Seismic attribute-assisted interpretation of incised valley fill episodes: A case study of Anadarko Basin Red Fork interval. Yoscel Suarez*, Chesapeake Energy and The University of Oklahoma, USA Kurt J. Marfurt, The University of Oklahoma, USA Mark Falk, Chesapeake Energy, USA Al Warner , Chesapeake Energy, USA Abstract Previous Work Discrimination of valley-fill episodes and their lithology has always posed a challenge for exploration geologists and geophysicists, and the Red Fork sands in the Anadarko Basin do not fall outside of this challenge. The goal of this study is to take a new look at seismic attributes given the considerable well control that has been acquired during the past decade. By using this well understood reservoir as a natural laboratory, we calibrate the response of various attributes to a well-understood incised valley system. The extensive drilling program shows that seismic data has difficulty in distinguishing shale episodes vs. sand episodes, where the ultimate exploration goal is to find productive valley fill sands. In 1998 Lynn Peyton, Rich Bottjer and Greg Partyka published a paper in the Leading Edge describing their use of coherency and spectral decomposition to identify valley fill in the Red Fork interval in the Anadarko Basin. Their work help them identify five valley-fill sequences in order to find optimum reservoir intervals and to reduce exploration risk . Due to the discontinuity of the valley-fill episodes the mapping of such events by using conventional seismic displays is extremely challenging. Figure 3 shows one of the stratigraphic well cross-section presented by Peyton et al where the discontinuities of this complex are evident. Figure 4 shows a seismic profile that parallels the wells cross-section highlighting the same stages. The seismic section is flattened in the Novi. Since original work done in 1998 both seismic attributes and seismic geomorphology have undergone rapid advancement. The findings of this work will be applicable to nearby active areas as well as other intervals in the area that exhibit the same challenges. Using Peyton et al’s (1998) work as a starting point we generated similar displays of conventional seismic profiles and well x-sections that will become the bases of our research efforts. Figure 8 shows the geometry and extents of the different episodes of the Red Fork incised valley system based on well data interpretation and conventional seismic displays. This map will be compared to the different seismic attributes to calibrate their response. Figure 9 (a,b) show couple of well x-sections and their corresponding seismic profiles that supported the valley-fill stages map in Figure 8. Seismic attributes have undergone rapid development since the mid 1990s. In lieu of the horizon-based spectral decomposition based on the discrete Fourier transform, we use volumetric-based spectral decomposition based on matched pursuit and wavelet transforms (e.g. Liu and Marfurt,2007) . Other edge-sensitive attributes include more modern implementations of coherence, long-wavelength Sobel filters, and amplitude gradients. Figure 10 shows a horizon slice at the Red Fork level. Note that on conventional data the channel complex is identifiable. However, the use of seismic attributes may help delineate in more detail the different episodes within the same fluvial system and better define channel geomorphology. We will compare different edge detection algorithms and the advantages and disadvantages that each of them provides to the interpreter. Also, matching pursuit spectral decomposition results will be presented as well as combinations of Relative Acoustic Impedance and semblance that provide helpful information in the interpretation of this dataset. The surveys are located in west central Oklahoma. They were shot by Amoco from 19931996 and later merged into a 136 sq.mi. survey. In 1998, Chesapeake acquired many of Amoco’s Mid-continent properties including those discussed by Peyton et al. (1998). In this study we present alternative seismic attribute-assisted interpretation workflows that show the potential information that each of the geometric and amplitude-based attributes offer to the interpreter when dealing with Red Fork valley-fill episodes in the Anadarko Basin. It is important to mention that one of the biggest challenges of this dataset is the acquisition footprint, which contaminates the data and limits the resolution of some of the seismic attributes. Geological Framework Methodology A Figure 3. Stratigraphic cross-section Red Fork valley –fill complex Figure 4. Seismic profile associated to the prior crosssection. Flattened in the Novi interval By generating horizon slices in the coherency volume they were able to identify and delineate the main geometries of the incised valley (Figure 5). The event used to generated the horizon slice is the Skinner Lime above the Red Fork interval. A’ The Pennsylvanian incised valley sequence associated with the Red Fork interval has, throughout most of its extent, three major events or facies (Phase