Entropyage (D)= 5/14 * -[0/5*log(0/5) + 5/5*log(5/5)] + 4/14 * -[2/4*log(2/4) + 2/4*log(2/4)] + 5/14 * -[3/5*log(3/5) + 2/5*log(2/5)] = .6324 bits Entropyincome (D)= 7/14 * -[2/7*log(2/7) + 5/7*log(5/7)] + 4/14 * -[2/4*log(2/4) + 2/4*log(2/4)] + 3/14 * -[1/3*log(1/3) + 2/3*log(2/3)] = .9140 bits Entropyveteran (D)= 3/14 * -[2/3*log(2/3) + 1/3*log(1/3)] + 11/14 * -[3/11*log(3/11) + 8/11*log(8/11)] = .8609 bits Entropycollege_educated (D)= 8/14 * -[6/8*log(6/8) + 2/8*log(2/8)] + 6/14 * -[3/6*log(3/6) + 3/6*log(3/6)] = .8921 bits
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Logarithms • In algorithm analysis we often use the notation “log n” without specifying the base Binary logarithm lg n log 2 n Natural logarithm ln n log e n log k n (log n ) k log log n log(log n ) log x y  y log x log xy  log x  log y x log  log x  log y y log a x  log a b log b x CS 477/677 - Lecture 2 a logb x  x logb a 4
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The Product Rule for Logs log 2 64 log 2 4  log 2 16 2  4 6 log 2 14 log 2 (2 7) log 2 2  log 2 7 1  log 2 7 log 100 x log 100  log x 2  log x log 5 125 yz log 5 125  log 5 y  log 5 z9.43  log 5 y  log 5 z 3
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Theorem: log(n!)(nlogn) Case 1 nlogn  O(log(n!)) log(n!) = log(n*(n-1)*(n-2) * * * 3*2*1) = log(n*(n-1)*(n-2)**n/2*(n/2-1)* * 2*1 => log(n/2*n/2* * * n/2*1 *1*1* * * 1) = log(n/2)n/2 = n/2 log n/2  O(nlogn) Case 2 log(n!)  O(nlogn) log(n!) = logn + log(n-1) + log(n-2) + . . . Log(2) + log(1) < log n + log n + log n . . . + log n = nlogn
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Theorem: log(n!)(nlogn) Case 1 nlogn  O(log(n!)) log(n!) = log(n*(n-1)*(n-2) * * * 3*2*1) = log(n*(n-1)*(n-2)**n/2*(n/2-1)* * 2*1 => log(n/2*n/2* * * n/2*1 *1*1* * * 1) = log(n/2)n/2 = n/2 log n/2  O(nlogn) Case 2 log(n!)  O(nlogn) log(n!) = logn + log(n-1) + log(n-2) + . . . Log(2) + log(1) < log n + log n + log n . . . + log n = nlogn
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Redo Log Files • Purpose: - store changes made to the database as a result of transaction and internal Oracle activities. • Characteristics: 1. By default, an Oracle 10g database contains three redo log groups, REDO01.log, REDO02.log and REDO03.log 2. Every Oracle 10g database must have at least two redo log groups 3. The database will write log entries to a subsequent redo log group when the previous redo log group fills up 4. As a general rule , there should be one redo log group for approximately every four database users that create action queries 5. Oracle 10g keeps track of the Redo Log file by using a redo log sequence number, this number is recorded inside the file as they are used 6. The redo log sequence number is different than the operating system file name that is used to identify the physical file 7. If the database is in ARCHIVELOG mode full Redo Log files are copied to Archive Log files before they are reused, otherwise they are written over 8. Have a .log suffix CSE 781 – Database Management Systems 17
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Katz Fractal Dimension Dimension = log(sum of lengths)/log(largest distance from the first point) double katz(double[] x) { int N = x.length; if (N<=1) return 0; • L = ∑ xi – xi-1 (sums adjacent lengths) • max, min = from first point • Katz normalizes log(L)/log(D)) to use log(L/d)/log(D/d) • Final formula double L=0, diff=0, D=0; for (int i=1; i D) D = diff; log(N-1) / (log(D/m) + log(N-1)) } • Notes double log = Math.log10(N-1); – N-1 because there are N-1 intervals return (d==0)?0:log/(Math.log10(d/L) with a signal of N points +log); – L / d = L / (L/(N-1)) = N-1 }
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KATZ FRACTAL DIMENSION Dimension = log(sum of lengths)/log(largest distance from the first point) double katz(double[] x) { int N = x.length; if (N<=1) return 0; L = ∑ xi – xi-1 (sums adjacent lengths) • max, min = from first point double L=0, diff=0, D=0; • Katz normalizes log(L)/log(D)) to for (int i=1; i D) D = diff; log(N-1) / (log(D/m) + log(N-1)) } • Notes double log = Math.log10(N-1); – N-1 because there are N-1 intervals return (d==0)?0:log/ with a signal of N points (Math.log10(d/L)+log); – L / d = L / (L/(N-1)) = N-1 }
