Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks on Blocks! Dynamically Rearranging Synteny Blocks in Comparative Genomes Nick Egan’s Final Project Presentation for BIO 131 Intro to Computational Biology Taught by Anna Ritz
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Advantages and Limitations of CTR  efficiency   can do parallel encryptions in h/w or s/w can preprocess in advance of need  random access to encrypted data blocks  provable security (good as other modes)  but must ensure never reuse key/counter values, otherwise could break.
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Entrepreneurship: is it good enough to be social? John F. McVea and Michael J. Naughton Introduction • The term Social Entrepreneurship has experienced a huge growth in influence over that last decade. The literature proposes a number of advantages to social entrepreneurship as a frame of reference: • Promoting innovation within non-profits • Leveraging and focusing scarce philanthropic resources • Faster response to strategic challenges • Infusion of business skills to non-business world • Involvement of non government assets in social problems • Creation of hybrid (blurred) organizations between for profit and non profit worlds. It is widely observed that practice has outpaced theoretical development leading to little agreement on definitions or frameworks for social entrepreneurship. We believe that widespread and unchallenged acceptance of the term Social Entrepreneurship masks some dangers and has contributed to confusion in the field. We believe that if we apply some insights from Catholic Social Teaching to the issue of social entrepreneurship we can move beyond the false dichotomy of Entrepreneurship/ Social Entrepreneurship and identify three specific entrepreneurial strategies which support a more robust discussion of the nature of the work that is entrepreneurship. We believe that the field would benefit from spending less time discussing social entrepreneurship and more time discussion the nature of the good entrepreneur. • • • • • The dangers of naïve acceptance of Social Entrepreneurship • • • The rhetorical risk: • Narrow definition: if S.E. is simply used to rebrand non-profits then much of the value of the new activities, hybrid design, stimulation of new resources and innovation is lost. • Implied dichotomy: if “good” ventures are termed “social” it can imply that other forms of entrepreneurship are “asocial” or “anti social” • Boundarylessness: In contrast, if all business activities are deemed “social”, to some degree or other, then the term loses all meaning focus on the distinctive phenomenon that is S.E. Despite these risks we are more concerned with a risk beyond rhetoric; the risk of undermining the meaning of work, particularly from the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching. While this perspective is drawn from the Catholic tradition, accepting the content of CST does not require acceptance of Catholic faith (Guitan, 2009). The three goods of social entrepreneurship • We are concerned by the side-effects of a concentration thesis that suggests that the moral responsibilities of entrepreneurship can be concentrated in a subset of businesses called social enterprises, presumably leaving other enterprise to simply concentrate on serving themselves. • We are concerned by the impact such a concentration thesis could have on the conception of the meaning of work beyond the world of social enterprise. • We are concerned with how such an approach can focus attention solely on the altruistic contributions of entrepreneurial ventures as the sole measure of their contribution to the Common Good • Instead we propose that, rather than trying to determine the difference between entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, it would be more productive to focus on the questions “What is Good Entrepreneurship? What action and activities define that goodness?” • We further propose that, by apply the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching, we can identify three specific strategies through which entrepreneurial ventures may contribute to the Common Good thus suggesting that good entrepreneurship requires a focus on: 1. Good Goods. The primary way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is by bringing into existence new products and services which are inherently good and which enrich lives and minimize any unintended harms. This can include what we call the “entrepreneurship of the mundane”, that is, the manufacture of the nuts and bolts and basic necessities of life as well as the creation of life saving treatments. However, inclusion of good goods as a primary moral contribution of entrepreneurship must also require of the entrepreneur analysis of what goods are not good, and what aspects of even good goods should be redesigned or rethought in order to minimize unintended consequences. We find, in our discussions, that this is a much under appreciated dimension of the good of entrepreneurship. 2. Good Work. The second way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is through the nature of the work that is carried out by the venture. This dimension has several aspects both internal and external to the entrepreneur: • The development of good character in the entrepreneur. This aspect of the good is derived from the subjective dimension of work, that is, just as how-we-work ends up changing the world, so working-on-the-world changes us. Most professionals spend the majority of their waking hours at work. As habits, character and wisdom are developed through experience and activity, for the entrepreneur, doing good work is an important opportunity to develop character. Society as a whole is better off for having good, successful entrepreneurial leaders who, through that calling, can become leaders of character. This dimension of the entrepreneurial good is widely unappreciated even by entrepreneurs themselves • Good relations with employees, customers and other stakeholders. Value creation and trade creates opportunities for the building of social relationships. The central question is “Are you in good relation with those with whom you create value?’ Do your employees have opportunity to develop as people? 3. Good Wealth. The third way the good entrepreneur can contribute to the Common Good is through the creation of good wealth. Good wealth requires a balance of reward for labor/ creativity with the provision of a living wage to all. Good wealth is often captured by individual action but has social strings attached. From the CST perspective the creation of good wealth implies a particular solidarity with the poor. One way to contribute to the common good is to donate altruistically to those in need. But even here, altruism is only one of a number of possible strategies. Good entrepreneurs may also contribute by donating their time or their particular skills. Indeed, since the donation of time and work often requires physical interaction with those in need, it often generates a solidarity of far greater integrity. Finally, it must be emphasized that altruism, for the entrepreneur, is always dependent, indeed subsequent to the creation of good wealth in the first place. Literature cited Alvord, Sarah, David L. Brown, and Christine W. Letts, 2004. “Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 40:260. Benedict XVI, Caritas et veritate,   Boschee, Jerr. 1998 “What does it take to be a social entrepreneur?” National Centre for Social Entrepreneurs (www.socialentrepreneurs.org/whatdoes/html), 5pp.   Cannon, Carl. 2000. “Charity for profit: how the new social entrepreneurs are creating good by sharing wealth” National Journal, June 16: 1898-1904.   Christie, Michael and Benson Honig. 2006. “Social entrepreneurship: New research findings.” Journal of World Business. 41: 1-5.   Dees, Gregory, J., 1998. “The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship,’” Original Draft: 10/3.   Drucker, P.F. 1985. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper & Row.   Fowler, Alan. “NGDOs as a moment in history: beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation?” Third World Quarterly, 21(4): 637-654.   Gregg, S. and G. Preece: 1999, Christianity and Entrepreneurship (The Centre for Independent Studies Limited, St. Leonards, NSW, Australia).   Hibbert, Sally A., Gillian Hogg and Theresa Quinn. “Consumer response to social entrepreneurship: The case of the Big Issue in Scotland.” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 7(3): 288-301.   Johnson, Sherrill, 2000. “Literature Review on Social Entrepreneurship,” Canadian Center for social Entrepreneurship. (http://www.bus.ualberta.ca/ccse/Publications/).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Laborem Exercens (On Human Work): 1981, in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (On Social Concern): 1987 in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   Kennedy, R., G, Atkinson, and M. Naughton, (eds.): 1994, Dignity of Work: John Paul II Speaks To Managers and Workers (University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland).   Mair, Johanna and Ernesto Noboa, 2003. “Social Entrepreneurship: How Intentions to Create a Social Enterprise get Formed,” IESE Business School.   Mair, Johanna and Ignasi Marti, 2006. “Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight,” Journal of World Business. 41: 36-44.   Melé, D.:2001, ‘A Challenge for Business Enterprises: Introducing the Primacy of the Subjective Meaning of Work in Work Organization’, (http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/mgmt/le/papers/mele.htm) Conclusions We have argued that, while there is great promise in the contemporary social entrepreneurship movement, there are also a number of important dangers. We propose that, if we confront rather than acquiesce to these dangers, we can use the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching to broaden the scope of entrepreneurial ventures that we study, to enrich the moral dimension of entrepreneurial strategy and to deepen the teaching of entrepreneurship as a whole. We recommend the following to move toward these contributions: • Incorporate social entrepreneurship into entrepreneurship in a way that enhances the three goods of entrepreneurship. Specifically we propose replacing the questions “What is social entrepreneurship?” with the questions “What does it mean to be a Good entrepreneur?” From this perspective we can then apply what we have called the three goods of entrepreneurship as a means of supplying critical challenge and inspiration to all forms of entrepreneurship such that the true moral dimension of this critical force in our lives comes into fruition. • Encourage research within the entrepreneurship discipline that addresses traditional social entrepreneurial issues such as micro lending, fair trade products, etc. • Develop bridge courses such as Theo/Cath 306 which help students understand and experience the meaning of the good entrepreneur as well as connect students to the spiritual and moral principles of a good entrepreneur. • Expose entrepreneurship students to so-called social entrepreneurs as well so-called conventional good entrepreneurs so they can see the spectrum of entrepreneurial activities. © File copyright Colin Purrington. You may use for making your poster, of course, but please do not plagiarize, adapt, or put on your own site. Also, do not upload this file, even if modified, to third-party file-sharing sites such as doctoc.com. If you have insatiable need to post a template onto your own site, search the internet for a different template to steal. File downloaded from http://colinpurrington.com/tips/ academic/posterdesign. Acknowledgments I am indebted to Michael Naughton and Laura Dunham for their reflections and thoughts on this paper.