I, II, and III) which can be differentiated by log signatures, production characteristics, and gross geometry. Two additional events (Phase IV and V) are present in the eastern and northeastern headward portion of the valley, also recognizable by log signature and gross geometry. Phase II Phase III Phase V Figure 8. Red Fork incised valley geometries and valley-fill episodes The multi phase events of the Upper Red Fork Valley system were most likely caused by repeated sea level changes resulting from Pennsylvania glacial events that were probably related to the Milankovitch astronomical cycles including the changing tilt of the earth’s axis and eccentricity of the earth’s elliptical orbit. Phase I is the earliest valley event and Phase II generally has a much wider represents the narrow, initial downcutting of the valley sequence. Where present (a considerable portion of Phase I has been eroded by later events), the rocks are generally poorly correlative shales, silts, and tight sandstones overlying a basal “lag” deposit. areal distribution (up to four miles) with a variety of valley fill facies deposited which record a period of valley widening and maturation. Logs over Phase II rocks illustrate a classic fining upward pattern and shale resistivities of 10 or more ohms. Phase III rocks record the last major incisement within the valley and occur within a narrow (0.25-.05 mile wide) steep walled system that is correlative for 70 miles. This rejuvenated channel actually represents the final position of the Phase II river before base level was lowered and renewed downcutting began. Phase III reservoirs are primarily thick, blocky, porous sands at the base of the sequence that have been backfilled, reworked, and overlain by low resistivity marine shales deposited by a major transgression which drowned the valley sequence. Figure 5. Coherency horizon slice at the Red Fork level Phase V the last event before the transgression that deposited the Pink. It’s primary significance is that it either partially or completely eroded much of the Phase III Valley event. Phase V rocks are poorly developed, non productive sand and shales which also have a characteristic log signature. end of Phase III marine shale deposition. Phase IV rocks are characterized by thin, tight, interbedded sands and shales with a coal or coaly shale near the base. This facies is interpreted as an elongated lagoon/ coal swamp or possibly bay head delta as it often extends beyond the confines of the deeper valley. The Induction log signature is a very distinct “serrated” pattern with a “hot” gamma ray near the base identifying the coal or coaly shale. Pink Lime In their workflow they also estimated the spectral decomposition. They found that the 36 Hz component best represented the different valley-fill stages (Figure 6). By combining the well-data with the information from the seismic attributes they were able to delineate the extents of the different valley –fill episodes (Figure 7) and generate and integrated interpretation of the system. Lower Red Fork II III II Middle Red Fork V a) Figure 9. a) Red Fork stratigraphic cross-section. b) Seismic profile showing the stratigraphic interpretation derived from the well data Phase IV records a modest regression at the The geological framework summary is courtesy of Al Warner. Senior Geologist at Chesapeake Energy Figure 10. Conventional seismic horizon slice at the Red Fork level. The channel discernible although signal/noise ratio is affected by acquisition footprint Figure 6. Spectral decomposition (36 Hz) horizon slice at the Red Fork level Figure 7. Spectral decomposition (36 Hz) horizon slice at the Red Fork level with interpretation. III b) II V
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Financial Information Scholarships Reminder! Be sure to investigate scholarships available for Illinois Valley Students. Information is available on line http://www.ivcc.edu/financialaid/scholarship.html Questions? Call the Financial Aid Office at 815-224-0438. back | home | next
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Frequently Asked Questions Q: Are there tutors available if I have trouble with any of my classes, especially math? A: Yes, the Peer Tutoring Center, located in CRC-D, offers free tutoring to all IVCC students in almost all subject areas. Call 815-2240479 to arrange your tutoring session. Q: How can I be certain my classes will transfer to a four-year college or university? A: Our Counselors can assist you with selecting the right courses. The Counseling Center, located in E-201, also has transfer guide sheets from most Illinois four-year colleges. Q: Do I buy or rent my textbooks? A: You can buy textbooks from the IVCC bookstore located in the Main Building C, to the right of the Lobby. Some textbooks may be available for rental. Q: I have a disability. Where can I receive reasonable accommodations? A: The Disability Services Office at IVCC assists students in achieving success in their college classes. At IVCC, professional staff and faculty, along with many academic and adaptive support services, are available to help students meet their individual special needs. For more information, contact Special Needs Coordinators: Tina Hardy 815-224-0284 or Judy Mika 815-224-0350. back | home | next