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Share your desktop or an open program During the meeting, you can share your desktop, or one or more open programs. 1. Point to . • To share your desktop, click Desktop. The meeting stage displays You are currently sharing Desktop, and the desktop is outlined in yellow. • To share a program, click Program and in the Present Programs dialog box, click the program you want and then click Share. Manage meeting participants Click 2. During a sharing session, a sharing toolbar is displayed at to access the options to manage participants. The the top of your screen. You can PARTICIPANTS tab displays the participant list. hide or unhide it by clicking the 1. pin icon. If you’re a presenter, you can manage participant privileges. Right-click a participant and select Mute, Unmute, Remove or 2. another participant. You can take back control at any time by You can invite additional participants during a meeting. Click clicking GIVE CONTROL, and then Take Back Control. • To invite using their phone number, click Invite by Phone Number. • To invite via email, click Invite by Email. 4. Click GIVE CONTROL to share control of your sharing session with Make an Attendee. ACTIONS. 3. 3. 4. To end the sharing session, click Stop Presenting on the toolbar. Share a PowerPoint presentation 1. Point to . 2. Click PowerPoint. In the Select the PowerPoint you want to To hide participant names in videos or pictures, click Hide present dialog box, click Browse to select and open the People’s Names. presentation to share. To mute all the participants simultaneously, click Mute Audience. 3. Move through the slides by using the arrows below the meeting stage. Click THUMBNAILS to select a specific slide, and NOTES to see presenter notes. 4. Click on the upper right corner of a slide to display the annotation toolbar, to use tools such as highlighters, stamps, and laser pointer. 5. The presentation can have embedded hyperlinks. Before you click
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Using the Properties Together x3 logb logb x 3  logb yz 3 logb x  logb y  logb z yz 1 4 log a 4 xy 1  xy  log a  3   (log a x  log a y  3 log a z ) 3 z 4 z  1 2 1 x z z x log a x  7 log a y  log a z log a 7 log a 7 2 y y b  b  log a  log a bx  log a  bx   log a b b  log a b x  x 9.4 3 2 6
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Identical machines (load of a job is identical on all machines) Unrelated machines (load of a job on a machine is arbitrary) Related machines (load of a job on a machine is inverse of machine speed) Homogeneous Makespan minimization p-norm minimization Θ(log d/log log d) Θ((log d/log log d)1-1/p) [Im-Kell-Kulkarni-P., FOCS ’15] [Azar-Cohen-P., SODA ’18] [Im-Kell-Kulkarni-P., FOCS ’15] Θ(log d + log m) Θ(log d + p) [Myerson-Roytman-Tagiku, APPROX ’13] [Im-Kell-Kulkarni-P., FOCS ’15] [Im-Kell-Kulkarni-P., FOCS ’15] Θ(log d/log log d) ? [Im-Kell-P.-Shadloo, STOC ’18] Heterogeneous Θ(log d + log m) Θ(log d + p) [Im-Kell-P.-Shadloo, STOC ’18] [Im-Kell-P.-Shadloo, STOC ’18] Online Vector Scheduling 64
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Identical machines (load of a job is identical on all machines) Unrelated machines (load of a job on a machine is arbitrary) Related machines (load of a job on a machine is inverse of machine speed) Homogeneous Heterogeneous Makespan minimization p-norm minimization Θ(log d/log log d) Θ((log d/log log d)1-1/p) [Im-Kell-Kulkarni-P., FOCS ’15] [Azar-Cohen-P., SODA ’18] [Im-Kell-Kulkarni-P., FOCS ’15] Θ(log d + log m) Θ(log d + p) [Myerson-Roytman-Tagiku, APPROX ’13] [Im-Kell-Kulkarni-P., FOCS ’15] [Im-Kell-Kulkarni-P., FOCS ’15] Θ(log d/log log d) O(log3 d) [Im-Kell-P.-Shadloo, STOC ’18] [Im-Kell-P.-Shadloo, STOC ’18] Θ(log d + log m) Θ(log d + p) [Im-Kell-P.-Shadloo, STOC ’18] [Im-Kell-P.-Shadloo, STOC ’18] Online Vector Scheduling 67
