Slide #1.

Climate and Biomes How will organism distributions shift under climate change? Terms: biome, PET, AET, ecotone, microclimate A. Biomes B. Climate diagrams C. Microclimate D. Ecotones II. Organism adaptations and tolerance Terms: Adaptation, fitness, tradeoffs, genotype, phenotype, ecotype, plasticity, homeostasis, feedbacks A. Adaptation B. Homeostasis C. Law of Tolerance, acclimatization
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Slide #2.

Biomes Major ecosystem types characterized by dominant vegetation and climate
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Slide #3.

What are they? Tropical rain forest Tropical dry forest Tropical savanna Desert Mediterranean woodland and shrubland Temperate grassland Temperate forest Boreal forest Tundra
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Slide #4.

Tropical rain forest
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Slide #5.

Tropical dry forest
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Slide #6.

Savanna
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Slide #7.

Desert
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Slide #8.

Temperate rain forest
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Slide #10.

Temperate forest
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Slide #11.

Grassland
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Slide #12.

Shrub steppe
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Slide #13.

Desert
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Slide #14.

Boreal forest
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Slide #15.

Tundra
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Slide #16.

Tundra
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Slide #18.

Fairbanks, AK San Fran., CA eastern MT
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Slide #19.

Biomes: Temperature and moisture dependence (Ricklefs 2001)
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Slide #21.

Climate diagram
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Slide #22.

Tropical dry forest
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Slide #23.

Cold desert
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Slide #24.

Microclimate – slope & aspect
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Slide #25.

Microclimate – canopy cover
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Slide #26.

Ecotones
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Slide #27.

Biome distribution What will happen with climate change? Will species shift together? Will some species not be able to shift? http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/current/lectures/kling/ecosystem/ecosystem.html
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Slide #28.

II. Organism adaptations and tolerance Terms: Adaptation, fitness, tradeoffs, genotype, phenotype, ecotype, plasticity, homeostasis, feedbacks A. Adaptation B. Homeostasis C. Law of Tolerance, acclimatization
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Slide #29.

Tolerance – effects of environmental change? Chuckwalla, Valley of Fire http://www.richard-seaman.com/Reptiles/Usa/Nevada/ValleyOfFire/
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Slide #30.

Adaptation Any heritable behavioral, morphological or physiological trait that maintains or increases the fitness of an organism under a given set of environmental conditions.
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Slide #31.

Fitness? The contribution an organism makes to future generations and the population gene pool.
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Slide #32.

TRADEOFFS
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Slide #33.

Genotype Phenotype Plasticity Ecotype Q for feedback: if two individuals are of the same species, are they genetically identical?
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Slide #34.

Krummholz
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Slide #36.

Potentilla glandulosa (cinquefoil) Alpine type Subalpine type Klausen, Keck & Heisy (1940) Fig. 26, p.82
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Slide #37.

Homeostasis Negative feedbacks Positive feedbacks
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Slide #38.

Law of Tolerance
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Slide #39.

Acclimation and adaptation
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Slide #40.

Convergent Evolution Euphorbia Euphorbiaceae Asia & Africa Raven, Evert & Eichorn (2000) Echinocerus Cactaceae North America Hoodia Asclepiadaceae Asia & Africa
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