The Most Important Policies Every Student Must Know! The “I” - Incomplete Grade policy It is the week before finals and things have been going well for you. Your health has been good, your family supportive, your job not too demanding, and your classes exciting and interesting. Then the phone rings: your grandmother has just died and you have to plan the funeral and take care of the estate or your boss is sending you to Denver to meet with important clients for the next two weeks or you are in an automobile accident. What do you do? Fortunately, you have planned ahead and the most of your assignments are finished. Whew! You think you can be back in time for your final exams. But there is one research paper you just haven’t been able to finish. Obviously you won’t be able to turn in by the deadline… back | home | next
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Entrepreneurship: is it good enough to be social? John F. McVea and Michael J. Naughton Introduction • The term Social Entrepreneurship has experienced a huge growth in influence over that last decade. The literature proposes a number of advantages to social entrepreneurship as a frame of reference: • Promoting innovation within non-profits • Leveraging and focusing scarce philanthropic resources • Faster response to strategic challenges • Infusion of business skills to non-business world • Involvement of non government assets in social problems • Creation of hybrid (blurred) organizations between for profit and non profit worlds. It is widely observed that practice has outpaced theoretical development leading to little agreement on definitions or frameworks for social entrepreneurship. We believe that widespread and unchallenged acceptance of the term Social Entrepreneurship masks some dangers and has contributed to confusion in the field. We believe that if we apply some insights from Catholic Social Teaching to the issue of social entrepreneurship we can move beyond the false dichotomy of Entrepreneurship/ Social Entrepreneurship and identify three specific entrepreneurial strategies which support a more robust discussion of the nature of the work that is entrepreneurship. We believe that the field would benefit from spending less time discussing social entrepreneurship and more time discussion the nature of the good entrepreneur. • • • • • The dangers of naïve acceptance of Social Entrepreneurship • • • The rhetorical risk: • Narrow definition: if S.E. is simply used to rebrand non-profits then much of the value of the new activities, hybrid design, stimulation of new resources and innovation is lost. • Implied dichotomy: if “good” ventures are termed “social” it can imply that other forms of entrepreneurship are “asocial” or “anti social” • Boundarylessness: In contrast, if all business activities are deemed “social”, to some degree or other, then the term loses all meaning focus on the distinctive phenomenon that is S.E. Despite these risks we are more concerned with a risk beyond rhetoric; the risk of undermining the meaning of work, particularly from the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching. While this perspective is drawn from the Catholic tradition, accepting the content of CST does not require acceptance of Catholic faith (Guitan, 2009). The three goods of social entrepreneurship • We are concerned by the side-effects of a concentration thesis that suggests that the moral responsibilities of entrepreneurship can be concentrated in a subset of businesses called social enterprises, presumably leaving other enterprise to simply concentrate on serving themselves. • We are concerned by the impact such a concentration thesis could have on the conception of the meaning of work beyond the world of social enterprise. • We are concerned with how such an approach can focus attention solely on the altruistic contributions of entrepreneurial ventures as the sole measure of their contribution to the Common Good • Instead we propose that, rather than trying to determine the difference between entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, it would be more productive to focus on the questions “What is Good Entrepreneurship? What action and activities define that goodness?” • We further propose that, by apply the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching, we can identify three specific strategies through which entrepreneurial ventures may contribute to the Common Good thus suggesting that good entrepreneurship requires a focus on: 1. Good Goods. The primary way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is by bringing into existence new products and services which are inherently good and which enrich lives and minimize any unintended harms. This can include what we call the “entrepreneurship of the mundane”, that is, the manufacture of the nuts and bolts and basic necessities of life as well as the creation of life saving treatments. However, inclusion of good goods as a primary moral contribution of entrepreneurship must also require of the entrepreneur analysis of what goods are not good, and what aspects of even good goods should be redesigned or rethought in order to minimize unintended consequences. We find, in our discussions, that this is a much under appreciated dimension of the good of entrepreneurship. 