Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks! Dynamically Rearranging Synteny Blocks in Comparative Genomes Nick Egan’s Final Project Presentation for BIO 131 Intro to Computational Biology Taught by Anna Ritz
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Electronic Codebook Book (ECB)  message is broken into independent blocks which are encrypted  each block is a value which is substituted, like a codebook, hence name  each block is encoded independently of the other blocks Ci = DESK1(Pi)  uses: secure transmission of single values
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Block Modes  Electronic Codebook Book (ECB)  where the message is broken into independent 64-bit blocks which are encrypted  Ci = DESK1 (Pi)  Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)  again the message is broken into 64-bit blocks, but they are linked together in the encryption operation with an IV  Ci = DESK1 (PiCi-1)  C-1=IV (initial value) Cryptography and Network Security 144
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Preamble “Post-amble” Block Execution: 3 Detail Observing Block Observing Block “Post-amble” “Post-amble” 3 Observing Block Observing Block ok Measurement Set ready “Post-amble” EVLA Data Processing PDR Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Failed! Preamble “Post-amble” Preamble ok ?4 5 Preamble ready Preamble Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Observing Block Observing Block Measurement Set “Post-amble” “Post-amble” Preamble Preamble “Post-amble” Measurement Set “Post-amble” “Post-amble” “Post-amble” July 18 - 19, 2002 2 2 Observing Observing Block Block Block Observing Observing Observing Block Block ok Archive: Preamble Observing Block Observing Block 34 ready Preamble “Post-amble” 1 3 Observing Block Observing Observing Block Block Observing Block Observing Observing Block Block ready Preamble Execution: Preamble ready Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Preamble Observing Block Observing Block 22 “Post-amble” “Post-amble” Preamble Preamble 1 “Post-amble” Preamble Input Queue: ok Measurement Set Boyd Waters 13
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An Ontology level is needed XML Ontology 256 imports Ontologies add • Structure • Constraints • mappings imports XML Ontology 1 XML Ontology 42 = <> We need a way to define ontologies in XML So we can relate them So machines can understand (to some degree) their meaning
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Transparent Scalability  Hardware is free to assign blocks to any SM (processor)  A kernel scales across any number of parallel processors Device Kernel grid Device Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 0 Block 1 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 26 time Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Each block can execute in any order relative to other blocks.
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Answer #include struct Book { char title[50]; char author[50]; char subject[100]; int book_id; }; void printBook( struct Book *book ) { /* function declaration */ void printBook( struct Book *book ); printf( printf( printf( printf( int main( ) { struct Book Book1; struct Book Book2; /* Declare Book1 of type Book */ /* Declare Book2 of type Book */ "Book "Book "Book "Book title : %s\n", book->title); author : %s\n", book->author); subject : %s\n", book->subject); book_id : %d\n\n", book->book_id); } /* book 1 specification */ strcpy( Book1.title, "C Programming"); strcpy( Book1.author, "Nuha Ali"); strcpy( Book1.subject, "C Programming Tutorial"); Book1.book_id = 6495407; /* book 2 specification */ strcpy( Book2.title, "Telecom Billing"); strcpy( Book2.author, "Zara Ali"); strcpy( Book2.subject, "Telecom Billing Tutorial"); Book2.book_id = 6495700; /* print Book1 info by passing address of Book1 */ printBook( &Book1 ); /* print Book2 info by passing address of Book2 */ printBook( &Book2 ); return 0; } Copyright © 2017 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC an Ascend Learning Company
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Transparent Scalability Hardware is free to assign blocks to any processor at any time  A kernel scales across any number of parallel processors Device Device Kernel grid Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 0 Block 2 Block 1 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7  Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 time Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Each block can execute in any CUDA Tools and Threads – Slide order relative 69
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SecureX Solutions • Secure Edge and Branch – The goal of the Cisco secure edge and branch is to deploy devices and systems to detect and block attacks and exploits, and prevent intruder access. With firewall and intrusion prevention in standalone and integrated deployment options, organizations can avoid attacks and meet compliance requirements. • Secure Email and Web – Cisco secure email and web solutions reduce costly downtime associated with email-based spam, viruses, and web threats, and are available in a variety of form factors, including on-premise appliances, cloud services, and hybrid security deployments with centralized management. • Secure Access – Secure access technologies are put in place to enforce network security policies, secure user and host access controls, and control network access based on dynamic conditions. • Secure Mobility – Cisco secure mobility solutions promote highly secure mobile connectivity with VPN, wireless security, and remote workforce security solutions that extend network access safely and easily to a wide range of users and devices. • Secure Data Center and Virtualization – Cisco secure data center and virtualization solutions protect high-value data and data center resources with threat defense, secure virtualization, segmentation and policy control. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 31
