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Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures Third Edition Chapter 5 Cryptography
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Components of Cryptographic Protocols • Cryptography: process of converting readable text, programs, and graphics into data that cannot be easily read or executed by unauthorized users – Converts plaintext into ciphertext by using an encryption algorithm • Four goals of cryptography: – – – – Confidentiality of information Integrity of data Authentication Nonrepudiation Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 2
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Cryptographic Primitives • Cryptographic primitives: modular mathematical functions that include encryption algorithms, hashing functions, pseudorandom number generators, and basic logical functions – Each primitive is designed to perform a specific task • Must be used with other primitives to provide adequate security • Example: encryption algorithm performs encoding but not message integrity – Combined with a hashing function, message integrity can be achieved Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 3
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Cryptographic Primitives • Exclusive OR (XOR) Function – Used in cryptography as a linear mixing function to combine values – Based on binary bit logic • If x and y are the same (both true or both false) the output is 0 (false) • If x and y are different, the output is 1 (true) Figure 5-1 An XOR truth table Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 4
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Cryptographic Primitives • Permutation Functions – Bit-shuffling permutation functions reorder sets of objects randomly • By rearranging input bits • Like shuffling a deck of cards – Expansion permutation (certain bits are used more than once) • Example: input 010 is rearranged and expanded into 0101 Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 5
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Cryptographic Primitives • Substitution Box (S-box) Functions – Transforms a number of input bits into a number of output bits • Produces a lookup table that can be fixed or dynamic – An S-box function is usually described as n input bits x m output bits • A 6x4 S-box means that 6 input bits are transformed into 4 output bits Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 6
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Cryptographic Primitives • Feistel Network – Symmetric block cipher that is the basis of several symmetric encryption algorithms – Purpose is to obscure the relationship between ciphertext and keys – Combines multiple rounds of repeated operations • Example: processing cleartext input with XOR functions – A key schedule is used to produce different keys for each round – Advantage: Encryption and decryption operations are similar or identical • Reduces size of its code and resources needed to use it Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 7
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Cryptographic Primitives • Pseudorandom Number Generators (PRNGs) – An algorithm for generating sequences of numbers that approximate random values – Many cryptographic functions require random values that serve as seeds for further computation: • Nonces – a number or bit string that prevents generation of the same ciphertext during subsequent encryptions of a message • One-way functions – include integer factorization, discrete logarithms, and the Rabin function • Salts – consists of random bits used as input for key derivation functions • Key derivation – generates secret keys Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 8
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Cryptographic Primitives • Hashing functions – Generate a hash value or message digest from input • A hash value is a fixed-size string representing the original input’s contents – Used to verify message integrity • Compares the message digest the sender calculates with the message digest the receiver calculates – If values are the same, the sender’s message has not been altered during transmission – Also used for error detection • As with Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 9
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Encryption Algorithms • Computer algorithms provide exact instructions for which operations to carry out, which criteria change operations, how many times to perform an operation (called looping), and when to stop – A strict order of operations is essential (called control flow) • Encryption algorithm is a set of precise instructions that provides an encoding function for a cryptographic system – Also combine with other primitives to perform integrity checking or authentication Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 10
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Encryption Algorithms • Key Size in Encryption Algorithms – An encryption algorithm’s strength is often tied to its key length • Longer the key, the harder it is to break – Key sizes have had to increase to keep up with bruteforce attacks Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 11
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Encryption Algorithms • Types of Encryption Algorithms – Block cipher – encrypts groups of text at a time • A block cipher encrypts the whole word cat instead of each letter – Stream cipher – encrypts cleartext one bit at a time • The letters c, a, and t in cat are encrypted separately – Symmetric algorithms – use the same key to encrypt and decrypt a message • Faster, more efficient method – Asymmetric algorithms – use a specially generated key pair • One key encrypts cleartext into ciphertext and other key decrypts Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 12
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Encryption Algorithms • Blowfish – A 64-bit block cipher composed of a 16-round Feistel network and key-dependent S-box functions – Uses a variable key size from 32 to 448 bits (default size is 128 bits) – Fast in encryption and decryption operations • 64-bit block size is now considered too short – Still a widely used cipher Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 13