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Importance • In onCreate, add – Context context = this.getApplicationContext(); – ActivityManager mgr = (ActivityManager)context.getSystemService(ACTIVITY_SERVICE); – List processes = mgr.getRunningAppProcesses(); – Log.e("DEBUG", "importance:"); – for(Iterator i = processes.iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) –{ – RunningAppProcessInfo p = (RunningAppProcessInfo)i.next(); – – Log.e("DEBUG", " process name: "+p.processName); – Log.e("DEBUG", " importance value: "+p.importance); – switch (p.importance) { – case ActivityManager.RunningAppProcessInfo.IMPORTANCE_FOREGROUND: Log.e("DEBUG"," is IMPORTANCE_FOREGROUND"); break; – case ActivityManager.RunningAppProcessInfo.IMPORTANCE_VISIBLE: Log.e("DEBUG"," is IMPORTANCE_VISIBLE"); break; – case ActivityManager.RunningAppProcessInfo.IMPORTANCE_SERVICE: Log.e("DEBUG"," is IMPORTANCE_SERVICE"); break; – case ActivityManager.RunningAppProcessInfo.IMPORTANCE_BACKGROUND: Log.e("DEBUG"," is IMPORTANCE_BACKGROUND"); break; – case ActivityManager.RunningAppProcessInfo.IMPORTANCE_EMPTY: Log.e("DEBUG"," is IMPORTANCE_EMPTY"); break; – default: Log.e("DEBUG"," should not happend"); break; – } – – Log.e("DEBUG", " importance reason code: "+p.importanceReasonCode); – switch (p.importanceReasonCode) { – case ActivityManager.RunningAppProcessInfo.REASON_PROVIDER_IN_USE : Log.e("DEBUG"," is REASON_PROVIDER_IN_USE "); break; – case ActivityManager.RunningAppProcessInfo.REASON_SERVICE_IN_USE : Log.e("DEBUG"," is REASON_SERVICE_IN_USE "); break; – case ActivityManager.RunningAppProcessInfo.REASON_UNKNOWN : Log.e("DEBUG"," is REASON_UNKNOWN "); break; – default : Log.e("DEBUG"," should not happen "); break; – } – Log.e("DEBUG", " fine grain importance: "+p.lru); –}
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• Collecting memory usage In onCreate, add – Context context = this.getApplicationContext(); – ActivityManager mgr = (ActivityManager)context.getSystemService(Context.ACTIVITY_SERVICE); – List processes = mgr.getRunningAppProcesses(); – Log.e("DEBUG", "Running processes:"); – for(Iterator i = processes.iterator(); i.hasNext(); ) – { • RunningAppProcessInfo p = (RunningAppProcessInfo)i.next(); • Log.e("DEBUG", " process name: "+p.processName); • Log.e("DEBUG", " pid: "+p.pid); // process id • int[] pids = new int[1]; • pids[0] = p.pid; • android.os.Debug.MemoryInfo[] MI = mgr.getProcessMemoryInfo(pids); • Log.e("memory"," dalvik private: " + MI[0].dalvikPrivateDirty); • Log.e("memory"," dalvik shared: " + MI[0].dalvikSharedDirty); • Log.e("memory"," dalvik pss: " + MI[0].dalvikPss); • Log.e("memory"," native private: " + MI[0].nativePrivateDirty); • Log.e("memory"," native shared: " + MI[0].nativeSharedDirty); • Log.e("memory"," native pss: " + MI[0].nativePss); • Log.e("memory"," other private: " + MI[0].otherPrivateDirty); • Log.e("memory"," other shared: " + MI[0].otherSharedDirty); • Log.e("memory"," other pss: " + MI[0].otherPss); • • • • • – run } Log.e("memory"," Log.e("memory"," Log.e("memory"," total private dirty memory (KB): " + MI[0].getTotalPrivateDirty()); total shared (KB): " + MI[0].getTotalSharedDirty()); total pss: " + MI[0].getTotalPss());
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Recording and Play back Lync recording captures audio, video, instant messaging (IM), application sharing, PowerPoint presentations, and whiteboard. 1. Click More options in the meeting, and then click Start Recording. 2. Share your desktop or a program During a Lync Meeting, you can share your desktop, or a specific program. 1. Pause on the presentation (monitor) icon. 2. On the Present tab: • Click Desktop to show the entire content of your desktop. Use the controls at the bottom of the meeting room to pause, resume, • Click Program, and double-click the program you want. or stop the recording. 