Slide #1.

Chapter 14: Team Leadership
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Slide #2.

Overview  Team Leadership Perspective  Team Leadership Model  Team Effectiveness  Leadership Decisions  Leadership Actions  How Does the Team Leadership Model Work? Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #3.

Descriptions and Perspectives  Team  Group of organizational members who are interdependent, share common goals, and coordinate activities to accomplish those goals  Can meet face-to-face or be virtual  “Team-based and technology enabled” = newer organizational structures  Outcomes of Effective Teams      Greater productivity More effective use of resources Better decisions and problem solving Better-quality products and services Greater innovation and creativity (Parker, 1990) Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #4.

Descriptions and Perspectives  Organizational culture needs to support employee involvement  Heterarchy: fluid power shifting in teams  Team leadership is process oriented  How do teams develop critical capabilities?  How do team leaders adjust to contingencies as they arise?  How do leader actions promote task and interpersonal development?  Shared or Distributed Leadership  When members of the team take on leadership behaviors to influence the team and maximize team effectiveness Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #5.

Team Leadership Model  Model provides leader or designated team member with a mental model to help  Diagnose team problems, and  Take appropriate action to correct team problems  Effective team performance begins with leader’s mental model of the situation  Mental model reflects  Components of the problem  Environmental & organizational contingencies Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #7.

Team Effectiveness
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Slide #8.

Team Effectiveness  Clear, Elevating Goal  Clear so that one can tell whether performance objective has been met  Motivating or involving so that members believe it is worthwhile and important  Results-Driven Structure  Need to find the best structure to achieve goals • • • • Clear team member roles Good communication system Methods to assess individual performance An emphasis on fact-based judgments Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #9.

Team Effectiveness  Core Competencies  Ability to do the job well  Problem-solving ability  Competent Team Members  Components • Right number and mix of members Members must be provided •   • • Sufficient information Education and training Requisite technical skills Interpersonal & teamwork skills  Team Factors • • • • Openness Supportiveness Action orientation Positive personal style Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #10.

Team Effectiveness       Unified Commitment Teams need a carefully designed and developed sense of unity or identification (team spirit) Collaborative Climate Trust based on openness, honesty, consistency, and respect Integration of individual actions Teams contribute to collective success by      Coordinating individual contributions Team leaders making communication safe Team leaders demanding and rewarding collaborative behavior Team leaders guiding the team’s problem-solving efforts Team leaders managing their own control needs Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #11.

Team Effectiveness  Standards of Excellence  Regulated Performance  Facilitates task completion and coordinated action  Stimulates a positive pressure for members to perform at highest levels  How Accomplished  Requiring results (clear expectations)  Reviewing results (feedback/resolve issues)  Rewarding results (acknowledge superior performance) Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #12.

Team Effectiveness  External Support and Recognition  Regulated Performance  Teams supported by external resources are  Given the material resources needed to do their jobs  Recognized for team accomplishments  Rewarded by tying those rewards to team members’ performance, not individual achievement Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #13.

Team Effectiveness  Principled Leadership influences team effectiveness through four sets of processes (Zaccaro et al., 2001)  Cognitive - Facilitates team’s understanding of problems confronting them  Motivational - Helps team become cohesive & capable by setting high performance standards & helping team to achieve them  Affective - Assists team in handling stressful circumstances by providing clear goals, assignments, & strategies  Integrative - Helps coordinate team’s activities through matching member roles, clear performance strategies, feedback, & adapting to environmental changes Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #14.

Leadership Decision 1 Should I Monitor the Team or Take Action?  Leaders can  Diagnose, analyze, or forecast problems (monitoring) or take immediate action to solve a problem  Focus on problems within the group (internal) or which problems need intervention  Make choices about which solutions are the most appropriate  Effective leaders have the ability to determine what interventions are needed, if any, to solve team problems  All members of the team can engage in monitoring  Leaders differ in timing of taking action Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #15.

SOURCE: McGrath’s critical leadership functions as cited in “Leading Groups in Organizations,” by J. R. Hackman and R. E. Walton, 1986, in P. S. Goodman & Associates (Eds.), Designing Effective Work Groups (p. 76). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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Slide #16.

Leadership Decision 2 Should I Intervene to Meet Task or Relational Needs? Maintenance Functions Task  Getting job done  Developing positive climate  Making decisions  Solving interpersonal problems  Solving problems  Satisfying members’ needs  Adapting to change  Developing cohesion  Making plans  Achieving goals Even more challenging in virtual teams Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #17.

Leadership Decision 3 Should I Intervene Internally or Externally?  Leader must  Determine what level of team process needs leadership attention:  Use internal task or relational team dynamics, if • Conflict between group members • Team goals unclear  Use external environmental dynamics, if • Organization not providing proper support to team Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #18.

Leadership Actions  Leadership Functions – performed internally or externally Internal Leadership Actions Task  Goal focusing Structuring for results  Facilitating decision making  Training Maintaining standards External Leadership Actions Relational Environmental  Coaching  Collaborating  Managing conflict  Building commitment  Satisfying needs  Modeling principles  Networking  Advocating  Negotiating support  Buffering  Assessing  Sharing information Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #19.

Internal Task Leadership Actions  Set of skills or actions leader might perform to improve task performance:  Goal focusing (clarifying, gaining agreement)  Structuring for results (planning, visioning, organizing, clarifying roles, delegating)  Facilitating decision making (informing, controlling, coordinating, mediating, synthesizing, issue focusing)  Training team members in task skills (educating, developing)  Maintaining standards of excellence (assessing team and individual performance, confronting inadequate performance) Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #20.

Internal Relational Leadership Actions  Set of actions leader needs to implement to improve team relationships:  Coaching team members in interpersonal skills  Collaborating (including, involving)  Managing conflict and power issues (avoiding confrontation, questioning ideas)  Building commitment and esprit de corps (being optimistic, innovating, envisioning, socializing, rewarding, recognizing)  Satisfying individual member needs (trusting, supporting, advocating)  Modeling ethical and principled practices (fair, consistent, normative) Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #21.

External Environmental Leadership Actions  Set of skills or behaviors leader needs to implement to improve environmental interface with team:  Networking and forming alliances in environment (gather information, increase influence)  Advocating and representing team to environment  Negotiating upward to secure necessary resources, support, and recognition for team  Buffering team members from environmental distractions  Assessing environmental indicators of team’s effectiveness (surveys, evaluations, performance indicators)  Sharing relevant environmental information with team Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #22.

How Does the Team Leadership Approach Work?  Focus of Team Leadership  Strengths  Criticisms  Application Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #23.

Team Leadership  Model provides a cognitive map to identify group needs and offers suggestions on appropriate corrective actions  Model assists leader in making sense of the complexity of groups and provides suggested actions to improve group effectiveness Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #24.

Strengths  Focus on real-life organizational group work; model is useful for teaching  Provides a cognitive guide that assists leaders in designing and maintaining effective teams  Recognizes the changing role of leaders and followers in organizations  Can be used as a tool in group leader selection Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #25.

Criticisms  Model is incomplete. Additional skills might be needed  May not be practical as the model is complex and doesn’t provide easy answers for difficult leader decisions  Fails to consider teams that have distributed leadership, where team members have a range of skills, and where roles may change  More focus required on how to teach and provide skill development in areas of diagnosis and action taking Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Slide #26.

Application  Useful in leader decision making  Can be used as a team diagnostic tool Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.
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