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Encryption Algorithms • Twofish – Successor to Blowfish – A 128-bit symmetric block cipher composed of a 16round Feistel network and key-dependent S-box functions – Has a complicated key schedule and a variable key size of 129, 192, or 256 bits • Rivest Cipher Family – Popular stream cipher in Web browsers that use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), and Transport Layer Security (TLS) Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 14
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Encryption Algorithms • Rijndael (pronounced raindoll) – Encryption algorithm incorporated into the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) – Block cipher composed of 10 to 14 rounds of S-box and XOR functions • Rivest, Shamir, Adelman (RSA) – Uses a public key that is freely shared and a private key that is kept secret – Widely used in e-commerce protocols and is the default encryption and signing scheme for X.509 certificates Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 15
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Hashing Algorithms • Hashing algorithms: sets of instructions applied to variable-length input that generate a fixed-length message – Do not provide confidentiality (do not encrypt the message) – Do provide verification that a message has not been altered – Most common are Message Digest 5 (MD5) and Secure Hash Algorithm Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 16
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Hashing Algorithms • Message Digest 5 (MD5) – Makes only one pass on data and generates a 128bit hash value • Displayed as a 32-character hexadecimal number – 3 conditions to make a hashing algorithm secure: • No hash should be usable to determine original input • No hashing algorithm should be run on the same input and produce different hashes • A hashing algorithm should not be run on two different inputs and produce the same hash (collision) Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 17
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Hashing Algorithms • Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) – National Security Agency designed SHA as a successor to MD5 • Approved for federal government use – Used in SSL, SSH, and IPsec Table 5-1 Summary of SHA algorithms Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 18
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Message Authentication Code • Message Authentication Code (MAC) – Also known as Message Integrity Check (MIC) – Uses a shared secret key that is agreed on by sender and receiver in the verification process to generate a MAC tag for a message • MAC tag is like an enhanced message digest – MAC uses a single key to verify message integrity • Challenge is key management – how to communicate the secret key that the sender and receiver use securely Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 19
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Figure 5-3 The MAC process Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition 20
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Digital Signatures • Digital signatures use hashing algorithms with asymmetric encryption – Produces a method for verifying message integrity and nonrepudiation – Nonrepudiation: ensuring that participants in a message exchange cannot deny their roles Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 21
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Figure 5-4 The digital signature process Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition 22
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Key Management • Major problem with cryptographic algorithms is secure key exchange – Key management: Process where cryptographic systems change keys frequently and distribute them to all authorized parties • Difficult to carry out reliably • Private Key Exchange: uses a symmetric cryptographic algorithm in the encryption process – Same key (also called shared key) is used to encrypt and decrypt message – Message is only as secure as the shared key Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 23
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Figure 5-5 The private key exchange process Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition 24
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Key Management • Public key exchange: uses asymmetric cryptography in the encryption process and generates a key pair – Anything encrypted by one key can only be decrypted by the other member of the pair – One key is labeled as public key and the other is labeled as private key – Public key is freely shared and private key is secure – Confidentiality is ensured • Private key owner is only one who can decrypt what the public key encrypted Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 25
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Key Management • Components of asymmetric cryptography: – Certificates-file that contains information about the user, service, or business entity and public key – Certification authorities (CAs)-organizations that issue public and private key pairs – Registration authorities (RAs)-also called registrars; serve as front end to users for registering, issuing, and revoking certificates – Certificate revocation lists (CRLs)-listings of invalid certificates – Message digests-check hash values to verify message is unchanged Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 26
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Figure 5-6 The public key exchange process Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition 27
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Key Management • Public Key Cryptography Standards (PKCSs) – Created by RSA labs to improve interoperability – Not actual industry standards • X.509 – An International Telecommunication Union standard for PKI – Specifies standard formats for public key certificates, a strict hierarchical system for CAs issuing certificates, and standards for CRLs – Use RSA for key generation and encryption Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 28