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Overview of Lecture Notes  Introduction to Game Theory: Lecture 1, book 1  Non-cooperative Games: Lecture 1, Chapter 3, book 1  Bayesian Games: Lecture 2, Chapter 4, book 1  Differential Games: Lecture 3, Chapter 5, book 1  Evolutionary Games: Lecture 4, Chapter 6, book 1  Cooperative Games: Lecture 5, Chapter 7, book 1  Auction Theory: Lecture 6, Chapter 8, book 1  Matching Game: Lecture 7, Chapter 2, book 2  Contract Theory, Lecture 8, Chapter 3, book 2  Learning in Game, Lecture 9, Chapter 6, book 2  Stochastic Game, Lecture 10, Chapter 4, book 2  Game with Bounded Rationality, Lecture 11, Chapter 5, book 2  Equilibrium Programming with Equilibrium Constraint, Lecture 12, Chapter 7, book 2  Zero Determinant Strategy, Lecture 13, Chapter 8, book 2  Mean Field Game, Lecture 14, UCLA course, book 2  Network Economy, Lecture 15, Dr. Jianwei Huang, book 2 [2]
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03/18/19 18:01 9 Example 0 0849350808 0 0 0 Bhavani Thuraisingham 0 CRC Press 0 2001 0 0849300371 0 0
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Overview of Lecture Notes  Introduction to Game Theory: Lecture 1, book 1  Non-cooperative Games: Lecture 1, Chapter 3, book 1  Bayesian Games: Lecture 2, Chapter 4, book 1  Differential Games: Lecture 3, Chapter 5, book 1  Evolutionary Games: Lecture 4, Chapter 6, book 1  Cooperative Games: Lecture 5, Chapter 7, book 1  Auction Theory: Lecture 6, Chapter 8, book 1  Matching Game: Lecture 7, Chapter 2, book 2  Contract Theory, Lecture 8, Chapter 3, book 2  Learning in Game, Lecture 9, Chapter 6, book 2  Stochastic Game, Lecture 10, Chapter 4, book 2  Game with Bounded Rationality, Lecture 11, Chapter 5, book 2  Equilibrium Programming with Equilibrium Constraint, Lecture 12, Chapter 7, book 2  Zero Determinant Strategy, Lecture 13, Chapter 8, book 2  Mean Field Game, Lecture 14, UCLA course, book 2  Network Economy, Lecture 15, Dr. Jianwei Huang, book 2 [2]
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Question - books.c • Write a program to define a structure called Book. The Book structure should have a title, author, subject and a book id as attributes. • Write a function printBook(struct Books *book) that print book details: • E.g Book title : C Programming Book author : Sam Anders Book subject : C Programming [email protected] 117 ~/CS310/ch02]$ ./books Book book_id : 6495407 Book title : C Programming • In theBook main function declare and initialize 2 books and print author : Sam Anders Book subject : C Programming Tutorial their details: Book book_id : 6495407 Book Book Book Book title : Telecom Billing author : Sara Smith subject : Telecom Billing Tutorial book_id : 6495700 Copyright © 2017 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC an Ascend Learning Company
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Fully Associative Cache 5-bitoffset offsetsupports supports 5-bit 32bytes bytesper perblock block 32 Fully-associative cache does not need Set Index field. Index=0 corresponding to one set. Address Addressisispartitioned partitionedinto into • Block address • Block address • Block offset which identifies the data • Block offset which identifies the data within withinthe theblock block • Block can go anywhere in the cache • Block can go anywhere in the cache • Must examine all blocks • Must examine all blocks • Each cache block has a Tag • Each cache block has a Tag • Tag is compared to block number • Tag is compared to block number • If one of the blocks has Tag=Block # • If one of the blocks has Tag=Block # we wehave haveaahit hit • Need a comparator per cache block • Need a comparator per cache block • Comparisons performed in parallel • Comparisons performed in parallel • • Spring 2016, arz CPE555A – Real-Time Embedded Systems Stevens Institute of Technology 42
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  Exemplary Message is relevant and appropriate to goals, audiences, purposes and situations Select creative and Choice of message modalities is creative appropriate and uses appropriate modalities and technologies. technologies Adapt message to Message is appropriately diverse audiences adapted to the diverse needs of individuals, groups and situations. Multiple appropriate Use of multiple communication communication modalities are used. modalities Select relevant information Adjust messages during communication   Accomplished Message is relevant and appropriate to goals, audiences or purposes, but not to all of these. Choice of message modalities works but is not particularly creative. Message relevance is somewhat obvious and appropriate to the topic. Choice of message modalities misses out on creative or technological opportunities. Message is adapted to Message is adapted to a some individuals groups limited group or situation. and situations. More than one Multiple communication appropriate modalities are used but communication modality some are not effective for is used. the message. The communication Attempts were made to Attempts to monitor the event was closely monitor the communication event monitored and the communication event and could have been better message was adjusted as adjust messages as thought out or necessary. necessary. implemented.       Data was collected Data was collected but during the not thoroughly analyzed Critically reflect on communication event and reflected on. message after the and analyzed including a communication personal reflection on event the communication process.   Promising Attempts to collect data and reflect on the communication event could have been better though out. Incomplete Message relevance is not clear or not appropriate for audience. Choice of message modalities is ineffective or inappropriate. Intended audience for message is unclear. Only one communication modality is used or those that are used are not effective. No attempts to monitor or adjust the message was made during the communication event.   No attempt was made to collect data, analyze or reflect on the communication event.