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NJ STARS Award • Students who are awarded enough federal and/or state-based financial aid to pay the tuition portion of their bill are considered “unfunded” NJ STARS students. Unfunded NJ STARS students are not awarded NJ STARS scholarships, however the federal and state financial aid process must be completed each academic year by posted deadlines to qualify for NJ STARS II scholarships. • NJ TAG (New Jersey Tuition Aid Grant) is a state-based financial aid award, and NJ STARS (New Jersey Student Tuition Assistance Reward Scholarship) is a merit based award. Some students may receive both but they are two totally different awards. • Students who are awarded NJ TAG must complete their FAFSA and the New Jersey Additional Application Questions by April 15th each year or they may temporarily or permanently become ineligible for NJ STARS scholarships. New and continuing students who did not receive NJ TAG have more time to complete the process but should still do so early in case any issues arise. • As long as the financial aid review process is complete for both federal and state financial aid, and students are in good standing, students who are not awarded financial aid, and students who are awarded only partial federal and/or state financial aid will see an Estimated NJ STARS award in the financial aid section of their BCC student portal. • Estimated awards will not be shown until all NJ STARS students are certified on HESAA Roster which is usually sometime in late November during Fall semesters, and sometime in late April during Spring semesters. • Once an estimated award appears in the BCC student portal, you should also see the award in the HESAA student portal. It will first show as unpaid but when a green dollar sign appears, the NJ STARS payment has been made to Bergen Community College. • Students who receive NJ STARS scholarships will first see an “Estimated” NJ STARS award in their student portal. Please do not accept estimated awards. Once applied to your bill, the award will no longer show as estimated. 25
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NJ STARS Award • Students who are awarded enough federal and/or state-based financial aid to pay the tuition portion of their bill are considered “unfunded” NJ STARS students. Unfunded NJ STARS students are not awarded NJ STARS scholarships, however the federal and state financial aid process must be completed each academic year by published deadlines to qualify for NJ STARS II scholarships. • NJ TAG (New Jersey Tuition Aid Grant) is a state-based financial aid award, and NJ STARS (New Jersey Student Tuition Assistance Reward Scholarship) is a merit based award. Some students may receive both but they are two totally different awards. • Students who are awarded NJ TAG must complete their FAFSA and the New Jersey Additional Application Questions by April 15th each year or they may temporarily or permanently become ineligible for NJ STARS scholarships. New and continuing students who did not receive NJ TAG have more time to complete the process but should still do so early in case any issues arise. • As long as the financial aid review process is complete for both federal and state financial aid, and students are in good standing, students who are not awarded financial aid, and students who are awarded only partial federal and/or state financial aid will see an Estimated NJ STARS award in the financial aid section of their BCC student portal. • Estimated awards will not be shown until all NJ STARS students are certified on HESAA Roster which is usually sometime in late November during Fall semesters, and sometime in late April during Spring semesters. • Once an estimated award appears in the BCC student portal, you should also see the award in the HESAA student portal. It will first show as unpaid but when a green dollar sign appears, the NJ STARS payment has been made to Bergen Community College. • Students who receive NJ STARS scholarships will first see an “Estimated” NJ STARS award in their student portal. Please do not accept estimated awards. Once applied to your bill, the award will no longer show as estimated. 22