2. Good Work. The second way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is through the nature of the work that is carried out by the venture. This dimension has several aspects both internal and external to the entrepreneur: • The development of good character in the entrepreneur. This aspect of the good is derived from the subjective dimension of work, that is, just as how-we-work ends up changing the world, so working-on-the-world changes us. Most professionals spend the majority of their waking hours at work. As habits, character and wisdom are developed through experience and activity, for the entrepreneur, doing good work is an important opportunity to develop character. Society as a whole is better off for having good, successful entrepreneurial leaders who, through that calling, can become leaders of character. This dimension of the entrepreneurial good is widely unappreciated even by entrepreneurs themselves • Good relations with employees, customers and other stakeholders. Value creation and trade creates opportunities for the building of social relationships. The central question is “Are you in good relation with those with whom you create value?’ Do your employees have opportunity to develop as people? 3. Good Wealth. The third way the good entrepreneur can contribute to the Common Good is through the creation of good wealth. Good wealth requires a balance of reward for labor/ creativity with the provision of a living wage to all. Good wealth is often captured by individual action but has social strings attached. From the CST perspective the creation of good wealth implies a particular solidarity with the poor. One way to contribute to the common good is to donate altruistically to those in need. But even here, altruism is only one of a number of possible strategies. Good entrepreneurs may also contribute by donating their time or their particular skills. Indeed, since the donation of time and work often requires physical interaction with those in need, it often generates a solidarity of far greater integrity. Finally, it must be emphasized that altruism, for the entrepreneur, is always dependent, indeed subsequent to the creation of good wealth in the first place. Literature cited Alvord, Sarah, David L. Brown, and Christine W. Letts, 2004. “Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 40:260. Benedict XVI, Caritas et veritate,   Boschee, Jerr. 1998 “What does it take to be a social entrepreneur?” National Centre for Social Entrepreneurs (www.socialentrepreneurs.org/whatdoes/html), 5pp.   Cannon, Carl. 2000. “Charity for profit: how the new social entrepreneurs are creating good by sharing wealth” National Journal, June 16: 1898-1904.   Christie, Michael and Benson Honig. 2006. “Social entrepreneurship: New research findings.” Journal of World Business. 41: 1-5.   Dees, Gregory, J., 1998. “The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship,’” Original Draft: 10/3.   Drucker, P.F. 1985. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper & Row.   Fowler, Alan. “NGDOs as a moment in history: beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation?” Third World Quarterly, 21(4): 637-654.   Gregg, S. and G. Preece: 1999, Christianity and Entrepreneurship (The Centre for Independent Studies Limited, St. Leonards, NSW, Australia).   Hibbert, Sally A., Gillian Hogg and Theresa Quinn. “Consumer response to social entrepreneurship: The case of the Big Issue in Scotland.” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 7(3): 288-301.   Johnson, Sherrill, 2000. “Literature Review on Social Entrepreneurship,” Canadian Center for social Entrepreneurship. (http://www.bus.ualberta.ca/ccse/Publications/).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Laborem Exercens (On Human Work): 1981, in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (On Social Concern): 1987 in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   Kennedy, R., G, Atkinson, and M. Naughton, (eds.): 1994, Dignity of Work: John Paul II Speaks To Managers and Workers (University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland).   Mair, Johanna and Ernesto Noboa, 2003. “Social Entrepreneurship: How Intentions to Create a Social Enterprise get Formed,” IESE Business School.   Mair, Johanna and Ignasi Marti, 2006. “Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight,” Journal of World Business. 41: 36-44.   