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DATA GOVERNANCE – A PRIMER Dr. Braden J. Hosch Asst. Vice President for Institutional Research, Planning & Effectiveness November 4, 2018 1
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Overview Data governance concepts and major aspects Selling data governance to senior leadership Characteristics of a data governance system Maturity models Change management in a college or university Technological “solutions” 2
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Outcomes for workshop participants Define data governance as an activity that centers on human behavior more than data Describe major components of data governance activities Articulate challenges on their campus and how data governance will address these challenges Assess their campus culture and organization with a data governance maturity model; select and modify a data governance maturity model for their campus Identify characteristics of a data governance system; analyze where their own institution has gaps; and create an outline for how data governance could fit into existing organizational structures Discuss how technology may assist but not perform data governance; describe major functions of data governance software applications or “solutions” Explain principles of change management in higher education institutions and how they will enable development of data governance on their campuses Construct an action plan for next steps on their own campus to advance data governance activities 3
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What this workshop will not do • Design your data governance system for you • Promote specific technological solutions • Prescribe specific functions, operations, or organization • Identify how much money to spend 4
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Slide #5.

WHAT IS DATA GOVERNANCE? 5
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Data Governance Definitions (Generic) • “the execution and enforcement of authority over the management of data and data-related assets” - R. Seiner (2014) • “specification of decision rights and an accountability framework to ensure appropriate behavior in the valuation, creation, storage, use, archiving and deletion of information” Gartner IT Glossary • “a system of decision rights and accountabilities for information-related processes, executed according to agreedupon models which describe who can take what actions with what information, and when, under what circumstances, using what methods” – Data Governance Institute (2014) 6
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Data Governance Definitions from Universities • “formalizes behavior around how data are defined, produced, used, stored, and destroyed in order to enable and enhance organizational effectiveness” – Stony Brook University (2016) • “adds value to our administrative and academic data systems by the establishment of standards that that promote data integrity and enables strategic integrations of information systems” – Vanderbilt University • “the discipline which provides all data management practices with the necessary structure, strategy, and support needed to ensure that data are managed and used as a critical University asset” – U of Rochester 7
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The 5-second elevator definition Data governance is … • a set of guidelines for how people behave and make decisions about data 8
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Master data management is often confused with data governance Master Data Management (MDM) Data Governance • Comprehensive method to link all critical data to a common point of reference • Example: • All screens, documents and systems showing a student’s address derive from a common location. • Formalized system for how people make decisions about acquisition, production, storage, distribution, and analysis of data • Example: • Group decides on a definition for home address and agrees on a common source field 9
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Important characteristics of DG definitions Data governance IS • More about people and behavior than data • A system that requires and promotes shared agreement • Formal (i.e. written down) Data Governance IS NOT • IT’s responsibility • Solved by technology • Equally applied across all data assets • Adds value by supporting institutional mission/goals 10
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Activity 1 – What data governance features do you have? Formal Informal • List formal and informal structures you have for promoting data governance Policies/Practices Groups Roles Responsibilities 11
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WHY DO WE NEED DATA GOVERNANCE? 12
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Justifications for Data Governance Justify data governance on your campus based on: Value Cost Risk 13
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Justifications for Data Governance - Value Educause identifies significant institutional value to higher education institutions from data governance: • Official vs. ad hoc data definitions • Clear responsibilities • Capacity for analytics • Competitive advantage Educause (2015). “The compelling case for data governance,” retrieved October 15, 2018 from https://library.educause.edu/~/media/files/library/2015/3/ewg1501-pdf.pdf 14
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Justifications for Data Governance – Cost (1) A third of Fortune 100 organizations will experience “an information crisis, due to their inability to effectively value, govern and trust their enterprise information.” Gartner. (2014). “Why data governance matters to your online business,” retrieved August 1, 2016 from http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/1898914s-why-data-governance-matters-to-your-online-business/ 15
