Slide #1.

Hardware and Software  Hardware • the physical, tangible parts of a computer • keyboard, monitor, wires, chips, data  Software • programs and data • a program is a series of instructions   A computer requires both hardware and software Each is essentially useless without the other 1
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Slide #2.

CPU and Main Memory Central Processing Unit Primary storage area for programs and data that are in active use Synonymous with RAM Chip that executes program commands Intel Pentium III Sun Sparc Processor Main Memory 2
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Slide #3.

Secondary Memory Devices Secondary memory devices provide long-term storage Hard disks Floppy disks ZIP disks Writable CDs Tapes Central Processing Unit Information is moved between main memory and secondary memory as needed Hard Disk Main Memory Floppy Disk 3
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Slide #4.

Input / Output Devices Monitor Keyboard Monitor screen Keyboard Mouse Bar code scanner Light pen Touch screen Central Processing Unit I/O devices allow user interaction Hard Disk Main Memory Floppy Disk 4
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Slide #5.

Digital Information  Computers store all information digitally: • • • • • •  numbers text graphics and images audio video program instructions In some way, all information is digitized - broken down into pieces and represented as numbers 5
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Slide #6.

Binary Numbers  Once information is digitized, it is represented and stored in memory using the binary number system  A single binary digit (0 or 1) is called a bit  Devices that store and move information are cheaper and more reliable if they only have to represent two states  A single bit can represent two possible states, like a light bulb that is either on (1) or off (0)  Combinations of bits are used to store values 6
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Slide #7.

Bit Combinations 1 bit 0 1 2 bits 00 01 10 11 3 bits 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 4 bits 0000 1000 0001 1001 0010 1010 0011 1011 0100 1100 0101 1101 0110 1110 0111 1111 Each additional bit doubles the number of possible combinations 7
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Slide #8.

Bit Combinations    Each combination can represent a particular item There are 2N combinations of N bits Therefore, N bits are needed to represent 2N unique items 1 bit ? How many items can be represented by 2 bits ? 3 bits ? 4 bits ? 5 bits ? 21 = 2 items 22 = 4 items 23 = 8 items 24 = 16 items 25 = 32 items 8
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Slide #9.

A Computer Specification  Consider the following specification for a personal computer: • • • • • •  600 MHz Pentium III Processor 256 MB RAM 16 GB Hard Disk 24x speed CD ROM Drive 17” Multimedia Video Display with 1280 x 1024 resolution 56 KB Modem What does it all mean? 9
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Slide #10.

Memory 9278 9279 9280 9281 9282 9283 9284 9285 9286 Main memory is divided into many memory locations (or cells) Each memory cell has a numeric address, which uniquely identifies it 10
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Slide #11.

Storing Information 9278 9279 9280 9281 9282 9283 9284 9285 9286 10011010 Each memory cell stores a set number of bits (usually 8 bits, or one byte) Large values are stored in consecutive memory locations 11
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Slide #12.

Storage Capacity   Every memory device has a storage capacity, indicating the number of bytes it can hold Capacities are expressed in various units: Unit Symbol Number of Bytes kilobyte KB 210 = 1024 megabyte MB 220 (over 1 million) gigabyte GB 230 (over 1 billion) terabyte TB 240 (over 1 trillion) 12
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Slide #13.

RAM vs. ROM   RAM - Random Access Memory (direct access) ROM - Read-Only Memory  The terms RAM and main memory are basically interchangeable  ROM could be a set of memory chips, or a separate device, such as a CD ROM  Both RAM and ROM are random (direct) access devices! RAM should probably be called Read-Write Memory  13
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Slide #14.

The Central Processing Unit   A CPU is also called a microprocessor It continuously follows the fetch-decode-execute cycle: Retrieve an instruction from main memory fetch execute Carry out the instruction decode Determine what the instruction is 14
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Slide #15.

The Central Processing Unit (CPU)  The CPU contains: Arithmetic / Logic Unit Control Unit Registers Performs calculations and decisions Coordinates processing steps Small storage areas 15
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Slide #16.

The Central Processing Unit  The speed of a CPU is controlled by the system clock  The system clock generates an electronic pulse at regular intervals  The pulses coordinate the activities of the CPU  The speed is measured in megahertz (MHz) 16
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Slide #17.

Monitor  The size of a monitor (17") is measured diagonally, like a television screen  Most monitors these days have multimedia capabilities: text, graphics, video, etc.  A monitor has a certain maximum resolution , indicating the number of picture elements, called pixels, that it can display (such as 1280 by 1024)  High resolution (more pixels) produces sharper pictures 17
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