Melé, D.:2001, ‘A Challenge for Business Enterprises: Introducing the Primacy of the Subjective Meaning of Work in Work Organization’, (http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/mgmt/le/papers/mele.htm) Conclusions We have argued that, while there is great promise in the contemporary social entrepreneurship movement, there are also a number of important dangers. We propose that, if we confront rather than acquiesce to these dangers, we can use the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching to broaden the scope of entrepreneurial ventures that we study, to enrich the moral dimension of entrepreneurial strategy and to deepen the teaching of entrepreneurship as a whole. We recommend the following to move toward these contributions: • Incorporate social entrepreneurship into entrepreneurship in a way that enhances the three goods of entrepreneurship. Specifically we propose replacing the questions “What is social entrepreneurship?” with the questions “What does it mean to be a Good entrepreneur?” From this perspective we can then apply what we have called the three goods of entrepreneurship as a means of supplying critical challenge and inspiration to all forms of entrepreneurship such that the true moral dimension of this critical force in our lives comes into fruition. • Encourage research within the entrepreneurship discipline that addresses traditional social entrepreneurial issues such as micro lending, fair trade products, etc. • Develop bridge courses such as Theo/Cath 306 which help students understand and experience the meaning of the good entrepreneur as well as connect students to the spiritual and moral principles of a good entrepreneur. • Expose entrepreneurship students to so-called social entrepreneurs as well so-called conventional good entrepreneurs so they can see the spectrum of entrepreneurial activities. © File copyright Colin Purrington. You may use for making your poster, of course, but please do not plagiarize, adapt, or put on your own site. Also, do not upload this file, even if modified, to third-party file-sharing sites such as doctoc.com. If you have insatiable need to post a template onto your own site, search the internet for a different template to steal. File downloaded from http://colinpurrington.com/tips/ academic/posterdesign. Acknowledgments I am indebted to Michael Naughton and Laura Dunham for their reflections and thoughts on this paper.
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UMMSM CURRICULUM (MD) (5 weeks) P B L Epi 2 Fdn Onc Nov/Dec Renal System (5 weeks) Doctoring GI & Nutritio n Sept/Oct P B L (5 weeks) Patient Safety Transitio n to Wards Core Clerkships (8, 6 or 4 weeks)  Feb Mar Apr P B L Endocri ne & Repro System Hem e -Onc (4 Weeks) (5 weeks) Doctoring IV  Core Clerkships (8, 6 or 4 weeks) OSCEs Required Clerkship/Electives Required Clerkship/Electives Graduation May Winter Break June Year 4 an ( 8 weeks) June Winter Break Year 3 Orientation June J Respiratory System Doctoring III  Orientation Year 2 (2 weeks) Aug Doctoring II Neuroscie nce & Behavior al Science May P B L  Competency Assessment Week USMLE Preparation Doctoring I  B L Spring Break (8 weeks) June P PB L Vacation (4 weeks) B L Apr/May Cellul Cardioar vascular System Functi (8 weeks) on & Epidemiolog Reguy lation (concurrent (4 CVS) weeks) w/ Competency Assessment Week (8 weeks) P PB L Spring Break Molecu lar Basis of Life Human Struct ure Host Defens es Pathog en & Patholo gy Feb/Mar (4 weeks) Jan CBL Inflam/DI Nov Competenc y Oct Winter Break Orientation Year 1 Orientation DermOphtho Doctoring Courses • Clinical Skills • Communication Skills • Health Informatics & Info • Ethics/ Professionalism • Geriatrics/Pallia tive/ Pain • Population Health Problem • Special Based Learning Populations • Patient & Infection Safety/QI Inflammation • Rheumatology Systems Based • Infectious Care Diseases Organ System Modules  Core Modules  Aug Winter Break • Embryology • Histology • Gross Anatomy • Medical Genetics • Biochemistry • Cell Biology • Cellular Biophysics • Intro to Pharmacology • Immunology • Microbiology • Intro to Pathology Core Clerkships IM 8 weeks Surgery 8 weeks OB/GYN 6 weeks Psychiatry 6 weeks Pediatrics 6 Required weeks clerkship/Electives ElectivesA 6 4 Subinternship weeksweeks GPC Subinternship B 4 4 weeks weeks Family Med 4 Geriatrics 4 weeks weeks EMed 4 weeks Radiology 4 weeks Neurology 4 weeks Anesthesia 2
