Chapter 3 Boolean Algebra and Digital Logic Slideshow and powerpoint viewer: Chapter 3 Objectives • Understand the relationship between Boolean logic and digital computer circuits. • Learn how

Chapter 3 Objectives • Understand the relationship between Boolean logic and digital computer circuits. • Learn how to design simple logic circuits. • Understand how digital circuits work together to form complex computer systems. 2

3.1 Introduction • In the latter part of the nineteenth century, George Boole incensed philosophers and mathematicians alike when he suggested that logical thought could be represented through mathematical equations. – How dare anyone suggest that human thought could be encapsulated and manipulated like an algebraic formula? • Computers, as we know them today, are implementations of Boole’s Laws of Thought. – John Atanasoff and Claude Shannon were among the first to see this connection. 3

3.2 Boolean Algebra • A Boolean operator can be completely described using a truth table. • The truth table for the Boolean operators AND and OR are shown at the right. • The AND operator is also known as a Boolean product. The OR operator is the Boolean sum. 5

3.2 Boolean Algebra • The truth table for the Boolean NOT operator is shown at the right. • The NOT operation is most often designated by an overbar. It is sometimes indicated by a prime mark ( ‘ ) or an “elbow” (). 6

3.2 Boolean Algebra • A Boolean function has: • • • At least one Boolean variable, At least one Boolean operator, and At least one input from the set {0,1}. • It produces an output that is also a member of the set {0,1}. Now you know why the binary numbering system is so handy in digital systems. 7

3.2 Boolean Algebra • The truth table for the Boolean function: is shown at the right. • To make evaluation of the Boolean function easier, the truth table contains extra (shaded) columns to hold evaluations of subparts of the function. 8

3.2 Boolean Algebra • As with common arithmetic, Boolean operations have rules of precedence. • The NOT operator has highest priority, followed by AND and then OR. • This is how we chose the (shaded) function subparts in our table. 9

3.2 Boolean Algebra • Most Boolean identities have an AND (product) form as well as an OR (sum) form. We give our identities using both forms. Our first group is rather intuitive: 10

3.2 Boolean Algebra • Our last group of Boolean identities are perhaps the most useful. • If you have studied set theory or formal logic, these laws are also familiar to you. 12

3.2 Boolean Algebra • Sometimes it is more economical to build a circuit using the complement of a function (and complementing its result) than it is to implement the function directly. • DeMorgan’s law provides an easy way of finding the complement of a Boolean function. • Recall DeMorgan’s law states: 14

3.2 Boolean Algebra • DeMorgan’s law can be extended to any number of variables. • Replace each variable by its complement and change all ANDs to ORs and all ORs to ANDs. • Thus, we find the the complement of: is: 15

3.2 Boolean Algebra • Through our exercises in simplifying Boolean expressions, we see that there are numerous ways of stating the same Boolean expression. – These “synonymous” forms are logically equivalent. – Logically equivalent expressions have identical truth tables. • In order to eliminate as much confusion as possible, designers express Boolean functions in standardized or canonical form. 16

3.2 Boolean Algebra • There are two canonical forms for Boolean expressions: sum-of-products and product-of-sums. – Recall the Boolean product is the AND operation and the Boolean sum is the OR operation. • In the sum-of-products form, ANDed variables are ORed together. – For example: • In the product-of-sums form, ORed variables are ANDed together: – For example: 17

3.2 Boolean Algebra • It is easy to convert a function to sum-of-products form using its truth table. • We are interested in the values of the variables that make the function true (=1). • Using the truth table, we list the values of the variables that result in a true function value. • Each group of variables is then ORed together. 18

3.2 Boolean Algebra • The sum-of-products form for our function is: We note that this function is not in simplest terms. Our aim is only to rewrite our function in canonical sum-of-products form. 19

3.3 Logic Gates • We have looked at Boolean functions in abstract terms. • In this section, we see that Boolean functions are implemented in digital computer circuits called gates. • A gate is an electronic device that produces a result based on two or more input values. – In reality, gates consist of one to six transistors, but digital designers think of them as a single unit. – Integrated circuits contain collections of gates suited to a particular purpose. 20

3.3 Logic Gates • The three simplest gates are the AND, OR, and NOT gates. • They correspond directly to their respective Boolean operations, as you can see by their truth tables. 21

3.3 Logic Gates • Another very useful gate is the exclusive OR (XOR) gate. • The output of the XOR operation is true only when the values of the inputs differ. Note the special symbol for the XOR operation. 22

3.3 Logic Gates • NAND and NOR are known as universal gates because they are inexpensive to manufacture and any Boolean function can be constructed using only NAND or only NOR gates. 24

3.3 Logic Gates • Gates can have multiple inputs and more than one output. – A second output can be provided for the complement of the operation. – We’ll see more of this later. 25

3.3 Logic Gates • The main thing to remember is that combinations of gates implement Boolean functions. • The circuit below implements the Boolean function: We simplify our Boolean expressions so that we can create simpler circuits. 26