3. After the recording is stopped, Lync automatically saves it in a format 3. Click Give Control on the sharing toolbar at the top of the screen to share control of your sharing session with another participant. 4. You can take control back at any time by clicking Give Control, and then Take back control. 5. When you have finished presenting, click Stop Presenting on the toolbar. that plays in Windows Media Player and Zune. 5. Click Manage Recordings on the More Options menu, and highlight the recording to play, rename or delete. 6. You can also click Browse to go to the location the recording and make a copy of the file to post on a shared location for others to Manage participants view. 1. 2. 3. Pause on the people icon to manage participants individually or as a group. Under the Participants tab, right-click a person’s name and use the options to mute, unmute, remove, etc. Share a PowerPoint presentation 1. Pause on the presentation (monitor) icon. 2. On the Present tab, click PowerPoint, and upload the file in the meeting. 3. To move the slides, click Thumbnails, and click the slide you want to show, or use the arrows at the bottom of the meeting room. 4. To see your presenter notes, click Notes. 5. Click the Annotations button on the upper-right side of the slide to open the toolbar, and then use highlights, stamps, laser pointer, and so on. Click the Actions tab, then: • Invite More People to add participants. • Mute Audience to eliminate background noise. • No Meeting IM to turn off IM • No Attendees Video to block attendees from starting their video. • Hide Names to hide the names on the pictures. • Everyone an Attendee if you have too many presenters. • Invite by email to send email invitations to additional people.
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Recording and Play back Lync recording captures audio, video, instant messaging (IM), application sharing, PowerPoint presentations, and whiteboard. 1. Click More options in the meeting, and then click Start Recording. 2. Share your desktop or a program During a Lync Meeting, you can share your desktop, or a specific program. 1. Pause on the presentation (monitor) icon. 2. On the Present tab: • Click Desktop to show the entire content of your desktop. Use the controls at the bottom of the meeting room to pause, resume, • Click Program, and double-click the program you want. or stop the recording. 3. After the recording is stopped, Lync automatically saves it in a format 3. Click Give Control on the sharing toolbar at the top of the screen to share control of your sharing session with another participant. 4. You can take control back at any time by clicking Give Control, and then Take back control. 5. When you have finished presenting, click Stop Presenting on the toolbar. that plays in Windows Media Player and Zune. 5. Click Manage Recordings on the More Options menu, and highlight the recording to play, rename or delete. 6. You can also click Browse to go to the location the recording and make a copy of the file to post on a shared location for others to Manage participants view. 1. 2. 3. Pause on the people icon to manage participants individually or as a group. Under the Participants tab, right-click a person’s name and use the options to mute, unmute, remove, etc. Share a PowerPoint presentation 1. Pause on the presentation (monitor) icon. 2. On the Present tab, click PowerPoint, and upload the file in the meeting. 3. To move the slides, click Thumbnails, and click the slide you want to show, or use the arrows at the bottom of the meeting room. 4. To see your presenter notes, click Notes. 5. Click the Annotations button on the upper-right side of the slide to open the toolbar, and then use highlights, stamps, laser pointer, and so on. Click the Actions tab, then: • Invite More People to add participants. • Mute Audience to eliminate background noise. • No Attendees Video to block attendees from starting their video. • Hide Names to hide the names on the pictures. • Everyone an Attendee if you have too many presenters. • Invite by email to send email invitations to additional people.