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Justifications for Data Governance – Cost (2) Poor data quality costs the US economy $3.1 trillion every year $3.1 Trillion IBM. (n.d.). “Extracting business value from the 4 V's of big data,” retrieved October 1, 2018 from https://www.ibmbigdatahub.com/infographic/extracting-business-value-4-vs-big-data 16
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Justifications for Data Governance – Cost (3) The average financial impact of poor data quality on businesses is $9.7 million per year. Opportunity costs, loss of reputation and low confidence in data may push these costs higher. Forbes (2017). “Poor-quality data imposes costs and risks on businesses,” retrieved October 22, 2018 from https:// www.forbes.com/sites/forbespr/2017/05/31/poor-quality-data-imposes-costsand-risks-on-businesses-says-new-forbes-insights-report 17
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Justifications for Data Governance - Risks Fines Imposed by Federal Student Aid Fiscal Year Clery/Part 86 Imposed Fines IPEDS Imposed Fines Other Imposed Fines Total Imposed Fines 2010 $42,000 $225,000 $48,653,500 $48,920,500 2011 $195,000 $144,500 $4,868,500 $5,208,000 2012 $212,500 $158,500 $624,000 $995,000 2013 $812,000 $56,000 $5,204,137 $6,072,137 2014 $438,000 $111,250 $6,750 $556,000 2015 $500,000 $39,250 $14,130,000 $14,669,250 2016 $307,500 $57,000 $79,462,500 $79,827,000 2017 $2,542,500 $1,500 $382,500 $2,926,500 Source: Postsecondary Education Participants System (PEPS) 18
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Data as an Asset • By 2020, Gartner predicts that 10% of organizations will have a highly profitable business unit specifically for productizing and commercializing their information assets. • By 2021 companies will be valued on their information portfolios: “Those in the business of valuing corporate investments, including equity analysts, will be compelled to consider a company’s wealth of information in properly valuing the company itself.” 19
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Data as an Asset for Universities Generic Example At Colleges & Universities web sites grant access in exchange for personal data (email address, etc.) – these data have value and can be leveraged or even sold Data are purchased Names of prospective students Library databases Various datasets (U.S. News, Academic Analytics, etc.) Data are sold To vendors for discounts or services Lost data carry costs Data breaches 20
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Who owns the data? • Consider carefully use of the word “ownership” with data • Often represents assignment of responsibility • Connotes individual control and property vs. caretaking of shared resource • Institutions own the data • Individuals provide stewardship 21
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Activity 2 - Why do we need data governance? • Identify institution-specific examples that help make the case for data governance • Value – what could you do that you can’t do now? • Costs – what costs are you incurring because data are not well governed? • Risks – what risks are you taking because data are not well governed? 22
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Slide #23.

FEATURES OF DATA GOVERNANCE 23
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Key features of data governance systems Documents • Charter / framework • Principles & values • Purpose & scope • Roles & responsibilities • Written & published policies • Data dictionaries • Communication strategies Groups • Senior leadership [buyin] • Policy council • Data steward council(s) Individual roles • Data stewards • Data custodians/ caretakers • Data users • Information security council/program • Positions/office to support DG 24
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Principles and values Establishing principles and values for data governance assists with: Initial design and implementation Answering critics Maintaining focus Navigating difficult situations 25
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Principles of Data Governance (Generic) Consistency of data in its sourcing and in its vocabulary, definitions, and taxonomies Quality which is proactively assessed and standards applied Ownership and accountability defined across the data lifecycle and recorded in the information asset register Business alignment which ensures that data is regarded and treated as a key business asset Access to relevant users, kept secure through access control Providing trusted insight Source: Carruthers, C. & Jackson, P. (2018). The chief data officer’s playbook, London: Facet, p. 145 26
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Principles and Values – Example University of Wisconsin - Madison Accountability Determining who is responsible for the management of data at UW Madison as well as holding them to our outlined standards. Agility All of our processes should adapt when necessary Change Management New processes demand new and changing staff at UW. We’re committed to ensuring smooth transitions and well informed decisions. Consistency All decisions made will be applied consistently across campus. Metrics Driven We monitor ourselves against measurable goals on a regular basis and use the results to determine courses of action. Stewardship Determine formal roles for those in charge of data. This does not mean that everyone on campus is not responsible despite formal roles. Transparency We will make it clear how and when decisions are made and when processes are created. We also strive to ensure that decisions and processes are audited to support compliance based requirements. Source: https://data.wisc.edu/data-governance/#principles 27
