850 hPa Chart Image from http://www.spc.noaa.gov/obswx/maps/ Slideshow and powerpoint viewer: 700 hPa Chart Image from http://www.spc.noaa.gov/obswx/maps/ Green Bay, WI Sounding Image from ht

Q-G Omega Temperature Advection Term (Note 6 h early offset from the soundings on the previous slides.) forcing for descent forcing for ascent Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html

Q-G Height Tendency Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Moderately strong warm air advection at 700 hPa. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), wind (barbs and shaded; kt), temperature (red contours, °C) Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html

Q-G Height Tendency Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Neutral temperature advection at 300 hPa. Implies: warm air advection decreasing with height… …or forcing for height rises at 500 hPa. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), wind (barbs and shaded; kt), temperature (red contours, °C) Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html

Q-G Omega Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Moderately strong warm air advection at 700 hPa. Implies: forcing for ascent at 700 hPa. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), wind (barbs and shaded; kt), temperature (red contours, °C) Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html

Q-G Omega Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Differential vorticity advection forcing term is near-zero in this example. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), 900-500 hPa thickness (dashed green contours, dam), vorticity advection term (shaded) forcing for descent forcing for ascent Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html

Q-G Omega Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Temperature advection forcing term is strongly positive. Implies: forcing for ascent. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), 900-500 hPa thickness (dashed green contours, dam), temperature advection term (shaded) forcing for descent forcing for ascent Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html

Q-Vector Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Q-vector convergence implies forcing for ascent. Added bonus: Q-vectors point along and in the same direction as temperature gradient, implying (warm) frontogenesis. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), temperature (dashed green contours, °C), Q-vector convergence (shaded) forcing for descent forcing for ascent Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html

Q-Vector Example 1200 UTC 9 Feb 2017 Strong Q-vector convergence -plusfrontogenesis This event was responsible 3-4”/hr snowfall rates with a mesoscale band of snow rooted ~850-700 hPa. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), temperature (dashed green contours, °C), Q-vector convergence (shaded) forcing for descent forcing for ascent Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html