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Chapter 1: Getting Started Presentation based on: "What's a Microcontroller ?" By Andy Lindsay Parallax, Inc Presentation developed by: Martin A. Hebel Southern Illinois University Carbondale College of Applied Sciences and Arts Electronic Systems Technologies 9/02/03 1
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Use and Copyright This presentation supplements "What's a Microcontroller" by Andy Lindsay. (Link to text)  This presentation is not a replacement for the text.  Important concepts of the text are highlighted.  In some cases, additional material has been added to augment the text.  Full program listings are generally not provided in the presentation. Distribution: This presentation may be freely distributed without modifications. Modifications are permitted by schools and organizations for internal use only. Credits, use and copyright slides must remain. 2
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COPYRIGHTS AND TRADEMARKS This documentation is Copyright 2003 by Parallax, Inc. By downloading or obtaining a printed copy of this documentation or software you agree that it is to be used exclusively with Parallax products. Any other uses are not permitted and may represent a violation of Parallax copyrights, legally punishable according to Federal copyright or intellectual property laws. Any duplication of this documentation for commercial uses is expressly prohibited by Parallax, Inc. Check with Parallax for approval prior to duplicating any of our documentation in part or whole for any use. BASIC Stamp is a registered trademark of Parallax, Inc. If you decide to use the name BASIC Stamp on your web page or in printed material, you must state that "BASIC Stamp is a registered trademark of Parallax, Inc." Other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY Parallax, Inc. and Southern Illinois University are not responsible for special, incidental, or consequential damages resulting from any breach of warranty, or under any legal theory, including lost profits, downtime, goodwill, damage to or replacement of equipment or property, or any costs of recovering, reprogramming, or reproducing any data stored in or used with Parallax products. Parallax is also not responsible for any personal damage, including that to life and health, resulting from use of any of our products. You take full responsibility for your BASIC Stamp application, no matter how life threatening it may be. 3
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Uses of Microcontrollers Microcontrollers are 'single chip' computers specifically designed to: Read input devices, such as buttons and sensors. Process data or information. Control output devices, such as lights, displays, motors and speakers. 4
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Embedded Control Microcontrollers are placed in devices, or embedded, for operation and control. Can you name other devices in your life that have embedded control? 5
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The BASIC Stamp 2 The BASIC Stamp 2 embeds a microcontroller, the PIC16C57, on a module to make programming and use very simple, yet very powerful. Additional components on the module provide everything needed to start developing your own control systems. 6
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Module Components Serial Signal Conditioning Conditions voltage signals between PC serial connection (+/- 12V) and BASIC Stamp (5V) for Programming. EEPROM Stores the tokenized PBASIC program. 5V Regulator Regulates voltage to 5V with a supply of 5.5VDC to 15VDC Resonator Sets the speed at which instructions are processed. Interpreter Chip Reads the BASIC program from the EEPROM and executes the instructions. 7
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Module Pins Pin 1: SOUT Pin 24: VIN Transmits serial data during programming and using the DEBUG instruction Un-regulated input voltage (5.5-15V) Pin 2: SIN Receives serial data during programming Reset- LOW to reset Uses the serial DTR line to gain the Stamps attention for programming. P0 Communications Ground (0V). Pins 5-20: Input/Output (I/O) pins P0 through P15 Ground (0V) Pin 22: RES Pin 3: ATN Pin 4: VSS Pin 23: VSS P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 Pin 21: VDD P15 P14 P13 P12 P11 P10 P9 P8 Regulated 5V. 8
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 There are several versions of the BASIC Stamp. The text has been written for the BASIC Stamp 2 (BS2) series of controllers.  Each BASIC Stamp has different features, below are the most popular: Version Memory Speed Additional Features BS2 2K Bytes 500 lines of code 20MHz 4000 instructions/ second 26 Bytes of RAM BS2 OEM 2K Bytes 500 lines of code 20MHz 4000 instructions/ second 26 Bytes of RAM Less expensive, easy to replace components. BS2sx 16K Bytes in 8 2K banks. 4000 lines of code 50MHz 10,000 instructions/ second 26 Bytes of RAM 63 bytes of scratchpad memory BS2p 16K Bytes in 8 2K banks. 4000 lines of code. 20 MHz Turbo I2C, Dallas 1Wire, LCD, polling capabilities. 16 extra I/O on 40 pin version. 24 and 40 pins versions 9
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The Board of Education The Board of Education makes it easy to connect devices, power up and program.5V Battery regulator Wall DC Supply Power On Light Servo Connections Power Header I/O Header Breadboard Serial Programming Port Reset Switch Off/Module Power/Servo Power 10
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Setting up the Board of Education On the Board of Education, turn the 3-position switch to position 0 – Off. Only Rev C of the BOE has a switch. Other boards are powered down by removing power. 11
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Activity #1: Getting the Software The BASIC Stamp is programmed in PBASIC, a version of the popular BASIC programming language. Code is written in the editor and downloaded to the BASIC Stamp. The BASIC Stamp Editor may be downloaded from Parallax's website and installed, or installed directly from the Parallax CD. Be sure to install Version 2 or higher of the editor. 12
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Testing Communications  Open the BASIC Stamp Editor. When first ran, the Editor may ask several questions. Simply click OK.  Use menu option RunIdentify or click the ID Button. 13
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The Identification box should show similar to the following for the COM port you are connected to. All 4 entries should be as above. If not, refer to Appendix E in your text. 14