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NJ STARS Award • Students who are awarded enough federal and/or state-based financial aid to pay the tuition portion of their bill are considered “unfunded” NJ STARS students. Unfunded NJ STARS students are not awarded NJ STARS scholarships, however the federal and state financial aid process must be completed each academic year by posted deadlines to qualify for NJ STARS II scholarships. • NJ TAG (New Jersey Tuition Aid Grant) is a state-based financial aid award, and NJ STARS (New Jersey Student Tuition Assistance Reward Scholarship) is a merit based award. Some students may receive both but they are two totally different awards. • Students who are awarded NJ TAG must complete their FAFSA and the New Jersey Additional Application Questions by April 15th each year or they may temporarily or permanently become ineligible for NJ STARS scholarships. New and continuing students who did not receive NJ TAG have more time to complete the process but should still do so early in case any issues arise. • As long as the financial aid review process is complete for both federal and state financial aid, and students are in good standing, students who are not awarded financial aid, and students who are awarded only partial federal and/or state financial aid will see an Estimated NJ STARS award in the financial aid section of their BCC student portal. • Estimated awards will not be shown until all NJ STARS students are certified on HESAA Roster which is usually sometime in late November during Fall semesters, and sometime in late April during Spring semesters. • Once an estimated award appears in the BCC student portal, you should also see the award in the HESAA student portal. It will first show as unpaid but when a green dollar sign appears, the NJ STARS payment has been made to Bergen Community College. • Students who receive NJ STARS scholarships will first see an “Estimated” NJ STARS award in their student portal. Please do not accept estimated awards. Once applied to your bill, the award will no longer show as estimated. 13
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Financial Information Now that I know about costs, how do I pay for my classes? Payment Options After the initial payment due date, anyone registering must pay by the Wednesday following registration. Wednesday registrations would be due that day. Students with any type of financial aid including tuition waivers, scholarships, loans, grants, etc.... must contact the cashier department to have their tuition deferred. Failure to do so will result in classes being dropped for non-payment.There are six methods for payment of classes: 1. Payment Plan/Full payment: payment plans are available online with eCashier. To learn more about payment plans visit the eCashier site or contact the Cashier at 815-224-0213. 2. In person: The Cashier’s Office is located in the Main Lobby - C building. 3. By mail: (Please allow 3-5 business days)IVCC - Attn. Cashier815 N. Orlando Smith Ave.Oglesby, IL 613484. 4. Tuition Drop Box: Drop off payments in the drop box located at the front entrance below the "IVCC welcomes you" sign. 5. By phone: credit card payments can be made by phone at 815- 224-0213. Visa, Discover, and MasterCard are accepted. 6. By fax: credit card information may be faxed to 815-224-6091. Please include student account number (or social security number), credit card number, expiration date and name of card holder. back | home | next
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Frequently Asked Questions Q: I took a class in high school and received college credit for it. What do I do about that? A: IVCC courses are transferable to other colleges and universities, but subject to the course acceptance policies of the transfer college. You are encouraged to meet with an IVCC Counselor to explore transfer issues, particularly to the University of Illinois and to private or out-of-state colleges. Our courses that are offered at your high school meet the IVCC General Education requirements, as well as those requirements established by the statewide Illinois Articulation Initiative (IAI). Q: Where can I go for help to improve my test taking, writing and study skills? A: Visit our Writing Center located in CRC-D or call 815-224-0335 for free service to those who need assistance with the writing process.Assistant to improve academic skills is available through the Reading, Writing and Study Skills Lab, located in B-201. The lab offers a variety of courses in Reading, English and Study Skills. Most courses are one credit hour, are pass/fail, and can be started at any time during the semester. For further information, contact Jennifer Bubb at 815-224-0277. back | home | next
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Financial Information So what if I don’t have the money to pay for my classes? There are several types of financial assistance that you may qualify for to help you pay for classes. Regardless of your financial situation, whether great or bit of a challenge, you should always apply for financial aid. There are several sources of aid of which you can apply. Check them out! Sources of Financial Aid Grants: Financial Aid awarded to students based on financial need. They are typically funded by the Federal or State Government, however many private colleges and universities have institutional grants which are awarded according to their own criteria. Grants are "free." No repayment is necessary. Scholarships: Financial Aid awarded to students based on merit, talent, financial need, or other specialized criteria. Scholarships given to IVCC students are funded by the State Government, the Illinois Valley Community College Foundation, and Private Agencies. Scholarships are also "free." No repayment is necessary, (except in a small number of cases which will be specified on the application materials). back | home | next
