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Seismic attribute-assisted interpretation of incised valley fill episodes: A case study of Anadarko Basin Red Fork interval. Yoscel Suarez*, Chesapeake Energy and The University of Oklahoma, USA Kurt J. Marfurt, The University of Oklahoma, USA Mark Falk, Chesapeake Energy, USA Al Warner , Chesapeake Energy, USA Abstract Previous Work Discrimination of valley-fill episodes and their lithology has always posed a challenge for exploration geologists and geophysicists, and the Red Fork sands in the Anadarko Basin do not fall outside of this challenge. The goal of this study is to take a new look at seismic attributes given the considerable well control that has been acquired during the past decade. By using this well understood reservoir as a natural laboratory, we calibrate the response of various attributes to a well-understood incised valley system. The extensive drilling program shows that seismic data has difficulty in distinguishing shale episodes vs. sand episodes, where the ultimate exploration goal is to find productive valley fill sands. In 1998 Lynn Peyton, Rich Bottjer and Greg Partyka published a paper in the Leading Edge describing their use of coherency and spectral decomposition to identify valley fill in the Red Fork interval in the Anadarko Basin. Their work help them identify five valley-fill sequences in order to find optimum reservoir intervals and to reduce exploration risk . Due to the discontinuity of the valley-fill episodes the mapping of such events by using conventional seismic displays is extremely challenging. Figure 3 shows one of the stratigraphic well cross-section presented by Peyton et al where the discontinuities of this complex are evident. Figure 4 shows a seismic profile that parallels the wells cross-section highlighting the same stages. The seismic section is flattened in the Novi. Since original work done in 1998 both seismic attributes and seismic geomorphology have undergone rapid advancement. The findings of this work will be applicable to nearby active areas as well as other intervals in the area that exhibit the same challenges. Using Peyton et al’s (1998) work as a starting point we generated similar displays of conventional seismic profiles and well x-sections that will become the bases of our research efforts. Figure 8 shows the geometry and extents of the different episodes of the Red Fork incised valley system based on well data interpretation and conventional seismic displays. This map will be compared to the different seismic attributes to calibrate their response. Figure 9 (a,b) show couple of well x-sections and their corresponding seismic profiles that supported the valley-fill stages map in Figure 8. Seismic attributes have undergone rapid development since the mid 1990s. In lieu of the horizon-based spectral decomposition based on the discrete Fourier transform, we use volumetric-based spectral decomposition based on matched pursuit and wavelet transforms (e.g. Liu and Marfurt,2007) . Other edge-sensitive attributes include more modern implementations of coherence, long-wavelength Sobel filters, and amplitude gradients. Figure 10 shows a horizon slice at the Red Fork level. Note that on conventional data the channel complex is identifiable. However, the use of seismic attributes may help delineate in more detail the different episodes within the same fluvial system and better define channel geomorphology. We will compare different edge detection algorithms and the advantages and disadvantages that each of them provides to the interpreter. Also, matching pursuit spectral decomposition results will be presented as well as combinations of Relative Acoustic Impedance and semblance that provide helpful information in the interpretation of this dataset. The surveys are located in west central Oklahoma. They were shot by Amoco from 19931996 and later merged into a 136 sq.mi. survey. In 1998, Chesapeake acquired many of Amoco’s Mid-continent properties including those discussed by Peyton et al. (1998). In this study we present alternative seismic attribute-assisted interpretation workflows that show the potential information that each of the geometric and amplitude-based attributes offer to the interpreter when dealing with Red Fork valley-fill episodes in the Anadarko Basin. It is important to mention that one of the biggest challenges of this dataset is the acquisition footprint, which contaminates the data and limits the resolution of some of the seismic attributes. Geological Framework Methodology A Figure 3. Stratigraphic cross-section Red Fork valley –fill complex Figure 4. Seismic profile associated to the prior crosssection. Flattened in the Novi interval By generating horizon slices in the coherency volume they were able to identify and delineate the main geometries of the incised valley (Figure 5). The event used to generated the horizon slice is the Skinner Lime above the Red Fork interval. A’ The Pennsylvanian incised valley sequence associated with the Red Fork interval has, throughout most of its extent, three major events or facies (Phase I, II, and III) which can be differentiated by log signatures, production characteristics, and gross geometry. Two additional events (Phase IV and V) are present in the eastern and northeastern headward portion of the valley, also recognizable by log signature and gross geometry. Phase II Phase III Phase V