CCR (Corners of Circumscribing Coordinate Rectangle) (rnd-f, rnd-g, then lin-d) f=MinVecX≡(minXx1..minXxn) g≡MaxVecX≡(maxXx1..maxXxn), d≡(g-f)/|g-f| Sequence thru main diagonal pairs, {f, g} lexicographically. For each, create d. Notes: No calculation required to find f and g (assuming f1=MnVec RnGp>4 none start g1=MxVec RnGp>4 Sub 0 7 vir18... Clus1 1 47 ver30 Sub 0 53 ver49.. Clus2 0 74 set14 SubClus1 Lin>4 none f2=0001 RnGp>4 none CCR-1. Do SpS((x-f)o(x-f)) round gap analysis CCR-2. Do SpS((x-g)o(x-g)) rnd gap analysis. CCR-3. Do SpS((xod)) linear gap analysis. SubCluster2 g2=1110 RnGp>4 none This ends SubClus2 = 47 setosa only Lin>4 none f1=0000 RnGp>4 none g1=1111 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f3=0010 RnGp>4 none f2=0001 RnGp>4 none g2=1110 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none Lin>4 none f3=0010 RnGp>4 none g3=1101 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f4=0011 RnGp>4 none f4=0011 RnGp>4 none g4=1100 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f5=0100 RnGp>4 none g5=1011 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none g3=1101 RnGp>4 none g4=1100 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f5=0100 RnGp>4 none g5=1011 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f6=0101 RnGp>4 none g6=1010 RnGp>4 none f6=0101 RnGp>4 1 19 set26 0 28 ver49 0 31 set42 0 31 ver8 0 32 set36 0 32 ver44 1 35 ver11 0 41 ver13 ver49 0.0 19.8 3.9 21.3 3.9 7.2 Lin>4 none f7=0110 RnGp>4 none g7=1001 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f8=0111 RnGp>4 none g8=1000 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none f7=0110 RnGp>4 1 28 ver13 0 33 vir49 f8=0111 RnGp>4 none set42 ver8 19.8 3.9 0.0 21.6 21.6 0.0 10.4 23.9 21.8 1.4 23.8 4.6 set36 ver44 ver11 21.3 3.9 7.2 10.4 21.8 23.8 23.9 1.4 4.6 0.0 24.2 27.1 24.2 0.0 3.6 27.1 3.6 0.0 g6=1010 RnGp>4 none g7=1001 RnGp>4 none g8=1000 RnGp>4 none Lin>4 none Lin>4 none Lin>4 none MaxVecX and MinVecX have been calculated and residualized when PTreeSetX was captured.) 3. (and 2.?) may be unproductive in finding new subclusters (either because 1 finds almost all or because 2 and/or 3 find the same ones) and could be skipped (very likely if dimension is high, since the main diagonal corners are typically far from X, in a high dimensional vector space and thus the radii of a round gap is large and large radii rnd gaps are near linear, suggesting a will find all the subclusters that b and c would find. 2. good!, else setosa/versicolor+virginica are not separated! 3. is unproductive, suggesting productive to calculate 1., 2. but having done that, 3. will probably not be productive. Next consider only 3. to see if it is as productive as 1.+2. Subc2.1 ver49 ver8 ver44 ver11 CCR is as good as the combo (projection on d appears to be as accurate as the combination of square length of f and of g). This is probably because the round gaps (centered at the corners) are nearly linear by the time they get to the set X itself. To compare the time costs, we note: Combo (p-x)o(p-x) = pop + xox2xop = pop + k=1..nxk2 + k=1..n(-2pk)xk has n multiplications in the second term, n scalar multiplications and n additions in the third term. For both p=f and p=g, then, it takes 2n multiplications, 2n scalar multiplications and 2n additions. For CCR, xod = k=1..n(dk)xk involves n scalar mults and n additions. It appears to be cheaper (timewise) This ends SubClus1 = 95 ver and vir samples only

RC4 Security claimed secure against known attacks There are some attacks, none practical result is very non-linear since RC4 is a stream cipher, must never reuse a key There are concerns with WEP, but due to key handling rather than RC4 itself

WEP (continued) • RC4 issues – RC4 uses a pseudo random number generator (PRNG) to create the keystream • PRNG does not create a true random number – First 256 bytes of the RC4 cipher can be determined • By bytes in the key itself – RC4 source code (or a derivation) has been revealed • Attackers can see how the keystream itself is generated • WEP attack tools – AirSnort, Aircrack, ChopChop WEP Cracker, and WEP Crack CWSP Guide to Wireless Security 36

Summary RSA’s RC4 is used in many security protocols including WEP and SSL WEP is inherently weak but the weakness is not due to RC4 encryption TKIP and other similar key rotation schemes correct the problem with WEP while retaining RC4 stream cipher RC5 is the most well-known block cipher RC5 is a parameterized algorithm with a variable block size, variable key size and a variable number of rounds This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number DUE0302909. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Science Foundation.

Why Deep Learning? Different Classifiers on the MNIST Database Linear classifier Pairwise linear classifier None Deskewing Error rate (%) 7.6[9] K-Nearest Neighbors K-NN with non-linear deformation (P2DHMDM) None Shiftable edges 0.52[18] Boosted Stumps Product of stumps on Haar features None Haar features 0.87[19] Non-linear classifier 40 PCA + quadratic classifier None Support vector machine Virtual SVM, deg-9 poly, 2pixel jittered None Neural network 2-layer 784-800-10 None None Neural network 2-layer 784-800-10 elastic distortions None 1.6[21] 0.7[21] Deep neural network 6-layer 784-2500-2000-15001000-500-10 elastic distortions None 0.35[22] Convolutional neural network 6-layer 784-40-80-500-10002000-10 None Expansion of the training data 0.31[15] Convolutional neural network 6-layer 784-50-100-500-100010-10 None Expansion of the training data 0.27[16] Convolutional neural network Committee of 35 CNNs, 1-20P-40-P-150-10 elastic distortions Width normalizations 0.23[8] Convolutional neural network Committee of 5 CNNs, 6-layer 784-50-100-500-1000-10-10 None Expansion of the training data 0.21[17] Distortion https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MNIST_database 9 Preprocessing None 3.3[9] 0.56[20] Deskewing P Classifier DE E Type

Concerns About ALN Learning Concerns About the Explosion of ALN in Education Concerns About Residency Living & Learning on Campus Concerns About Impersonality and Becoming Irrevocably Orwellian Concerns About Making ALN Learning Too Easy Concerns About Making ALN Learning Too Hard Concerns About Corporate Influences on Traditional Missions Concerns About Library Services Concerns About Academic Standards and Student Ethics Concerns About Messaging Overload Concerns About Faculty Efficiency and Burnout Concerns About Misleading and Fraudulent Web Sites Concerns About CyberPsychology Concerns About Computer Services and Network Reliability Concerns About Faculty Resistance to Change Concerns About Effectiveness of Learning Technologies in Large Classes 1-58

Substitution Cryptosystems How many possible keys does an affine cipher on have? 7. Encrypt using a rotation cipher over with . 8. Encrypt using an affine cipher over with 9. Cipher X consists of a rotation, and then an affine cipher. What type of cipher is X? 10. Cipher Y is a substitution cipher over . Cipher consists of applying Y twenty-four times. What type of cipher is X? Be as specific as possible. 6.