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Financial Information Financial Aid Things to Know Did you know… That you can lose your federal financial aid if you do not meet Standards of Progress-ie. You must pass 66.6% of all college courses ever taken, and you cannot be academically suspended. That you can appeal your loss of financial aid provided you have documentation of extenuating circumstances such as severe illness or change of program. However, you should make the Appeal immediately upon receipt of your letter so you can be sure to get an answer in a timely manner. Write your appeal using the form provided by the Financial Aid Office, have a Counselor review it (required) and submit it to the IVCC Director of Financial Aid. That you must re-apply for financial aid Every Year - apply in the Spring for the upcoming Fall through Summer terms. Be sure to visit with the IVCC Financial Aid Counselors for more help and information. back | home | next
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Getting Started – First things first! How do you become a student at Illinois Valley Community College? 1. Submit an application for admission. If you have not submitted an application, you can begin the process on-line. Go to http://www.ivcc.edu/apply/ for more information. 2. Complete placement testing. If your ACT English sub score is a 21 or higher, ACT Reading sub score is a 23 or higher and ACT Math sub score is a 22 or higher you are exempt from placement testing. Scores of 24 and 26 in Math will also allow for placement in higher levels of math coursework. If your scores are less than indicated above you may be required to take all or portions of the IVCC placement tests. Individuals will also need to complete a Basic Computer Skills Assessment when taking Placement Tests. For more information go to http://www.ivcc.edu/assessment/placement_test.html. 3. Apply for Financial Aid. 4. Complete this orientation. 5. Meet with a Counselor to schedule your classes and register. Now on with the orientation! back | home | next
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Tips For Success Study Habits & You Smart students take advantage of IVCC Learning Center located in the Library. The Learning Center offers free computer-based tutorials, academic success workshops, and one-on-one peer tutoring. Don’t wait until mid-term to get help! A tutor from our Peer Tutoring/Writing Center (LRC-B, Room B325, 815-224-0479) can help you stay on top of your classes from the first day. Also check at our Reading, Writing, and Study Skills Lab, LRC-B, 815-224-0277. The lab offers individualized instruction in these areas. Emphasis is placed on assisting students in setting and achieving their personal and study skill goals. The Counseling Center office is located in the Main Building, E201. Call the Reception Desk at 815-224-0360 and ask to speak to a Counselor. The Counselors can help you identify resources related to employment after graduation, transfer to a four-year college or university, improve your personal skills, or obtaining counseling during a difficult time. Not sure what you want to do after college? Check with Career Services or the Counseling Center about tests that can help you determine what kinds of work fit your interests and personality, and identify resources related to employment after graduation. Here are some more tips for college success… back | home | next
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Dean’s Academic and Administrative Office Staff & Duties Cara Dusette Avani Dave Executive Admin Asst [email protected] x34604 Faculty folder coordination & new faculty orientation Manage the Dean’s & Assc Dean’s calendar, guests and phone calls Coordinate GATF process for college All inquiries related to the Global Energy Management Institute (GEMI) Facilitate meetings for the Dean & Assoc Dean Coordinate PhD applications for college Ad hoc projects Coordinate dean’s events Facilitate meetings for the dean Coordinate Dean’s & Assoc Dean’s travel and reimbursements Create ePARs for dean appointed assignments Reservations for 302 & deans conf room Coordinate Dean’s reserved parking Customer Service Supervisor [email protected] x34601 Cover the Dean’s reception & concierge desks, phones, walk-ins and email requests Assist with digital room access on CougarOne cards Manage lost and found for college Assist with communications to Dean’s office staff Process payments to vendors of dean’s office and college level expenses Help students with print credit sales Ad hoc projects Conduct Bauer Orientations for new staff Facilitate special events in the college Supervise customer service team Meeting space reservations Process college leave requests Lucy Hernandez Office Asst. 2 [email protected] x34617 Assist with copy charges and invoices Handle all Bauer mail Provide back-up