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Principles and Values – Example Stony Brook University Values Shared Assets Data and information are shared organizational resources that constitute valuable assets. Stewardship Employees of Stony Brook University have a responsibility for the curation of data. They serve as caretakers of data to ensure data are collected, stored, and maintained under the premise that others will access and use them over time Quality To ensure data retain value, quality of data is actively monitored and maintained Privacy & Confidentiality Maintenance of individual privacy and confidentiality of educational and personal records represent not only legal requirements but also primary outcomes of data management. Principles for Data Governance Organizational Effectiveness Transparency Communication Compliance Auditability Integrity Accountability Standards Source: https://www.stonybrook.edu/commcms/irpe/about/_files/DataGovFramework.pdf 28
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Principles and Values – Example Brown University Guiding Principles of Data Governance at Brown • Institutional data are valuable assets and must be treated as such • Access to accurate and consistent data is essential to informed decision making across the University • Data usage and access rules will be articulated and followed • Data standards can and should be defined and monitored • The security of institutional data is essential, as is appropriate and timely access • The privacy of an individual's information will be protected Source: https://www.brown.edu/about/administration/data-governance/introduction-data-governance-brown 29
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Connect Data Governance to Mission • Data governance is a system to improve the effectiveness of the organization, not an activity for its own sake • Anchor data governance to mission when justifying need or presenting structure 30
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Activity 3 - Distill university mission • Data governance should be established to support the institution’s mission and/or strategic goals. Colleges and universities have notoriously lengthy mission and goal statements, so it can be a challenge to distill them. • Summarize the main points of your institution’s mission, preferably so that it fits on a slide. 31
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Example Stony Brook’s framework for data governance outlines a set of principles, structures, roles, and responsibilities to improve the data infrastructure and to advance institutional goals • Stony Brook has a five-part mission to provide & carryout: • • • • Highest quality comprehensive education Highest quality research and intellectual endeavors Leadership for economic growth, technology, and culture State-of-the-art innovative health care, with service to region and traditionally underserved • Diversity and positioning Stony Brook in global community 32
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Structure – Generic Example Executive Steering Committee • • • • Authorized to change the organization Drives cultural change Supports the program enterprise-wide Provides funding for the Data Governance Program Data Governance Board • • • • Made up of high-ranking representatives of data- owning business functions who can make decisions about data for the company Assign members of the Data Stewardship Council Approve decisions of the Data Stewardship Council Approve data-related policies Business Data Stewards • • • • Experts on use of their data domain data Able to reach out to SMEs to gather information and make decisions Typically someone who others come to as the most knowledgeable about the meaning of the data (and how it is calculated) Makes recommendations on data decisions and write data-related procedures Plotkin (2014). Data stewardship: An actionable guide to effective data management 33
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Structure – University of Wisconsin-Madison Data Governance Steering Committee • • • • provides executive level guidance to the program promotes Data Governance across UW-Madison allows for / facilitates data-driven decision making determines priority and budget of major datarelated projects. Data Stewardship Council • • • determines operational structure of the program drafts, communicates, and recommends approval of data-related policies implements, budgets, and monitors data-related programs across UW-Madison. 34
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Structure –BI Competency Stanford University Ctr. Steering Committee • • • • Cross-functional oversight & communicates long-term value of BI program Achieves peer buy-in, and effects change in business process and data quality DG adopters and champions Ensures alignment of DG with university goals Data Governance Committee • Sets & incorporates DG policies, standards, procedures, roles & responsibilities Includes lead steward from each of the data steward groups, plus reps from additional units • Data Stewardship Groups • • • • • Provide metadata infrastructure to support improved decision-making university-wide Ensure information integrity Build data knowledge Meet compliance requirements SMEs who define reporting terms and gather metadata associated with their reporting environment 35
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Structure – Stony Brook University VP Council (Project 50 Forward SteerCo) • • VP Council Executive sponsors of project Establishes authority and purview of data governance system Data Governance Council • Data Governance Council • Finance Student Human Resources Data Stewards Data Stewards Data Stewards Recommends and implements institutional policy for data governance Sets priority for Functional data governance committees 36