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Important Legal Information for Adolescents and Parents According to Iowa law, a minor (an individual younger than 18 years) may seek medical care for the following without the permission or knowledge of his parents: • Substance abuse treatment; • Sexually Transmitted Infection(STI) testing and treatment; • HIV testing – if test is positive, Iowa law requires parent notification; • Contraceptive care and counseling, including emergency contraception; and Even though teenagers young • Blood donation if 17and years of age or adults can receive these treatments older. without their parent’s knowledge, it is important to remember parents are a key part of all aspects of your life. We encourage parents and teens to be open and honest with each other when it comes to health care decisions. It is important for teens to know that if they are covered by their parents’ medical insurance and want it to cover their treatment, they will need to consent to their medical records being shared – possibly even with parents. A minor may also consent for evaluation and treatment in a medical emergency or following a sexual assault. However, treatment information can not be kept confidential from parents. Bill of Rights for Teens and Young Adults • The things you tell us in confidence will be kept private. • We will speak and write respectfully about your teen and family. • We will honor your privacy. YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO: Emotional Support • Care that respects your teen’s growth and development. • We will consider all of your teen’s interests and needs, not just those related to illness or disability. Respect and Personal Dignity • You are important. We want to get to know you. • We will tell you who we are, and we will call you by your name. We will take time to listen to you. • We will honor your privacy. Care that Supports You and Your Family • All teens are different. We want to learn what is important to you and your family. Information You Can Understand • We will explain things to you. We will speak in ways you can understand. You can ask about what is happening to you and why. Care that Respects Your Need to Grow and Learn • We will consider all your interests and needs, not just those related to your illness or disability. Make Choices and Decisions • Your ideas and feelings about how you want to be cared for are important. • You can tell us how we can help you feel more comfortable. • You can tell us how you want to take part in your care. • You can make choices whenever possible like when and where you YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO: receive your treatments. Bill of Rights for Parents Respect and Personal Dignity • You and your teen will be treated with courtesy and respect. Make Decisions About Your Teen’s Care • We will work in partnership with you and your teen to make decisions about his care. • You can ask for a second opinion from another healthcare provider. Family Responsibilities YOU HAVE THE RESPONSIBILITY TO: Provide Information • You have important information about your teen’s health. We need to know about symptoms, treatments, medicines, and other illnesses. • You should tell us what you want for your child. It is important for you to tell us how you want to take part in your teen’s care. • You should tell us if you don’t understand something about your teen’s care. • If you are not satisfied with your teen’s care, please tell us. Provide Appropriate Care • You and the other members of the health care team work together to plan your teen’s care. • You are responsible for doing the things you agreed to do in this plan
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A COMMUNITY NEEDS ASSESSMENT OF HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS Melissa Pullman, PhD1, Wendy Zeitlin, PhD2, Charles Auerbach, PhD1 , Kelly Klinger, BA2 Yeshiva University, New York, New York; 2Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 1 Discussion Unclosable Gaps: Two gaps were identified that would be unable to be closed by traditional resources alone, as they deal with structural problems in society-at-large. Congregate care – skilled nursing facilities and/or assisted living could be helpful for some survivors if there could be a community of survivors that could live together AND appropriate services (including home care for those who live in assisted living facilities) existed. Because this population had been traumatized by institutionalization previously, congregate care generally designed for the elderly, is considered undesirable. As such, without specialized services, it is highly desirable for survivors to remain in their homes in situations which differ from those of other elderly. To date, no such facility has been built in the US, and it is anticipated that this is a need that is not feasible to meet. In-home psychiatric care – while numerous research participants indicated that this service is needed, there are an insufficient number of psychiatrists nationwide, and the need for psychiatric care, in general, is growing for all populations. It is not likely that this gap will be closed any time as the number of psychiatrists retiring continues to rise, and the number of residency spots for new psychiatrists is held steady. www.eposterboards.com Discussion (cont.) Existing services: Professional