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Need Help? • Live Chat: On the WebAssign Support page • Phone support: (800) 955-8275, and then press 1 • E-mail support: [email protected] See the WebAssign Support page at www.webassign.net/user_support/student/ for Live Chat and support hours.
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Need Help? • Live Chat: On the WebAssign Support page • Phone support: (800) 955-8275, and then press 1 • Email support: [email protected] See the WebAssign Support page at www.webassign.net/user_support/student/ for Live Chat and support hours.
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Asymptotic Running Times of Dijkstra’s Algorithm with different Priority Queues The best worst case and average case time is achieved by Fibonacci Heaps and Pairing Heaps. Type of Heap Worst Case Running Times Expected Running Time Fibonacci heap O(m + n log n) O(m + n log n) Pairing heap O(m + n log n) O(m + n log n) K-ary heap O(m log k n + nk log k n) O(m + n( log (2m /n) + k) log k n) Binary heap O(m log n + n log n) O(m + n log(m/n) log n) List Priority Queue O(m + n2) O(m + n2) Bucket heap O((m + n)n M) O((m + n)n M) Redistribute Heap O(m + n log M) O(m + n log M) Monotone Heaps O(m + max_dist + M) O(m + max_dist + M) (source: Leda Manual)
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Lync 2013 Quick Reference Use audio call controls Pause on the phone/mic button to access the controls: • To put the call on hold, click Hold Call. • Click Mute to mute your audio. • To send the call to another number, click the Transfer Call tab, and choose one of the numbers. • To hang up, click the phone button in the conversation window. Check your voice mail 1. Click the Phone tab. You’ll see your messages and the caller’s info. 2. Pause on a voice mail message and click Play. 3. Click More Options, and select one of the choices, such as: Quick Reference for Set up your audio device 1. Click Select Primary Device on the lower-left corner of Lync, then click Audio Device Settings. 2. Pick your device from the Audio Device menu, and adjust Speakers and Microphone volume. Make a call • Delete Item deletes the voice mail from Lync. Make a Lync call (computer audio) • Mark item as Read • Call the contact. • See Contact Card You can also click View more in Outlook to open the Voice Mail folder for more info. 1. Pause on a contact’s picture. 2. Click the Phone button to call the contact using Lync, or click the arrow next to the Phone button and select a number. Call using the dial pad 3. Click the Phone icon in Lync. 4. Click the numbers on the dial pad or type the number in the search box, then click Call. Lync calls the number just like a © 2012 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Voice Before using Lync to make a call or join a conference, set up your audio device and check the quality. You can use your computer’s mic and speakers, or plug in a headset. • Open Item in Outlook provides more information about the call. • Start a Video Call with the contact. 4. Audio regular phone.
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Viewing Logs in Mac OS X (Continued) Log Name Location and Filename Description FTP Service Log /var/log/ftp.log Contains information about FTP activity, including sessions, uploads, downloads, etc. Last.Login Log /var/log/lastlog Provides information about last login activities Directory Service Log /var/log/lookupd.log Provides log of lookupd (look up directory services) daemon, including requests relating to user accounts, printers, and Internet resources Mail.Service Log /var/log/mail.log Guide to Operating System Security Stores messages about e-mail activities 30
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