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Examining Cryptography Standards • Cryptographic protocol - incorporates a detailed description of standardized requirements and guidelines for: – – – – – Key generation and management Authentication Encryption Hashing functions Nonrepudiation • Reasons for standardizing cryptographic protocols: – Interoperability – Reliability – Scalability Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 29
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Data Encryption Standard • Data Encryption Standard (DES) – Developed by IBM and selected in 1976 as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) – Federal laws mandate its use in certain government projects – Has been adopted internationally – Composed of a 16-round Feistel network with XOR functions, permutation functions, 6x4 S-box functions, and fixed key schedules • DES generates 64 bits of ciphertext from 64 bits of plaintext by using a 56-bit key Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 30
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Triple DES • Triple DES (3DES) – A more current and secure variation of DES – Ciphertext goes through three iterations (round of encryption) • Uses three separate 64-bit keys to process the same bit of unencrypted text • First key encrypts, second key decrypts, and third key encrypts it again – Triple DES requires more processing time and resources Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 31
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Figure 5-7 3DES encryption Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition 32
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Advanced Encryption Standard • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) – Approved by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for US government use – Stronger than 3DES and works faster – Currently the most widely used encryption method – As of early 2012, no successful attacks against AES have occurred Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 33
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Internet and Web Standards • Secure Shell (SSH) – provides authentication and encryption of TCP/IP packets – – – – Works primarily with Linux and UNIX systems Windows versions are also available Uses public key cryptography When a client initiates an SSH connection: • Two computers exchange keys and negotiate algorithms for authentication and encryption Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 34
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Internet and Web Standards • Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) – Developed by Netscape Communications Corporation – A secure way to transmit data on the Web – Uses asymmetric keys to start an SSL session and exchange secret keys • After session is established, SSL uses dynamically generated symmetric keys for rest of transfer Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 35
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Internet and Web Standards • Transport Layer Security (TLS) – Designed to provide additional security – Similar to SSL in operation and design – Adds the following: • Uses a hashed message authentication code (HMAC) that combines hashing algorithm with a shared secret key • Splits input data in half – Processes each half with a different hashing algorithm then recombines them with an XOR function – Uses symmetric keys for bulk encryption and asymmetric keys for authentication and key exchange Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 36
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Internet Protocol Security • Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) – Set of standard procedures the IETF developed for securing communication on the Internet – IPsec has become the standard set of protocols for securing tunneled communications because: • IPsec works at Layer 3 • IPsec can encrypt an entire TCP/IP packet • IPsec was originally developed for use with IPv6 – Also works with current IPv4 • IPsec authenticates source and destination computer before data is encrypted or transmitted – IPsec is standardized and supported by a variety of hardware and software devices Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 37
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Internet Protocol Security • When an IPsec connection is established: – Two computers authenticate one another and establish the Security Association (SA) settings • SA is a relationship between two or more parties that describes how they use security services to communicate • Each IPsec connection can perform encryption, encapsulation, authentication, or a combination of all three • With Windows Server 2008 and Windows 7, IPsec is integrated with Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 38
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Internet Protocol Security • IPsec components: – Internet security Association Key Management Protocol (ISAKMP) – enables two computers to agree on security settings and establish an SA – Internet Key Exchange (IKE) – enables computers to exchange keys to make an SA – Oakley – enables IPsec to use the Diffie-Hellman encryption algorithm to create keys – IPsecurity Policy Management – service that retrieves IPsec security policy settings from Active Directory and applies them to computers in the domain – IPsec driver – handles task of encrypting, authenticating, decrypting, and checking packets Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 39
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Internet Protocol Security • Authentication Header (AH): an IPsec component that authenticates TCP/IP packets • With AH: – Packets are signed with a digital signature • Tells other IPsec devices it originated from IPsec – AH adds a header that is calculated by IP header and data values • Values are calculated with a hashing algorithm and a key Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 40
