Slide #1.

850 hPa Chart Image from http://www.spc.noaa.gov/obswx/maps/
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Slide #2.

700 hPa Chart Image from http://www.spc.noaa.gov/obswx/maps/
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Slide #3.

Green Bay, WI Sounding Image from http://www.spc.noaa.gov/exper/soundings/
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Slide #4.

Yarmouth, Nova Scotia Sounding Image from http://www.spc.noaa.gov/exper/soundings/
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Slide #5.

Q-G Omega Temperature Advection Term (Note 6 h early offset from the soundings on the previous slides.) forcing for descent forcing for ascent Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #6.

Q-G Height Tendency Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Weak to possibly negative (anticyclonic) absolute vorticity advection. Implies: forcing for height rises at 500 hPa. 500 hPa height (contours, dam), wind (barbs; kt), absolute vorticity (shaded, x10-5 s-1) Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #7.

Q-G Height Tendency Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Moderately strong warm air advection at 700 hPa. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), wind (barbs and shaded; kt), temperature (red contours, °C) Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #8.

Q-G Height Tendency Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Neutral temperature advection at 300 hPa. Implies: warm air advection decreasing with height… …or forcing for height rises at 500 hPa. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), wind (barbs and shaded; kt), temperature (red contours, °C) Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #9.

Q-G Omega Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Moderately strong warm air advection at 700 hPa. Implies: forcing for ascent at 700 hPa. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), wind (barbs and shaded; kt), temperature (red contours, °C) Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #10.

Q-G Omega Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Weak positive (cyclonic) absolute vorticity advection. 1000 hPa height (contours, m), 1000-500 hPa thickness (dashed green contours, dam), absolute vorticity (shaded, x10-5 s-1) Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #11.

Q-G Omega Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Near-zero absolute vorticity advection. Implies: cyclonic absolute vorticity advection that decreases with height… …or forcing for descent at ~700 hPa. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), 900-500 hPa thickness (dashed green contours, dam), relative vorticity (shaded, x10-5 s-1) Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #12.

Q-G Omega Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Differential vorticity advection forcing term is near-zero in this example. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), 900-500 hPa thickness (dashed green contours, dam), vorticity advection term (shaded) forcing for descent forcing for ascent Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #13.

Q-G Omega Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Temperature advection forcing term is strongly positive. Implies: forcing for ascent. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), 900-500 hPa thickness (dashed green contours, dam), temperature advection term (shaded) forcing for descent forcing for ascent Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #14.

Q-Vector Example 0600 UTC 10 Feb 2017 Q-vector convergence implies forcing for ascent. Added bonus: Q-vectors point along and in the same direction as temperature gradient, implying (warm) frontogenesis. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), temperature (dashed green contours, °C), Q-vector convergence (shaded) forcing for descent forcing for ascent Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #15.

Q-Vector Example 1200 UTC 9 Feb 2017 Strong Q-vector convergence -plusfrontogenesis This event was responsible 3-4”/hr snowfall rates with a mesoscale band of snow rooted ~850-700 hPa. 700 hPa height (contours, dam), temperature (dashed green contours, °C), Q-vector convergence (shaded) forcing for descent forcing for ascent Image from http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/~tgalarneau/realtime/diagnostics.html
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Slide #16.

Q-Vector Example: Corresponding Radar Image from College of DuPage via http://www2.mmm.ucar.edu/imagearchive/
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