Slide #1.

Autonomous Mobile Payload Vehicle (AMP-V) GROUP 1 Kamal Ahmad Francesco Buzzetta Joshua Dixon A Workforce Central Florida Funded Project A Mike Felix Mentored Project 1
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Slide #2.

The Problem:  Transporting heavy objects over long distances  Limiting factors ◦ Physical stress ◦ Probability of human injury ◦ Labor costs 2
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Slide #3.

The Goal:  The goal is to reduce the amount of stress on the human body ◦ college students with books and/or electronics ◦ Major corporations utilizing human labor ◦ A passenger traveling in the airport carrying luggage. 3
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Slide #4.

The Solution: To prevent the aforementioned problem, the use of an autonomous traveling assistant will be ideal in order to safely transport the user’s payload in a stress-free manner. This will be accomplished through the use of the AMP-V. AMP-V stands for “Autonomous Mobile Payload Vehicle.” 4
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Slide #5.

Goals and Objectives of AMP-V: Follow the user autonomously  Mobility on various types of terrain  Avoid obstacles in its path  Self-sustaining capability  Transport a payload  5
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Slide #6.

Specifications of the AMP-V Specification Standards Dimension 25 in. x 25 in. x 25 in. Range 18 in. from user Object Detection Anything within 18 in. AMP-V Speed 0 mph - 3 mph Operational Time 1 hr AMP-V Weight ≤ 35 lb Payload Weight ≤ 25 lb Photovoltaic Solar Panel 50 W 6
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Slide #7.

Block Diagram 12 V Battery Charge Controller Photovoltaic Cells Microcontroll er Infrared Transmitter Infrared Receivers Regulators Ultrasonic Sensors Motor Controller 5V Battery 7
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Slide #8.

Mobility Hardware 8
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Slide #9.

Chassis  AMP-V Chassis will consist of a Plexiglas structure and PVC piping ◦ Visibility of circuitry, structure, motors, etc.  Four main sections ◦ Payload Bay ◦ Hardware Bay ◦ Photovoltaic Mounting ◦ Tracks and Sprockets 9
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Slide #10.

Chassis 5 3 3 3 3 1 2 4 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Payload Bay Hardware Bay PV Mounting Tracks/Sprockets PV Cell
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Slide #11.

Motor Controls  The motor controls will consist of a dual H-Bridge configuration ◦ Power MOSFETs handle high current from motors ◦ Combination of NPN transistors used to turn on MOSFET gates  Voltage provided by Microcontroller GPIO pins  Motors set in Parallel in left, right sides ◦ Equal voltage and current pull per side 11
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Slide #12.

Motor Controls Schematic 12
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Slide #13.

Motor Controls Actions Left Forward Left Reverse Left PWM Left Motion Low Low Low Low High High High Low Low High High Low Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High High High Coasting Coasting Coasting Reverse Coasting Forward Coasting Active Braking Right Forward Right Reverse Right PWM Low Low Low Low High High High Low Low High High Low Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High High High Right Motion Coasting Coasting Coasting Reverse Coasting Forward Coasting Active Braking 13
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Slide #14.

Tracks & Sprockets  Tracks ◦ 3 inches wide, about 113 inches  Rubber  Provide high ground clearance  All-terrain  Sprockets ◦ Will be used to define a trapezoid-like shape out of the tracks  Motors  Hub 14
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Slide #15.

Proximity System 15
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Slide #16.

Ultrasonic Sensors  SRF05 Ultrasonic Ranger ◦ 5 V, 4 mA ◦ Total of 4 sensors, one in each cardinal direction  Radial area for pinging ◦ Trigger and Echo pin ◦ Returns a positive TTL level signal  width proportional to distance of the object 16
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Slide #17.

Object Detection  Sensors can detect up to 5 meters ◦ beam width of ±55° perpendicular to the surface  Only interested in objects ≥ 6 in. and ≤ 18 in. ◦ Threshold of 18 in.  AMP-V will maintain a 18 in. distance from the user  AMP-V will initiate collision avoidance 17
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Slide #18.

Collision Avoidance  Maneuvers conducted by the AMP-V to avoid collisions ◦ The AMP-V’s control systems will decide necessary movement  Decision making ◦ Execute movements by sending the appropriate signals to the motor controls 18
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Slide #19.

Tracking System 19
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Slide #20.

Tracking System  Infrared technology ◦ IR transmitter  Independent device ◦ 4 IR receivers mounted at front of the AMP-V  Determines orientation of AMP-V in relation to the transmitter 20
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Slide #21.