Social Work Services - includes services such as case management, clinical social work, mental health counseling, friendly visiting, financial guardianship, and social programs. In short, social work services include all services that would include direct services provided by licensed social workers and those overseen by licensed social workers. Services such as social work/case management are not adequately funded currently. One participant stated the need for these services clearly: The social worker helps them [survivors] to get hooked up to services they are resistant to or helps them through the barriers. They help them think about what their needs are. It is hard to get through the door and win their trust. On- on-one service is very expensive. Home Care - includes services such as housekeeping, companionship, in-home nursing and home health aides. There was unanimous agreement that one of the most import factors in preserving the dignity of survivors is the ability to remain at home. An important theme, more knowledge about survivors to the home health aides, emerged from the data. Specialized home care services were addressed by one participant: Aides are trained to understand the history and special needs of the survivors. For example, even knowing that chemical smells can trigger memories for the client. Transportation - includes door-to-door transportation to both medical appointments and social events designed for Holocaust survivors. While underfunded, participants agreed that this service was needed to help survivors remain in their homes and maintain their dignity: Survivors need transportation, otherwise they can’t access the city services. Food support - includes Meals-On-Wheels and additional supplementary support for food, including grocery store vouchers. Having abundant food was an important issue to survivors, who often hoard because they are afraid food will run out. One provider commented on the importance of food in keeping survivors in the community. Another noted the needed for Meals-On-Wheels: Food stamps don’t fulfill food for a whole week; some can’t go to the grocery store, so they need already made meals. Emergency Cash Assistance - The German government currently provides a limited amount of emergency cash to survivors for one-time expenses. This is similar to a small business’s “petty cash.” This is currently used for a wide range of expenses, some of which are actually long-term needs. Examples of how emergency cash is used includes: rent, utility bill, durable medical equipment such as hearing aids or hospital beds, and dental bills. One interviewee noted how this is often insufficient: It is not a generous enough cap for the survivors to maintain their dignity.… basic needs aren’t even met, capped at $2,500 is too little. Sometimes they are in the middle of their medical/dental work and they don’t know what to do when the $2,500 runs out. Conclusion and Implications While it is unlikely that some needs identified in this research will be able to be met in survivors’ lifetimes, many could. While most services identified in this research currently exist, all service providers indicated that inadequate funding make it likely that an increasing number of survivors’ needs will go unmet in the future. The population of Holocaust survivors is aging with the youngest being in their 70s. Research indicates that this population is expected to be reduced by 74% within 15 years (SSRS, 2016); however, the needs of the existing survivors will increase as they age. This will likely put a strain on survivors, their families, and the communities in which they live. Future research should focus on how to best expand and fund services for Holocaust survivors as they continue to age. References Cohen, S. M., Ukeles, J. B., & Miller, R. (2012). Jewish community study of New York: 2011 comprehensive report. New York: UJA Federation of New York. Eriksson, M., Räikkönen, K., & Eriksson, J. G. (2014). Early life stress and later health outcomes—findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. American Journal of Human Biology, 26(2), 111–116. Keinan-Boker, L., Shasha-Lavsky, H., Eilat-Zanani, S., Edri-Shur, A., & Shasha, S. M. (2015). Chronic health conditions in Jewish Holocaust survivors born during World War II. The Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ, 17(4), 206–212. Meyer, M. H., & Daniele, E. A. (2016). Gerontology: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions [2 volumes]: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions. ABC-CLIO. Mitka, M. (2014). Holocaust survivors’ health needs. JAMA, 311(10), 1005. SSRS. (2016). Gap analysis of services to holocaust survivors in New York City, Westchester, and Long Island. Media, PA: Author. Funding for this study was provided by UJA-Federation of New York
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