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1. Insert students’ names in alphabetical order Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name Name
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6. The Persistence of File System Metadata: The HDFS namespace is stored by the NameNode. The NameNode uses a transaction log called the EditLog to persistently record every change that occurs to file system metadata. For example, creating a new file in HDFS causes the NameNode to insert a record into the EditLog indicating this. Similarly, changing the replication factor of a file causes a new record to be inserted into the EditLog. The NameNode uses a file in its local host OS file system to store the EditLog. The entire file system namespace, including the mapping of blocks to files and file system properties, is stored in a file called the FsImage. The FsImage is stored as a file in the NameNode’s local file system too. The NameNode keeps an image of the entire file system namespace and file Blockmap in memory. This key metadata item is designed to be compact, such that a NameNode with 4 GB of RAM is plenty to support a huge number of files and directories. When the NameNode starts up, it reads the FsImage and EditLog from disk, applies all the transactions from the EditLog to the in-memory representation of the FsImage, and flushes out this new version into a new FsImage on disk. It can then truncate the old EditLog because its transactions have been applied to the persistent FsImage. This process is called a checkpoint. In the current implementation, a checkpoint only occurs when the NameNode starts up. Work is in progress to support periodic checkpointing in the near future. The DataNode stores HDFS data in files in its local file system. The DataNode has no knowledge about HDFS files. It stores each block of HDFS data in a separate file in its local file system. The DataNode does not create all files in the same directory. Instead, it uses a heuristic to determine the optimal number of files per directory and creates subdirectories appropriately. It is not optimal to create all local files in the same directory because the local file system might not be able to efficiently support a huge number of files in a single directory. When a DataNode starts up, it scans through its local file system, generates a list of all HDFS data blocks that correspond to each of these local files and sends this report to the NameNode: this is the Blockreport. 7. The Communication Protocols: All HDFS communication protocols are layered on top of the TCP/IP protocol. A client establishes a connection to a configurable TCP port on the NameNode machine. It talks the ClientProtocol with the NameNode. The DataNodes talk to the NameNode using the DataNode Protocol. A Remote Procedure Call (RPC) abstraction wraps both the Client Protocol and the DataNode Protocol. By design, the NameNode never initiates any RPCs. Instead, it only responds to RPC requests issued by DataNodes or clients. 8. Robustness: The primary objective of HDFS is to store data reliably even in the presence of failures. The three common types of failures are NameNode failures, DataNode failures and network partitions. 8.1. Data Disk Failure, Heartbeats and Re-Replication: Each DataNode sends a Heartbeat message to the NameNode periodically. A network partition can cause a subset of DataNodes to lose connectivity with the NameNode. The NameNode detects this condition by the absence of a Heartbeat message. The NameNode marks DataNodes without recent Heartbeats as dead and does not forward any new IO requests to them. Any data that was registered to a dead DataNode is not available to HDFS any more. DataNode death may cause the replication factor of some blocks to fall below their specified value. The NameNode constantly tracks which blocks need to be replicated and initiates replication whenever necessary. The necessity for re-replication may arise due to many reasons: a DataNode may become unavailable, a replica may become corrupted, a hard disk on a DataNode may fail, or the replication factor of a file may be increased. 8.2. Cluster Rebalancing: HDFS arch is compatible with data rebalancing . A scheme might automatically move data from 1 DataNode to another if the free space on a DataNode falls below a certain threshold. In the event of a sudden high demand for a particular file, a scheme might dynamically create additional replicas and rebalance other data in the cluster. These types of data rebalancing schemes are not yet implemented. 8.3. Data Integrity: It is possible that a block of data fetched from a DataNode arrives corrupted. This corruption can occur because of faults in a storage device, network faults, or buggy software. The HDFS client software implements checksum checking on the contents of HDFS files. When a client creates an HDFS file, it computes a checksum of each block of the file and stores these checksums in a separate hidden file in the same HDFS namespace. When a client retrieves file contents it verifies that the data it received from each DataNode matches the checksum stored in the associated checksum file. If not, then the client can opt to retrieve that block from another DataNode that has a replica of that block.
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Reducing Memory Overhead    Sub-block 0 Protect two I-blocks with one signature Signature produced by XORing signatures of all sub-blocks Need both blocks to calculate signature, other block may or may not be in cache Miss on Condition Action Block A Block B in cache Fetch block A and Signature Block B not in cache Fetch blocks A and B (stored in IOB) and Signature Block B Block A in cache Fetch block B and Signature Block A not in cache Fetch A, B, and Signature Sub-block 1 Block A Sub-block 2 Sub-block 3 Block B Signature Instruction Opportunity Buffer Tag I-block Valid Flag 0 1 ... m-1 22
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