Figure 8. Red Fork incised valley geometries and valley-fill episodes The multi phase events of the Upper Red Fork Valley system were most likely caused by repeated sea level changes resulting from Pennsylvania glacial events that were probably related to the Milankovitch astronomical cycles including the changing tilt of the earth’s axis and eccentricity of the earth’s elliptical orbit. Phase I is the earliest valley event and Phase II generally has a much wider represents the narrow, initial downcutting of the valley sequence. Where present (a considerable portion of Phase I has been eroded by later events), the rocks are generally poorly correlative shales, silts, and tight sandstones overlying a basal “lag” deposit. areal distribution (up to four miles) with a variety of valley fill facies deposited which record a period of valley widening and maturation. Logs over Phase II rocks illustrate a classic fining upward pattern and shale resistivities of 10 or more ohms. Phase III rocks record the last major incisement within the valley and occur within a narrow (0.25-.05 mile wide) steep walled system that is correlative for 70 miles. This rejuvenated channel actually represents the final position of the Phase II river before base level was lowered and renewed downcutting began. Phase III reservoirs are primarily thick, blocky, porous sands at the base of the sequence that have been backfilled, reworked, and overlain by low resistivity marine shales deposited by a major transgression which drowned the valley sequence. Figure 5. Coherency horizon slice at the Red Fork level Phase V the last event before the transgression that deposited the Pink. It’s primary significance is that it either partially or completely eroded much of the Phase III Valley event. Phase V rocks are poorly developed, non productive sand and shales which also have a characteristic log signature. end of Phase III marine shale deposition. Phase IV rocks are characterized by thin, tight, interbedded sands and shales with a coal or coaly shale near the base. This facies is interpreted as an elongated lagoon/ coal swamp or possibly bay head delta as it often extends beyond the confines of the deeper valley. The Induction log signature is a very distinct “serrated” pattern with a “hot” gamma ray near the base identifying the coal or coaly shale. Pink Lime In their workflow they also estimated the spectral decomposition. They found that the 36 Hz component best represented the different valley-fill stages (Figure 6). By combining the well-data with the information from the seismic attributes they were able to delineate the extents of the different valley –fill episodes (Figure 7) and generate and integrated interpretation of the system. Lower Red Fork II III II Middle Red Fork V a) Figure 9. a) Red Fork stratigraphic cross-section. b) Seismic profile showing the stratigraphic interpretation derived from the well data Phase IV records a modest regression at the The geological framework summary is courtesy of Al Warner. Senior Geologist at Chesapeake Energy Figure 10. Conventional seismic horizon slice at the Red Fork level. The channel discernible although signal/noise ratio is affected by acquisition footprint Figure 6. Spectral decomposition (36 Hz) horizon slice at the Red Fork level Figure 7. Spectral decomposition (36 Hz) horizon slice at the Red Fork level with interpretation. III b) II V
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NJ STARS Award • Students who are awarded enough federal and/or state-based financial aid to pay the tuition portion of their bill are considered “unfunded” NJ STARS students. Unfunded NJ STARS students are not awarded NJ STARS scholarships, however the federal and state financial aid process must be completed each academic year by posted deadlines to qualify for NJ STARS II scholarships. • NJ TAG (New Jersey Tuition Aid Grant) is a state-based financial aid award, and NJ STARS (New Jersey Student Tuition Assistance Reward Scholarship) is a merit based award. Some students may receive both but they are two totally different awards. • Students who are awarded NJ TAG must complete their FAFSA and the New Jersey Additional Application Questions by April 15th each year or they may temporarily or permanently become ineligible for NJ STARS scholarships. New and continuing students who did not receive NJ TAG have more time to complete the process but should still do so early in case any issues arise. • As long as the financial aid review process is complete for both federal and state financial aid, and students are in good standing, students who are not awarded financial aid, and students who are awarded only partial federal and/or state financial aid will see an Estimated NJ STARS award in the financial aid section of their BCC student portal. • Estimated awards will not be shown until all NJ STARS students are certified on HESAA Roster which is usually sometime in late November during Fall semesters, and sometime in late April during Spring semesters. • Once an estimated award appears in the BCC student portal, you should also see the award in the HESAA student portal. It will first show as unpaid but when a green dollar sign appears, the NJ STARS payment has been made to Bergen Community College. • Students who receive NJ STARS scholarships will first see an “Estimated” NJ STARS award in their student portal. Please do not accept estimated awards. Once applied to your bill, the award will no longer show as estimated. 25