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Figure 5-8 AH message exchange Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition 41
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Internet Protocol Security • AH works differently in the two IPsec modes: – Tunnel mode: AH authenticates the entire original header and builds a new IP header • Only fields not authenticated by AH are fields that can change in transit – Transport mode: AH authenticates the data and the original IP header • Authenticated except fields changed in transit Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 42
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Figure 5-9 AH in tunnel and transport modes Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition 43
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Internet Protocol Security • Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) – Ensures confidentiality of data – In tunnel mode: ESP encrypts both header and data – In transport mode: ESP encrypts only data Figure 5-10 ESP in tunnel and transport modes Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 44
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Modern Cryptanalysis Methods • Cryptanalysis: study of breaking encryption methods – New attacks emerge constantly – Security professionals must keep up to date on threats and countermeasures – Rely on expertise of mathematicians who design algorithms Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 45
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Side Channel Attacks • Attacks underlying systems that leak information – Leaks are unintentional signals (emanations) that could expose information being processed – Types of side channel attacks: • • • • • Timing attacks Power monitoring attacks Acoustic cryptanalysis Radiation monitoring Thermal imaging attack – Countermeasures include power conditioning and UPSs, shielding, and strong physical security Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 46
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Passive Attacks • Cryptanalysts observe data being transmitted – Eavesdrop on transmissions – Detecting this kind of attack is difficult – Countermeasures focus on using strong encryption Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 47
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Chosen Ciphertext and Chosen Plaintext Attacks • Chosen ciphertext attack: attacker selects a captured encrypted message and decrypts it with an unknown key – Sometimes uses a decryption oracle (a device that decrypts ciphertext messages) – Can be prevented by using correct cryptographic padding values or redundancy checks • Chosen plaintext attack: attacker selects arbitrary plaintext messaged to be encrypted – Public key encryption algorithms that are not randomized are vulnerable – Countermeasures are based on randomized encryption Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 48
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Related Key Attacks • A form of cryptanalysis in which attackers can observe a cipher’s operation by using several different keys – Initial values are unknown, but a mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known – Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) failed because of related key attacks • WPA2 or 802.11i is recommended to be used instead of WEP – To defend against related key attacks, use of a cryptographic protocol (such as AES) is advised Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 49
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Integral Cryptanalysis • This attack uses sets of chosen plaintext messages that share a common constant – Each set of messages shares a constant value, and the remainder of each plaintext message is tried with all possible variables • Applicable to block ciphers that use a substitutionpermutation network – Rijndael, Twofish, and IDEA are examples Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 50
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Differential Cryptanalysis • This attack examines how differences in input affect the output – Uses pairs of plaintext messages related by a constant difference – By computing differences, attackers might be able to find statistical patterns • Applies mainly to block ciphers but can also be used against stream ciphers and hashing functions • Goal of cryptographers is to prevent or mask predictable behavior Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 51
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Summary • Cryptography is the process of converting plaintext into ciphertext by using an encoding function • Cryptographic primitives are modular mathematical functions that are building blocks of cryptography • An encryption algorithm is a set of instructions that provides the encoding function to a cryptographic system • Symmetric algorithms use a shared key in a private key exchange • Asymmetric algorithms use two keys Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 52
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Summary • Digital signatures use hashing algorithms with asymmetric encryption for verifying message integrity • Public-key Infrastructure (PKI) components include certificates, certification authorities (CAs), registration authorities (RAs), certificate revocation lists (CRLs), and message digests • Cryptographic protocols describe how algorithms should be used – DES, 3DES, and AES are examples Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 53
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Summary • Wireless network cryptographic protocols include WEP, WPA, and 802.11i • Internet security protocols include SSL, SSH, and TLS • IPsec is a cryptographic protocol used for Internet, VPN, and network security • Attacks on cryptographic systems include side channel attacks, passive attacks, chosen ciphertext and chosen plaintext attacks, random number generator attacks, and XSL attacks Guide to Network Defense and Countermeasures, 3rd Edition © Cengage Learning 2014 54
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