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Policy-Making Body - Data Governance Council Prioritizes decisions regarding data to address most relevant needs of organization Reviews, evaluates, and reports on data governance performance and effectiveness Ultimately is accountable for business data use, data quality, and prioritization of issues Ensures that annual performance measures align with data governance and business objectives Makes strategic and tactical decisions Reviews and approves data governance policies and goals Defines data strategy based on business strategy and requirements Plotkin (2014). Data stewardship: An actionable guide to effective data management 37
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Data Governance Council Membership Examples UW-Madison Stony Brook Chief Data Officer Director of Univ. Communications VP for Teaching & Learning VP for Diversity AVC Business Services AVC Legal Affairs Assoc. Dean Biomedical Informatics VP Libraries CISO Campus Records Officer Assoc. Dean Education Faculty/Dean Representation Chief Institutional Research Officer Analytics and Enterprise Data Officer University Controller Chief Enrollment Management Officer University Registrar Chief Financial Aid Officer Provost’s Office designee VP Student Affairs designee VP Administration designee VP Human Resources designee VP Information Technology designee VP Research designee SVP Health Sciences Designee University Senate designee Chairs & Vice Chairs of FDGCs (6 people) 38
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• Data Stewardship Data stewardship is the most common label to describe Definitions accountability and responsibility for data and processes that ensure effective control and use of data assets. – Knight (2017) • Data stewardship is the operational aspect of an overall Data Governance program, where the actual day-to-day work of governing the enterprise’s data gets done. –Plotkin (2014) • Data Stewardship is concerned with taking care of data assets that do not belong to the stewards themselves. Data Stewards represent the concerns of others. Some may represent the needs of the entire organization. Others may be tasked with representing a smaller constituency: a business unit, department, or even a set of data themselves. – Data Governance Institute (n.d.) 39
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Types of Data Stewards Business Data Steward Technical Data Steward • Accountable for data • Provide expertise on owned by business area applications, ETL, data • Work with stakeholders to stores, and other links in make recommendations on information chain • Assigned by IT leadership data issues • Manage metadata for their to support data governance data • Champion data stewardship for their areas Domain Data Steward Project Data Steward Operational Data Steward • Business steward for widely shared data • Work with business stewards as stakeholders to achieve consensus • Represent data stewardship on projects • Funded by projects • Work with business data stewards to obtain info and make recommendations about data stewarded by business stewards • Notify business data stewards about data issues raised by the project • Provide support to business data stewards • Recommend changes to improve data quality • Help enforce business rules for the data they use Plotkin (2014). Data stewardship: An actionable guide to effective data management 40
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Alternative models for types of data stewards Data Stewards by Subject Area Data Stewards by System Data Stewards by Function Data Stewards by Process Data Stewards by Project Dyché & Polsky (2014). “Five models for data stewardship” SAS Whitepaper 41
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Data Steward Responsibilities Oversee management of selected data assets Participate in data governance and carry out decisions Assist in creation and maintenance of data dictionaries, metadata Document rules, standards, procedures, and changes Ensure data quality and manage specific issues Communicate appropriate use and changes Manage access and security 42
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Data Stewardship Council/Committee(s) (Functional) Coordinate data stewards in related area Set and review definitions, data quality rules, creation/usage rules, determines official version of metadata Review data quality in functional area; identify practices promoting data quality identify areas for improvement and monitor improvements Respond to inquiries about process, content, limitations and uses of data, especially in crossfunctional settings Consider and approve changes & additions to code sets Ensure dictionary standards are followed in area Elevate issues that require resolution Communicate proceedings, including notice of changes and decisions 43
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Stony Brook Roles and Responsibilities Matrix Data Governance Council Functional Data Governance Cmtes Data Stewards Standards and Policies Define, Establish, Monitors, Audit, Verify, Develop, Revise Cross functional implementation, coordination Functional implementation Data Quality Identify, Adopt enterprise-wide DQ tool Big picture Prioritize levels Monitor area Identify needs Review audit reports, Coordinate clean-up, Initial prioritization Metadata Establish standards Ensure crossfunctional alignment Implement Maintain Metrics Review, Identify, Monitor Monitor area Identify are priorities Monitor Remediate B 44 44
