Slide #1.

Cycles of the Earth
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Slide #2.

• • • • • • Hydrological Cycle and Weather Climate Chemical Cycles Ice Ages Rock Cycle Geological Time Scale
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Slide #3.

Hydrological Cycle
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Slide #4.

Taxonomy of Clouds Luke Howard (1772-1864), Britain
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Slide #5.

Fitzroy and the Weather Forecast • In the British Navy and responsible for weather reports • Coined phrase Weather Forecast • Convinced that barometer readings foretell tomorrow’s weather • Committed suicide after he was ridiculed by the press and the Admiralty dropped the need for forecasting Vice-Admiral Robert Fitzroy (1805-1865), Britain
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Slide #6.

High and Low Pressure
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Slide #7.

Cyclonic Circulation
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Slide #8.

Collision of Air Masses
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Slide #9.

Ocean Currents
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Slide #10.

Movement of the Air Hadley cell named for George Hadley (1685-1768) tried to explain why trade winds seemed to flow to the west
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Slide #11.

Climate Conveyor
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Slide #12.

Global Climates
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Slide #13.

El Niño & Gilbert Thomas Walker 1868-1958; England & India
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Slide #14.

Chemical Cycle: Carbon
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Slide #15.

Chemical Cycle: Oxygen
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Slide #16.

Chemical Cycle: Nitrogen
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Slide #17.

Ice Ages
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Slide #18.

Evidence of Glacial Action • • • • Moraines Glacial Till and Flour Erratics U-Shaped Valleys Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (1807-1873); Switzerland and USA Proposed Europe had been subjected to an Ice Age (18371840)
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Slide #19.

Svante August Arrenius • Developed theory of Greenhouse Effect to explain Ice Ages • 1896 calculated how changes in CO2 concentration could change climates 1859-1927; Sweden
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Slide #20.

James Croll • Used the formulas developed by Le Verrier on planetary orbital variations • Developed a theory about orbital variations influencing the amount of snow • Orbital eccentricity should cause ice ages on a 22,000 year cycle • Largely dismissed by end of the 19th Century 1821-1890; Britain (Scotland)
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Slide #21.

Milutin Milanković • Canon of the Earth’s Insolation: climates of the planets • Explanation of changes in Earth’s climate by interactions of three planetary cycles 1879-1958 (a Serb) born in Kingdom of Hungary and died in Yugoslavia
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Slide #22.

Milanković Cycles • Eccentricity of earth’s orbit (Kepler’s theory) has a 100,000 year cycle from 0.005 (nearly circular) to 0.058 (mildly eliptical) • Axial tilt has a 41,000 year cycle (tilt changing from 22.1o to 24.5o ) • Precession has a 23,000 year cycle (suggested by Hipparchus in 130 BCE)
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Slide #23.

Inference of Climate Based on Temperature Proxies Pollen Tree rings Ice cores Ratio of oxygen isotopes Corals Diatoms and foraminifera
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Slide #24.

Rock Cycle 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Magma Crystallization (freezing) Igneous rock Erosion Sedimentation Sediments & sedimentary rock Tectonic burial and metamorphism 8. Metamorphic rock 9. Melting Defined by Hutton and Lyell and modified by John Tuzo Wilson (1908-1993), Canada. His Ph.D. advisor: Harry Hess Rock cycle explained by erosion and action of plate tectonics
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Slide #25.

Using Steno’s Laws, attempt to interpret geological strata by relative time
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Slide #26.

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric Cuvier & Alexandre Brongniart • Together studied geology of Paris basin • Defined concept of faunal succession • Theory of cycle of repeated catastrophes Cuvier (1769-1832) France Brongniart (1770-1847) France
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Slide #27.

William ‘Strata’ Smith • Surveyor • Strata of coal mines and canals • Used principle of faunal succession to define layers • Life’s work: Geological map of England and Wales 1769-1839, England A plate of Smith’s fossils
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Slide #28.

Roderick Impey Murchison, 1st Baronet • Independently wealthy, urged by Humphry Davy to turn his focus to science • Became interested in the geology of Wales, England, Alps, Russia, Scotland • Helped define the Silurian, Devonian, and Permian Systems 1792-1871, Britain (Scotland)
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Slide #29.

Adam Sedgwick • Cambridge University faculty (ordained in the Church of England) • Defined Cambrian system • Worked with Murchison to define Devonian in England and on the system in the Alps • Charles Darwin was his student who helped to define the sequence of Cambrian rocks in Wales 1785-1873, England
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Slide #30.

Arthur Holmes • Pioneer of radiometric dating (Uranium-Lead method). Wrote this in a book by the time he was 24. • Provides absolute time to strata • Showed the earth was more than 1 BY old (most geologists had accepted that the earth was only 100 MY old) • Completed the Geological Time Scale in 1944 1890-1965; England
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Slide #31.

Geological Time Scale
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