Light Light Particles known as photons Act as ‘waves’ Two fundamental properties Amplitude Wavelength Frequency is the inverse of wavelength Relationship between wavelength (lambda) and frequency (f) Where c = speed of light = 299,792,458 m / s 2
Thin Lens Equation A lens is a transparent device that allows light to pass through while causing it to either converge or diverge. Assume that a camera is focused on a target object using a single converging lens: Let S1 be the distance from the lens to the target Let S2 be the distance from the lens to the film The focal length, f, is a measure of how strongly a lens converges light The magnification factor, m, is another measure. 5 The optical zoom of a digital camera is usually larger than 1 The magnification factor of a single lens is usually less than 1
Optics and f-stop F-number is the ratio of focal length to the diameter of the aperture (lens opening) F-stops are pre-defined aperture settings that are typically factors of 2 with respect to amount of light allowed into the camera. Doubling “area” of a circle implies scaling the aperture diameter by sqrt(2) or 1.4. F-stops are geometric sequences involving powers of the square-root of 2. 7
Human Visual System Human vision Cornea acts as a protective lens that roughly focuses incoming light Iris controls the amount of light that enters the eye The lens sharply focuses incoming light onto the retina 8 Absorbs both infra-red and ultra-violet light which can damage the lens The retina is covered by photoreceptors (light sensors) which measure light
Photoreceptors Rods Approximately 100-150 million rods Non-uniform distribution across the retina Sensitive to low-light levels (scotopic vision) Lower resolution Cones Approximately 6-7 million cones Sensitive to higher-light levels (photopic vision) High resolution Detect color by the use of 3 different kinds of cones each of which is sensitive to red, green, or blue frequencies 11 Red (L cone) : 564-580 nm wavelengths (65% of all cones) Green (M cone) : 534-545 nm wavelengths (30% of all cones) Blue (S cone) : 420-440 nm wavelengths (5% of all cones)
Comparison between rods and cones Rods Cones Used for night vision Used for day vision Loss causes night blindness Loss causes legal blindness Low spatial resolution with higher noise High spatial resolution with lower noise Not present in fovea Concentrated in fovea Slower time response to light Quicker time response to light One type of photosensitive pigment Three types of photosensitive pigment Emphasis on motion detection Emphasis on detecting fine detail 14
Human Visual Perception Light intensity: The lowest (darkest) perceptible intensity is the scotopic threshold The highest (brightest) perceptible intensity is the glare limit The difference between these two levels is on the order of 10 10 We can’t discriminate all these intensities at the same time! We adjust to an average value of light intensities and then discriminate around the average. Log compression. Experimental results show that the relationship between the perceived amount of light and the actual amount of light in a scene are generally related logarithmically. 16 The human visual system perceives brightness as the logarithm of the actual light intensity and interprets the image accordingly. Consider, for example, a bright light source that is approximately 6times brighter than another. The eye will perceive the brighter light as approximately twice the brightness of the darker.
Brightness Adaptation Actual light intensity is (basically) log-compressed for perception. Human vision can see light between the glare limit and scotopic threshold but not all levels at the same time. The eye adjusts to an average value (the red dot) and can simultaneously see all light in a smaller range surrounding the adaptation level. Light appears black at the bottom of the instantaneous range and white at the top of that range. 17
Brightness Adaptation and Mach Banding When viewing any scene: The eye rapidly scans across the field of view while coming to momentary rest at each point of particular interest. At each of these points the eye adapts to the average brightness of the local region surrounding the point of interest. This phenomena is known as local brightness adaptation. 18 Mach banding is a visual effect that results, in part, from local brightness adaptation. The eye over-shoots/under-shoots at edges where the brightness changes rapidly. This causes ‘false perception’ of the intensities Examples follow….
Simultaneous Contrast Simultaneous contrast refers to the way in which two adjacent intensities (or colors) affect each other. Example: Note that a blank sheet of paper may appear white when placed on a desktop but may appear black when used to shield the eyes against the sun. Figure 2.9 is a common way of illustrating that the perceived intensity of a region is dependent upon the contrast of the region with its local background. 22 The four inner squares are of identical intensity but are contextualized by the four surrounding squares The perceived intensity of the inner squares varies from bright on the left to dark on the right.