many proteins (a good representation of the body’s proteome) Plasma has already been used in the diagnosis of many other diseases
Biomarkers potentially useful in cancer diagnosis Biomarker Cancer type References Apolipoprotein A1 Ovarian, pancreatic Zhang et al., 2004; Kozak et al., 2005 Heptaglobin α-subunit Ovarian, pancreatic, lung Ye et al., 2003 Transthyretin fragment Ovarian Kozak et al., 2005 Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor fragment Ovarian, pancreatic Zhang et al., 2004 Vitamin D-binding protein Prostate, breast Corder et al., 1993; Pawlik et al., 2006 Serum amyloid A Nasopharyngeal, pancreatic, ovarian Orchekowski et al., 2005; Moshkovskii et al., 2005 α1-antitrypsin and α1antichymotrypsin Pancreatic Orchekowski et al., 2005; Yu et al., 2005 Osteopontin Ovarian, prostate Khodavirdi et al., 2006
Why use proteomic analysis? Proteomics The “protein complement of a given genome” (Dr. Marc Wilkins) Basically, all proteins that are being expressed by a cell, tissue, or genome Proteomic analysis reveals which proteins are being expressed with accuracy, speed, and resolution Has the potential to diagnose diseases, disease states, and effect of treatment of those diseases
Research Research has focused on ovarian, prostate, and breast cancer SELDI-TOF-MS has identified biomarker profiles with 100% sensitivity and 95% specificity Studies have successfully: Identified patients with tumors Identified type of tumor Distinguished between benign and malignant Identified possible treatments Distinguished response/no response to treatment
References Davis, Michael A., Hanash, Samir. High-throughput genomic technology in reaserach and clinical management in early detection and t herapy. Breast Cancer Research 2006, 8:217. 18 December 2006. Reddy, Guru and Dalmasso, Enrique A. SELDI® Array Technology: Protein-Based Predictive Medicine and Drug Discovery Applications. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology v. 2003(4): 237-241. Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A., Xu, Ying-jie. Proteomic technology for biomarker profiling in cancer: an update. Joural of Zhejian University SCIENCE v. 7 (6): 411-420. Verrills, Nicole M. Clinical Proteomics: Present and Future Prospects. Clinical Biochemist Reviews v. 27 (2): 99-116.