IR Transmitter  5V energy source required ◦ Four 1.5 V Batteries  IR oscillator circuit ◦ 555 Timer: ICM7555 IR LED: TSAL6200  Circuit allows for IR LED to toggle on and off at 38 kHz frequency  ◦ IR receivers will detect the 38 kHz IR wave ‘blinking’ and output it to MCU 21
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Slide #22.

IR Transmitter Schematic 22
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Slide #23.

IR Receiver  IR Receiver Module ◦ Vishay TSOP34838 ◦ 38 kHz Infrared Measuring Sensor ◦ 4 IR receivers mounted at front left and front right of the AMP-V  Analog output ◦ Read from detection angle of the Receiver 23
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Slide #24.

IR Receiver Schematic 24
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Slide #25.

Microcontroller 25
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Slide #26.

Microcontroller Choices MSP430G22 MSP430FR573 ATmega16 PIC24FJ256GB1 31 9 8 06   Voltage GPIO Timers ADC Flash(kB ) Languag e Price 3.3V 10 1 8 3.3V 32 5 12 5V 14 3 6 3.6V 52 5 15 2 16 16 256 C Wiring $ 29.99 $ 30.00 C $ 59.98 C $ 4.30 26
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Slide #27.

Microcontroller  MSP-EXP430FR5739 ◦ 24MHz ◦ 2.0V - 3.6V 560uA  Low power consumption ◦ 32 I/O  12 10-Bit ADC I/O  Pins for devices: ◦ Ultrasonic sensors – 8 GPIO - I/O ◦ Infrared receivers – 4 ADC - I ◦ H-bridges – 6 GPIO - O 27
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Slide #28.

Software  Clocking ◦ Timers   Interrupts Sensors Interfacing ◦ Object Detection algorithms  Infrared Receiver Interfacing ◦ Tracking algorithms  Motor Control ◦ Movement & turning logistics ◦ Collision Avoidance algorithms  PWM 28
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Slide #29.

Functions          void ConfigClocks(void); void IR_Receivers(void); void IR_Read(void); void Ultrasonic_Sensor_N(void); void Ultrasonic_Sensor_S(void); void Ultrasonic_Sensor_E(void); void Ultrasonic_Sensor_W(void); void Accelerate(void); void Decelerate(void);         void Calculate(void); void Turn(int time, int direction); void SetPWM(int value); void Rotate(void); void Collision_Avoidance(); void Stop(); void Wait(); int get_pin(int byte); 29
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Slide #30.

Software Flowchart Clock Configuration s & Pin SetUp Turn On Read IR Receivers Yes Turn? No Rotate Decelerate Yes Turn Rotate ? Ultrasonic Sensing No Collision Avoidance Wait Accelerate 30
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Slide #31.

MCU PCB Board 31
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Slide #32.

Self-sustainability 32
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Slide #33.

Photovoltaic Cells Solar Panel Voc Imax Dimensions Weigh t Cost Monocrystallin e 21.6 V 3.26 A 24.00 in. x 16.57 in. x 1.25 in. 8.8 lb $139.99 Polycrystalline 21.6 V 3.2 A 73 in. x 53 in. x 5 in. 13.2 lb $159.95 Amorphous 20.7 V 3.06 A 33.5 in. x 17.3 in. x 0.098 in. 5.51 lb $294.75 33
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Slide #34.

Monocrystalline Solar Panel Photovoltaic Cell Type: Monocrystalline Output Power: 50 W Maximum/Peak Voltage: 17.1 V Open Circuit Voltage: 21.6 V Maximum/Peak current: 2.98 A 34
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Slide #35.

Monocrystalline Solar Panel 35
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Slide #36.

Monocrystalline Testing Forcast Temperature Voltage Sunny 82-98 degrees 17.1 Volts Cloudy 78-88 degrees 14-16 Volts Rainy 70-88 degrees 1-3 Volts Indoors (Fluorescent) 74-80 degrees 5.76Volts 36
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Slide #37.

Power Distribution 37
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Slide #38.

Power Distribution Diagram 5V Battery Photovoltaic Cells Infrared Transmitter Charge Controller 12 V Battery 3.3V Regulator 5V Regulator Microcontroller Ultrasonic Sensors Motor Controller Infrared Receivers 38
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Slide #39.