coverage to dean’s reception desk & concierge area Process payments to vendors of dean’s office & college level expenses Monitor alarm/access control Meeting space reservations Coordinate Dean’s reserved parking Coordinate all FIXIT requests through BOSS Email info regarding event support services Special projects Justin Sneed Scholarship Program Coordinator [email protected] x36706 Create and distribute all scholarship paperwork Maintain scholarship intranet (database) Create and distribute the Bauer Business Bulletin Maintain donor contact information Maintain Bauer scholarship web pages Assist Bauer scholarship Committee in awarding scholarships Communicate with current donors, prospective donors, applicants, and recipients Provide information to students and parents at orientations and other college related functions Create flyers and other published materials Maintain scholarship budgets, revenues and expenses Facilitate meetings with donors and recipients/interviewees. Contact various student organizations, Centers of Excellence, etc. to obtain member lists for scholarship awarding as needed
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FAFSA (Federal Financial Aid) Complete your FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Financial Aid) each year. • Use 2016 tax returns for 2018-2019 FAFSA. Be sure to use the IRS Retrieval Tool. If you are selected for Federal Verification, your tax transcript will have already been provided to the college which will save time and effort. • Bergen Community College must be listed as one of your college choices. The school code is #004736. • If you need help, attend one of the 2018-2019 FAFSA Workshops at Bergen Community College, or view the “ 7 Easy Steps to the FAFSA” Video Tutorial. • Check Bergen Community College to see the Office of Financial Aid emailed you via your student email advising you were selected for Federal Verification. If selected, submit all documents required by the Office of Financial Aid via scanning process. You should receive an email confirmation within an hour advising that your documents were successfully scanned. • Check in Correspondence/My Documents in your Bergen Community College student portal to be sure you aren’t missing any documents. If your FAFSA is not listed in My Documents, the financial aid review process cannot begin. • Check Bergen Community College student email and student portal to be sure the Office of Financial Aid either sent you an award letter or an email stating you do not qualify for Financial Aid which signifies your file is complete. • Access How to be Sure Your Federal Financial Aid Review is Complete. 10
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Sources 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Environmental Movement in the United States. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_movement_in_the_United_States The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended. [42 USC]. http://www.nepa.gov/nepa/regs/nepa/nepaeqia.htm. Fremling, Calvin R. Immortal River: the Upper Mississippi in ancient and modern times. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2005. Of Time and the River http://www.oftimeandtheriver.org Federal Water Pollution Control Act. http://www.fws.gov/laws/laws_digest//fwatrpo.html Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act). http://ipl.unm.edu/cwl/fedbook/fwpca.html. Sierra Club. Clean Water. http://www.sieraclub.org/cleanwater. Annual Environmental Conditions Report. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. October 2003. Illinois EPA 2003-2004 Biennial Report. June 2005. Upper Mississippi River Management. Title 33, 652. Cornell University Law School. http://ww.law.cornell.edu/uscode/33/usc_sec_33_00000652----000-.html Photo and Illustration Credits:  Silent Spring book jacket. http://www.booksamillion.com  Rachel Carson. csc.gallaudet.edu  DDT bioaccumulation diagram. http://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/envicon/pim/reports/Olympia/OlympiaImages/Hood %20Canal/DDT.jpg  Earth Day 1970. www.environmental-action.org/  Earth Day. http://ecosofia.org/files/earth_day_1970.jpg  The National Environmental Policy Act book jacket. http://www.tamu.edu/upress/BOOKS/2001/biglindstrom.jpg.  Richard Nixon. http://presidency.ucsb.edu/images/37.jpg  NEPA Decision-making Flowchart. http://Walter.arizona.edu/society/policy/neap/nepa2.asp.  Lock and Dams on Mississippi River. http://www.igsb.uiowa.edu/gsi/gb70/corps.htm  Cuyahoga River burning. www.oftimeandtheriver.org/resources  Cuyahoga River today. http://homepage.mac.com/patholleran/ParkVision/CuyahogaValley/cv-088.jpg  NPDES logo. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/copubs/env/water/006/npdes_logoFeb20b.jpg  Conditions of Illinois Rivers and Stream. Annual Environmental Conditions Report. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. October 2003.  Upper Mississippi River map. http://www.emtc.usgs.gov/documents/reports/1999/status_and_trends/99t001_frntmatlr.pdf
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