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NJ STARS Award • Students who are awarded enough federal and/or state-based financial aid to pay the tuition portion of their bill are considered “unfunded” NJ STARS students. Unfunded NJ STARS students are not awarded NJ STARS scholarships, however the federal and state financial aid process must be completed each academic year by published deadlines to qualify for NJ STARS II scholarships. • NJ TAG (New Jersey Tuition Aid Grant) is a state-based financial aid award, and NJ STARS (New Jersey Student Tuition Assistance Reward Scholarship) is a merit based award. Some students may receive both but they are two totally different awards. • Students who are awarded NJ TAG must complete their FAFSA and the New Jersey Additional Application Questions by April 15th each year or they may temporarily or permanently become ineligible for NJ STARS scholarships. New and continuing students who did not receive NJ TAG have more time to complete the process but should still do so early in case any issues arise. • As long as the financial aid review process is complete for both federal and state financial aid, and students are in good standing, students who are not awarded financial aid, and students who are awarded only partial federal and/or state financial aid will see an Estimated NJ STARS award in the financial aid section of their BCC student portal. • Estimated awards will not be shown until all NJ STARS students are certified on HESAA Roster which is usually sometime in late November during Fall semesters, and sometime in late April during Spring semesters. • Once an estimated award appears in the BCC student portal, you should also see the award in the HESAA student portal. It will first show as unpaid but when a green dollar sign appears, the NJ STARS payment has been made to Bergen Community College. • Students who receive NJ STARS scholarships will first see an “Estimated” NJ STARS award in their student portal. Please do not accept estimated awards. Once applied to your bill, the award will no longer show as estimated. 22
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NJ STARS Award • Students who are awarded enough federal and/or state-based financial aid to pay the tuition portion of their bill are considered “unfunded” NJ STARS students. Unfunded NJ STARS students are not awarded NJ STARS scholarships, however the federal and state financial aid process must be completed each academic year by posted deadlines to qualify for NJ STARS II scholarships. • NJ TAG (New Jersey Tuition Aid Grant) is a state-based financial aid award, and NJ STARS (New Jersey Student Tuition Assistance Reward Scholarship) is a merit based award. Some students may receive both but they are two totally different awards. • Students who are awarded NJ TAG must complete their FAFSA and the New Jersey Additional Application Questions by April 15th each year or they may temporarily or permanently become ineligible for NJ STARS scholarships. New and continuing students who did not receive NJ TAG have more time to complete the process but should still do so early in case any issues arise. • As long as the financial aid review process is complete for both federal and state financial aid, and students are in good standing, students who are not awarded financial aid, and students who are awarded only partial federal and/or state financial aid will see an Estimated NJ STARS award in the financial aid section of their BCC student portal. • Estimated awards will not be shown until all NJ STARS students are certified on HESAA Roster which is usually sometime in late November during Fall semesters, and sometime in late April during Spring semesters. • Once an estimated award appears in the BCC student portal, you should also see the award in the HESAA student portal. It will first show as unpaid but when a green dollar sign appears, the NJ STARS payment has been made to Bergen Community College. • Students who receive NJ STARS scholarships will first see an “Estimated” NJ STARS award in their student portal. Please do not accept estimated awards. Once applied to your bill, the award will no longer show as estimated. 13
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A COMMUNITY NEEDS ASSESSMENT OF HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS Melissa Pullman, PhD1, Wendy Zeitlin, PhD2, Charles Auerbach, PhD1 , Kelly Klinger, BA2 Yeshiva University, New York, New York; 2Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 1 Discussion Unclosable Gaps: Two gaps were identified that would be unable to be closed by traditional resources alone, as they deal with structural problems in society-at-large. Congregate care – skilled nursing facilities and/or assisted living could be helpful for some survivors if there could be a community of survivors that could live together AND appropriate services (including home care for those who live in assisted living facilities) existed. Because this population had been traumatized by institutionalization previously, congregate care generally designed for the elderly, is considered undesirable. As such, without specialized services, it is highly desirable for survivors to remain in their homes in situations which differ from those of other elderly. To date, no such facility has been built in the US, and it is anticipated