Batteries The AMP-V shall use four 12 V batteries  The batteries shall provide sufficient energy to  ◦ 4 Motors ◦ 4 Ultrasonic sensors ◦ 4 Infrared receivers ◦ Microcontroller  The batteries shall be rechargeable and sustain operation of the vehicle for at least one hour 39
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Slide #40.

Battery Requirements Voltage Current   Min Max Photovoltaic Cells 10V 17.1V 2.92A Pmax 50W Battery(4) - 3800mAh 12V 14.5V <10A 45.6W Motor (4) 6V 12V 1.5A 9W 18W IR Receiver (4) 2.5V 5.5V 3mA 0.04W 0.06W 5.0V 4mA 0.02W 0.02W Ultrasonic Sensor(4)   Power Pmin MCU 1.8V 3.6V 560uA 1.01uW 2.02mW Accelerometer 1.8V 3.6V 350uA 0.64mW 1.33mW TOTAL              36.08W   72.08 W   (including all items) 40
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Slide #41.

Battery Specifications Function Nickel Metal hydride (NiMH) Nickel Cadmium (NiCad) Lithium Ion (Liion) Rechargeable Alkaline (R-A) Voltage 1.25 1.25 1.75 1.5 Charge Capacity 3800 mAh 700 mAh 400 mAh 3000 mAh Safety Needs No No No Yes Recharge Cycles 100’s 100’s >500 10’s Charge Rate 1.8 – 3.8 A ~2A 400 mA N/A Continuous Use Performanc e Good Good Good Poor Weight Light Medium Light Heavy Cost Low Medium High High 41
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Slide #42.

Battery   Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) 12VDC 3800 mAh ◦ 4 in parallel      Discharge rate: 3.8 A – 4.2 A Charge rate: 1.8 A – 3.8 A 1.3 lb 3.3 in. x 1.3 in. x  2.6 in. Charge Time of four Batteries in parallel from solar panel: Approximately 00.55.00 minutes[Sunny Condition] 42
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Slide #43.

Voltage & Charge Regulator  2 Voltage Regulators ◦ 5 VDC – IR Receiver and Ultrasonic Sensors ◦ 3.3 VDC – MCU  1 Charge Controller ◦ 50W Solar Panel to 12VDC Battery 43
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Slide #44.

5 VDC Voltage Regulator Powering IR Receivers and Ultrasonic Sensors PT6653  Integrated Switching Regulator  Input Voltage = 9 – 28 V  Output Voltage = 5 V  Output Current = 5 A  Simple Implementation (2 capacitors)  44
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Slide #45.

5 VDC Voltage Regulator Schematic 45
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Slide #46.

3.3 VDC Voltage Regulator Powering MCU PT6651  Integrated Switching Regulator  Input Voltage = 9 – 28 V  Output Voltage = 3.36V  Output Current = 5A  Simple Implementation (2 capacitors)  46
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Slide #47.

3.3 VDC Voltage Regulator Powering MCU 47
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Slide #48.

Charge Controller o o Provides max current of 2.92A Charges four 12Vdc batteries in parallel in approximately 45-55minutes Forcast Temperat ure Voltage Current of from solar charge Panel controller Sunny 8890Degrees 17.1Volts 2.98A Cloudy 7088Degrees 12V-16V 1.07-2.45A Rainy 7080Degrees 1-3V .5-.75A 48
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Slide #49.

Charge Controller 49
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Slide #50.

Administrative Information 50
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Slide #51.

Budget & Financing Part Type Ultrasonic Sensor Photovoltaic Cells Microcontroller Battery Motors Tracks Track Sprockets Charge Controller Parts Connectors Wire Power Converter Passive Hub Extender Hub - motor to sprocket Total Cost $ 121.56 $ 149.99 $ 17.20 $ 159.80 $ 87.80 $ 233.70 $ 79.60 $ 25.00 $ 50.00 $ 20.00 $ 20.00 $ 59.80 $ 16.00 Part Type Track Fasteners Motor Mounts Plexiglass Overhead PCB Infrared Receivers Infrared Diodes Accelerometer Aluminum Bar Velcro Aluminum Dowel Heat Sinks   Cost $ 3.95 $ 29.90 $ 174.88 $ 200.00 $ 200.00 $ 75.98 $ 5.00 $ 32.94 $ 7.50 $ 20.00 $ 5.00 $ 1.00 $ 1,796.60 Final Workforce Central Florida Budgeting $1,927.98 $131.38 under budget 51
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Slide #52.

Work Distribution 100 80 60 40 20 0 Joshua Francesco Kamal 52
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Slide #53.

END 53
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