Lampreys • American Brook Lamprey Lampetra appendix • Larvae filter feed • Adult does not feed. The Sea Lamprey (in Great Lakes) and the Ohio Lamprey (western PA) are parasitic. The three native PA Brook Lampreys are not parasitic.
Sturgeons • The Lake Sturgeon – Acipenser fulvescens- is the only freshwater sturgeon in PA. It is found in Lake Erie. • The Shortnose Sturgeon and the Atlantic Sturgeon are marine and tidal fish that may occur in the lower Delaware River. • All PA sturgeons are endangered
Paddlefish • Paddlefish –Polydon spathula- only living species. • Extirpated from former ranges in western PA and Lake Erie. • PA Fish and Boat Commission reintroduced them to the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers.
Gar • Two gar species occur in PA: The Spotted Gar and the Longnose Gar. • The Longnose Gar – Lepidosteus osseus- is in low numbers through the lower Great Lakes, western PA and extreme lower Susquehanna River.
Herrings • This family includes Blueback Herring, Alewife, Gizzard Shad, Hickory Shad, and American Shad. • The American Shad –Alosa sapidissima- anadromous fish that enter mainstem of large rivers to spawn. • Attempts to support shad run in the Susquehanna River • In rivers, shad eat small crustaceans, zooplankton, worms, insects, and small fish
Minnows • PA has 39 species of minnows, including exotics like Carp and Goldfish. • The minnows of Pennsylvania include: – – – – – – Bluntnose Minnow Cutlips Minnow Central Stoneroller Emerald Shiner Hornyhead Chub Grass Carp – – – – – – – – – – – Common Carp Common Shiner River Chub Golden Shiner Fathead Minnow Spotfin Shiner Rosyface Shiner Blacknose Dace Longnose Dace Creek Chub Fallfish
Cutlips Minnow • Cutlips Minnow (Exoglossum maxillingua) • Lower lip in three lobes, the center of which looks like a tongue • Stony pools of clean streams • Mainly feed on small mollusks, insects, and diatoms
Common Carp • The Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) • Native to Asia and eastern Europe; considered invasive in some watersheds • Found in many habitats, but prefer slow-moving water with a welldeveloped littoral zone
Common Shiner • Common Shiner (Notropis cornutus) • Moving water, warm to cold • Very common in North America, east of the Rocky Mountains and North of the Gulf states • Omnivore: plants and insects mainly at or near the surface
Quillback Carpsucker • The Quillback Carpsucker (Carpoides cyprinus) • Body is deep and laterally compressed • They travel in schools in slow-moving rivers and backwaters with gravel bottoms. • Eat a wide variety of benthic macroinvertebrates
White Sucker • The White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) • Cylindrical body with a rounded snout • Range from headwaters to warm, low oxygen water. • They are omnivores, feeding on plants, zooplankton, benthos
Northern Hog Sucker • The Northern Hogsucker (Hypentelium nigricans) • The body is cylindrical and darkly camouflaged • Found in clean streams • Overturn rock while scraping biofilm, and aquatic macroinvertebrates
Channel Catfish • Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) • Body cylindrical with spots on the sides • Habitats vary; fast-moving water to deep pools, reservoirs, lakes, and farm ponds • Young eat insects but change to fish and plants as they get larger
Brook Trout • The Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) • Official State Fish of PA • Only stream trout native to PA • Low order cold, clean streams • Feed on aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, small fish
Rainbow Trout • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) • Introduced species • Lighter than the Brook and has a red lateral line • In fastwater streams • Feed on aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, and small fish
Banded Killifish • The Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) • Established in most drainages in PA • Called topminnnow, but feed at all levels of slowmoving parts of streams • Eat macroinvertebrates, mainly insects and crustacea. Will take small fish.
Threespine Stickleback • The Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteous aculeatus) • Endangered native • Fish are small, schooling fish with bony plates on their sides • Require clean, clear water in slow-moving parts of streams • Eat fish fry and eggs; insects and crustaceans
Sculpins • There are two species of sculpins in PA waters: Mottled Sculpin (Cottus bairdi) and Slimy Sculpin (C. cognatus) • Freshwater members of a mostly marine family • Often found together with Brook Trout; require clean, clear, cold low order streams
Temperate Basses • This family includes White Perch (Morone americana), White Bass (M. chrysops), and Striped Bass (M. saxatilis) • Fish of large rivers and lakes; introduced into reservoirs • Travel in schools and feed on fish
Bluegill • Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) • Oval deep body that is laterally-flattened • In lakes, ponds, and slowmoving parts of streams with submerged plants • Eat aquatic macroinvertebrates, small fish, and, occasionally, plants
Smallmouth Bass • The Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieui) • Native to Great Lakes and Ohio Valley; distributed elsewhere • Require rocky habitats, usually in, but not restricted to, moving water • Feed on crustaceans and fish
Largemouth Bass • Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) • Native to Great Lakes and Ohio Valley, now distributed throughout PA • Prefer warm water habitats; ponds and small lakes with submerged aquatics • They eat almost any animal that they can fit into their mouths
Walleye • Walleye (Sander vitreus) • Native to the Great Lakes and the Ohio Valley, they have been introduced as a sport fish to appropriate habitats in PA • In large lakes and rivers • Usually the top predator
Freshwater Drum • The Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) • Called croakers; mainly from a marine family • In the Great Lakes and the western rivers of PA • Feeds on mollusks, insects, and crustaceans