that this is a need that is not feasible to meet. In-home psychiatric care – while numerous research participants indicated that this service is needed, there are an insufficient number of psychiatrists nationwide, and the need for psychiatric care, in general, is growing for all populations. It is not likely that this gap will be closed any time as the number of psychiatrists retiring continues to rise, and the number of residency spots for new psychiatrists is held steady. www.eposterboards.com Discussion (cont.) Existing services: Professional Social Work Services - includes services such as case management, clinical social work, mental health counseling, friendly visiting, financial guardianship, and social programs. In short, social work services include all services that would include direct services provided by licensed social workers and those overseen by licensed social workers. Services such as social work/case management are not adequately funded currently. One participant stated the need for these services clearly: The social worker helps them [survivors] to get hooked up to services they are resistant to or helps them through the barriers. They help them think about what their needs are. It is hard to get through the door and win their trust. On- on-one service is very expensive. Home Care - includes services such as housekeeping, companionship, in-home nursing and home health aides. There was unanimous agreement that one of the most import factors in preserving the dignity of survivors is the ability to remain at home. An important theme, more knowledge about survivors to the home health aides, emerged from the data. Specialized home care services were addressed by one participant: Aides are trained to understand the history and special needs of the survivors. For example, even knowing that chemical smells can trigger memories for the client. Transportation - includes door-to-door transportation to both medical appointments and social events designed for Holocaust survivors. While underfunded, participants agreed that this service was needed to help survivors remain in their homes and maintain their dignity: Survivors need transportation, otherwise they can’t access the city services. Food support - includes Meals-On-Wheels and additional supplementary support for food, including grocery store vouchers. Having abundant food was an important issue to survivors, who often hoard because they are afraid food will run out. One provider commented on the importance of food in keeping survivors in the community. Another noted the needed for Meals-On-Wheels: Food stamps don’t fulfill food for a whole week; some can’t go to the grocery store, so they need already made meals. Emergency Cash Assistance - The German government currently provides a limited amount of emergency cash to survivors for one-time expenses. This is similar to a small business’s “petty cash.” This is currently used for a wide range of expenses, some of which are actually long-term needs. Examples of how emergency cash is used includes: rent, utility bill, durable medical equipment such as hearing aids or hospital beds, and dental bills. One interviewee noted how this is often insufficient: It is not a generous enough cap for the survivors to maintain their dignity.… basic needs aren’t even met, capped at $2,500 is too little. Sometimes they are in the middle of their medical/dental work and they don’t know what to do when the $2,500 runs out. Conclusion and Implications While it is unlikely that some needs identified in this research will be able to be met in survivors’ lifetimes, many could. While most services identified in this research currently exist, all service providers indicated that inadequate funding make it likely that an increasing number of survivors’ needs will go unmet in the future. The population of Holocaust survivors is aging with the youngest being in their 70s. Research indicates that this population is expected to be reduced by 74% within 15 years (SSRS, 2016); however, the needs of the existing survivors will increase as they age. This will likely put a strain on survivors, their families, and the communities in which they live. Future research should focus on how to best expand and fund services for Holocaust survivors as they continue to age. References Cohen, S. M., Ukeles, J. B., & Miller, R. (2012). Jewish community study of New York: 2011 comprehensive report. New York: UJA Federation of New York. Eriksson, M., Räikkönen, K., & Eriksson, J. G. (2014). Early life stress and later health outcomes—findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. American Journal of Human Biology, 26(2), 111–116. Keinan-Boker, L., Shasha-Lavsky, H., Eilat-Zanani, S., Edri-Shur, A., & Shasha, S. M. (2015). Chronic health conditions in Jewish Holocaust survivors born during World War II. The Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ, 17(4), 206–212. Meyer, M. H., & Daniele, E. A. (2016). Gerontology: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions [2 volumes]: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions. ABC-CLIO. Mitka, M. (2014). Holocaust survivors’ health needs. JAMA, 311(10), 1005. SSRS. (2016). Gap analysis of services to holocaust survivors in New York City, Westchester, and Long Island. Media, PA: Author. Funding for this study was provided by UJA-Federation of New York
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