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Data users Recognize that Respect the institutional data and Include privacy of • information Oftenderived not considered in data governance systems but individuals whose information about from it are potentially Report records they may the data source Ensure that should be complex. Make efforts data access. and criteria when passwords or to understand the • quality Example formal responsibilities (Stony Brook) Unauthorized distributing data, other security source, meaning and disclosure or issues to proper use of the data reports and ad mechanisms misuse of appropri through training hoc analytics to are used for institutional ate data sessions, utilizing data guard against sensitive data information steward dictionaries and stored on any misinterpretations knowledge of device is of data. supporting system prohibited processes. 45
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Administrative Office / Positions Supporting Data Governance • In general, offices and positions dedicated to supporting data governance are still emerging in higher education Chief Data Officer Data Governance Program Manager • • • • • • Purdue University • Stanford University Purdue University University of Florida System University of South Carolina – Columbia University of Rochester University of Wisconsin - Madison Pomerantz, J. (2017) IT leadership in higher education: The chief data officer. Educause. Research Report. Louisville, CO:ECAR. 46
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MATURITY MODELS 47
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Assess your current state of data governance • To implement data governance, if not to sell it to senior leadership, assessment of the current state is important. • Extends beyond the informal list we made in Activity 1 • Uses a maturity model to quantify the existing state; allows for measurement of progress in a future state 48
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Activity 4: Data Governance Maturity Model Data Governance Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Informal Developing Adopted and Implemented Managed and Repeatable Integrated and Optimized Attention to Data Governance is informal and incomplete. There is no formal governance process. Data Governance Program is forming with a framework for purpose, principles, structures and roles. Culture Limited awareness about the value of dependable data. General awareness of the data issues and needs for business decisions. Data Quality Limited awareness that data quality problems affect decision-making. Data cleanup is ad hoc. General awareness of data Data issues are captured quality importance. Data quality proactively through standard data procedures are being developed. validation methods. Data assets are identified and valuated. Expectations for data quality are actively monitored and remediation is automated. Data quality efforts are regular, coordinated and audited. Data are validated prior to entry into the source system wherever possible. Communication Information regarding data is limited through informal documentation or verbal means. Written policies, procedures, data Data standards and policies are standards and data dictionaries communicated through written may exist but communication and policies, procedures and data knowledge of it is limited. dictionaries. Data standards and policies are completely documented, widely communicated and enforced. All employees are trained and knowledgeable about data policies and standards and where to find this information. Roles & Responsibilities Roles and responsibilities for data management are informal and loosely defined. Expectations of data ownership and valuation of data are clearly defined. Roles, responsibilities for data governance are well established and the lines of accountability are clearly understood. Roles and responsibilities for data management are forming. Focus is on areas where data issues are apparent. Data Governance structures, roles and processes are implemented and fully operational. Data Governance structures, roles and processes are managed and empowered to resolve data issues. Data Governance Program functions with proven effectiveness. Data is viewed as a critical, There is active participation and shared asset. There is Data governance structures acceptance of the principles, widespread support, and participants are integral structures and roles required to participation and endorsement to the organization and implement a formal Data of the Data Governance critical across all functions. Governance Program. Program. Roles and responsibilities are well-defined and a chain of command exists for questions regarding data and processes. 49
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Activity 4: Data Governance Maturity Model Enter rating 1 through 5 based on maturity model rubric Finance data Student data HR data Research data Facilities data Overall Data Governance Culture Data Quality Communication Roles & Responsibilities 50
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Stony Brook Data Governance Maturity Model Initial Results – Spring 2016 51
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BaselineTarget 2017 Current 2015 Dimensions Maturity Data Governance Integrated & Optimized Culture Managed & Repeatable Data Quality Adopted & Implemented Communication Roles & Responsibilities Developing K Informal 52 52
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CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION 53
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Elements to change management Executive sponsors Mission alignment Project mgmt./timeline Process Representation Deliberation Initiative Problem statement Research/environ. Scan Ideas for solutions Interested allies Interest mapping Advocacy from others 55