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Activity #4: Your First Program Enter your first program into the BASIC Stamp Editor. 15
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Save the program as "FirstProgram" 16
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'Running' Your Program Download, or Run your program by clicking the Run button. The DEBUG Window should appear showing your message. 17
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How a Program is Placed on the Module A program is written in the BASIC Stamp Editor.  The program is tokenized, or converted into symbolic format.  Tokenizer The tokenized program is transmitted through the serial cable and stored in EEPROM memory.  The Interpreter Chip reads the program from EEPROM and executes the instructions.  18
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Memory Map  The Memory Map button will open the BASIC Stamp window.  This window shows how program (EEPROM) and variable memory (RAM) is being utilized.  Note that the program is stored in memory from bottom-up. RAM Memory: I/O Control RAM Memory: Variables EEPROM Memory: Program space of tokenized program 19
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Notice that different code appears in different colors. This is a great help in writing correct code! 20
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Commenting Code Commenting is very important for the user to annotate and explain the program.  Comments are lines that start with an apostrophe ( ' ) and appear in green in the editor.  They are not used when tokenizing, nor downloaded to the BASIC Stamp.  After typing an apostrophe, you are free to write anything you like for understanding your program later. 21
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Directives Directives are special instructions to the Editor ensuring the the code is tokenized for the correct PBASIC version and for the correct BASIC Stamp. When starting a new program, be sure to click the buttons to add these directives to your program. 22
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Key Commands - DEBUG & END Controllers are a little like dogs. Dogs only understand special commands such as sit, lay, shake, and so on. In programming only commands understood by the controller can be used. The two commands used in this program were DEBUG and END. While not required, by convention instructions are in upper-case. 23
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Syntax Errors Due to Invalid Commands Notice a properly entered command turns blue. If an instruction is improperly typed, three things will happen: • It will not turn blue. • An error message will appear when ran. • The editor will try to point out the problem area. 24
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This is a form of a syntax error. The editor does not understand the instruction you are using. 25
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Syntax Errors Due to Incorrect Parameters Most commands need to be told what to do.  If you were told to "ADD 1 and 2" you would understand.  If you were told to "ADD Tree and Fish" you would be a little confused!  BASIC Stamp commands are similar, you need to be very specific in telling it what to do and giving it the correct parameters or arguments. 26
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Error messages will vary:  Verify the command is correct.  Verify using Help (discussed soon) that the correct parameters are being used. 27
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The DEBUG Command DEBUG is used to send serial data from the BASIC Stamp back to the computer to be displayed.  While DEBUG can be used in many ways, the simplest is to send back a string (enclosed in double-quotes). DEBUG "Hello World!"  Notice strings appear in red in the editor. 28
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DEBUG Window When a program contains a DEBUG command, the Editor opens the DEBUG Window.  Hello, it's me, your BASIC Stamp! Data is sent back through the serial cable as characters to be viewed. This data is sent very quickly!  The RESET button on board will start the program on your Stamp again.  29
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It can be easy to 'lose' your DEBUG Window. Buttons can be used to view an open window. A DEBUG Window can also be opened manually. Once open, select the COM port. 30
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DEBUG Formatters Formatters are used to display data in a defined manner.  One DEBUG Formatter is DEC which displays the decimal value. DEBUG DEC 7 * 11 Debug Window: 77  What occurs if DEC is left out? DEBUG 7 * 11 Debug Window: M  77 is the numeric code representing the letter M (ASCII Code). 31
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DEBUG Control Characters Control codes may be used with DEBUG to help format your text on the screen. CR inserts a carriage return (starts on the next line) HOME starts text back at the top. CLS clears the Debug Window text. Note that each parameter in DEBUG must be separated by a comma. DEBUG CLS, "Hello World!", CR DEBUG DEC 7*11, CR 32
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The END Command END is used to inform the BASIC Stamp the program is complete. END will also place your BASIC Stamp in a low-power mode to save energy and make your battery last much longer! The BASIC Stamp will stay in lowpower mode until reset or a new program is downloaded. 33
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Activity #5: Getting Help!!! There are numerous commands and numerous ways to use many commands which makes the BASIC Stamp Editor's HELP invaluable. Each command is provided with help for: • Syntax for the command. • Explanation of use. • Example code. 34
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 Braces { } in the parameter list indicate those parts are optional.  Different styles of BASIC Stamps may not use all instructions, or use them slightly differently. A legend is used to signify which BASIC Stamps are being discussed. 36
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BASIC Stamp Manual  The BASIC Stamp Manual is a bound text with full command listing, examples, explanations, and discussion on use.  Click to purchase or download.  This text is also on the Parallax CD.  Click to see other texts 37
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