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Activity 5 – Assemble your group • Data governance requires support of senior leadership and functional leadership • Identify • Senior leaders who will sponsor • Functional leaders and their potential for collaboration (includes available bandwidth, interest, capability, willingness) 56
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Case Study – Stony Brook University Initiative to strengthen university data infrastructure (Jan 2015-Sept. 2016). Charge to examine: Data governance Data quality Communication 57
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Charge for data governance (first 9 months) Examine existing governance structures • • active and inactive groups and lines of responsibility existing processes, practices and procedures that significantly impact data management and stakeholders. Draft formal governance structure for university data management • Principles, mission, and goals • Post on a website to codify roles and responsibilities. Identify and articulate • • Roles of cross-functional groups Functional roles in business units (e.g. data owner, data custodian, report owner) will also be identified and articulated. Formalize a process for prioritization 58
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Charge for data quality improvement Examine existing practices for ensuring data quality within the Data Warehouse and may extend to quality assurance practices in functional systems. Articulate and publish practices for developing, maintaining, and communicating • data definitions (such as robust data dictionaries) • transparent source information • update schedules • error check practices and • clean-up procedures 59
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Charge for training and communication Develop a communication plan for • How new capabilities for business intelligence go beyond initial reporting functionality. • Availability • Use limitations, and opportunities • including needs identification for documentation, training, workshops, etc. Develop, document, and adopt reporting standards 60
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Example initial process for data collection list three aspects of datagroup governance list •three current data governance With broadly representative planning (~20 that are absent at [INSTITUTION] or mechanisms at our [INSTITUTION], the people), conduct focus group with notecards and need to be strengthened systems or applications they cover FOCUS GROUP ACTIVITY list three things that data governance at [INSTITUTION] should accomplish flipchart list three roles or structures that should be included in [INSTITUTION’S] data governance system. 61
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Activity 6 – Draft input for planning process • Using the framework below, draft useful responses to be incorporated into local planning • • • • list three current data governance mechanisms list three aspects of data governance that are absent list three things that data governance should accomplish list three roles or structures that should be included • [Anticipate responses that may be counterproductive] • E.g. “IT should control data governance” 62
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TECHNOLOGICAL “SOLUTIONS” 63
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Technology applications for data governance Technology can support data governance Data dictionary management Data quality analysis Master data management Issue and process management Technology will not Build organizational structures, responsibilities, accountabilities Mend dysfunctional organizations Implement organizational or cultural change 64
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Data governance applications / vendors • Allows management of data definitions • Manages metadata within reporting environments • Online service to communicate and define reporting terms • Allows users to view definitions and terminology in reports • Full suite of metadata management and data quality tools • Issue resolution workflow functionality • Some users report complexity and not making use of full functionality • Data quality tool only • No metadata management • Metadata management tool only. • Integration with reporting tools, website search and manage data definitions. • Integrated with active directory security • No data quality validation or profiling tools 65
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Other vendors / products [slide is intentionally blank] 66
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Issues to consider when selecting technology • Initial cost and annual cost • Ease of implementation and impact on IT • Alignment with DG needs • Metadata management • Integration w/ reporting tools • Data quality • Security/user roles • User community 67
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FINAL THOUGHTS 68
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Takeaways • Data governance is more about people than data • All higher ed change management principals apply • Process and written documents are essential • • • • Leadership support Broad-based consultation, including faculty Opportunity for consultation Representation • Software can help, but it won’t fix broken processes or organizations • Starting data governance is hard work; sustaining it is harder 69
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Data governance is only one part of a data strategy Data acquisition Data usage & literacy A data strategy is aData larger vision&for how your Data• governance extraction reporting Data quality organization will work with data. Data analytics Data access 70
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