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Geology 4677 Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •   • • Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11 • • • • • • • • • • 1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5 • • • • • • • 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Geology 4677 Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •     Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11           1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5   • • • • • 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Geology 4677 Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •     Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11           1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5    • • • • 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Geology 4677 Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •     Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11           1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5  • • • • • • 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7 2
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Geology 4677 Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •     Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11          • • • • • • • • • 1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Geology 4677 Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •     Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11           1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5 • • • • • • • 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Geology 4677 Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •     Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11     • • • • • • 1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5 • • • • • • • 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Geology 4677 Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •     Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11           1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5     • • • 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Geology 4677 Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •     Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11        • • • 1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5 • • • • • • • 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •     Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11           1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5      • • 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics Geology 4677 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7 – 2/22
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ESS 200C Space Plasma Physics ESS 154 Solar Terrestrial Physics M/W/F 10:00 – 11:15 AM Geology 4677 Instructors: C.T. Russell (Tel. x-53188; Office: Slichter 6869) R.J. Strangeway (Tel. x-66247; Office: Slichter 6869) •     Date 1/4 1/6 1/8 1/11      • • • • • 1/13 1/15 1/20 1/22 1/25 1/27 1/29 2/1 2/3 2/5 • • • • • • • 2/8 2/10 2/12 2/17 2/19 2/26 2/29 Day Topic Instructor M A Brief History of Solar Terrestrial Physics CTR W Upper Atmosphere / Ionosphere CTR F The Sun: Core to Chromosphere CTR M The Corona, Solar Cycle, Solar Activity Coronal Mass Ejections, and Flares CTR PS1 W The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 1 CTR F The Solar Wind and Heliosphere, Part 2 CTR W Physics of Plasmas RJS F MHD including Waves RJS M Solar Wind Interactions: Magnetized Planets YM W Solar Wind Interactions: Unmagnetized Planets YM F Collisionless Shocks CTR M Mid-Term W Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling I CTR F Solar Wind Magnetosphere Coupling II; The Inner Magnetosphere I CTR M The Inner Magnetosphere II CTR W Planetary Magnetospheres CTR F The Auroral Ionosphere RJS W Waves in Plasmas 1 RJS F Waves in Plasmas 2 RJS F Review CTR/RJS M Final Due PS2 PS3 PS4 PS5 PS6 PS7
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KBTU/Sq. Ft. by Building - 2007 Building Use Monticello 4,318,132.571 KBTU Belle Plaine Ctr 399,285.478 KBTU Belle Plaine Ctr II 114,826.339 KBTU Tipton CEO 1,034,935.035 KBTU Marion Ctr 1,124,151.272 KBTU Cedar Rapids Campus 91,471,662.321 KBTU IC Learning Ctr 497,630.236 KBTU IC Annex 712,191.274 KBTU KTOS Ctr 2,785,309.409 KBTU Williamsburg Ctr 533,351.035 KBTU Lincoln Ctr 2,018,567.669 KBTU IC Credit Ctr 4,827,044.568 KBTU Tipton Ctr 237,524.429 KBTU Vinton Ctr 481,708.931 KBTU Washington Ctr S 259,721.435 KBTU Washington Ctr N 97,323.886 KBTU Use/ft2 126.468 110.913 95.689 95.474 95.388 90.652 82.938 80.784 79.016 76.631 65.891 64.447 61.471 48.171 40.543 17.695
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HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System) is a distr file sys for commodity hdwr. Differences from other distr file sys are few but significant. HDFS is highly fault-tolerant and is designed to be deployed on low-cost hardware. HDFS provides hi thruput access to app data and is suitable for apps that have large data sets. HDFS relaxes a few POSIX requirements to enable streaming access to file system data. HDFS originally was infrastructure for Apache Nutch web search engine project, is part of Apache Hadoop Core http://hadoop.apache.org/core/ 2.1. Hardware Failure Hardware failure is the normal. An HDFS may consist of hundreds or thousands of server machines, each storing part of the file system’s data. There are many components and each component has a non-trivial prob of failure means that some component of HDFS is always non-functional. Detection of faults and quick, automatic recovery from them is core arch goal of HDFS. 2.2. Streaming Data Access Applications that run on HDFS need streaming access to their data sets. They are not general purpose applications that typically run on general purpose file systems. HDFS is designed more for batch processing rather than interactive use by users. The emphasis is on high throughput of data access rather than low latency of data access. POSIX imposes many hard requirements not needed for applications that are targeted for HDFS. POSIX semantics in a few key areas has been traded to increase data throughput rates. 2.3. Large Data Sets Apps on HDFS have large data sets, typically gigabytes to terabytes in size. Thus, HDFS is tuned to support large files. It provides high aggregate data bandwidth and scale to hundreds of nodes in a single cluster. It supports ~10 million files in a single instance. 2.4. Simple Coherency Model: HDFS apps need a write-once-read-many access model for files. A file once created, written, and closed need not be changed. This assumption simplifies data coherency issues and enables high throughput data access. A Map/Reduce application or a web crawler application fits perfectly with this model. There is a plan to support appending-writes to files in future [write once read many at file level] 2.5. “Moving Computation is Cheaper than Moving Data” A computation requested by an application is much more efficient if it is executed near the data it operates on. This is especially true when the size of the data set is huge. This minimizes network congestion and increases the overall throughput of the system. The assumption is that it is often better to migrate the computation closer to where the data is located rather than moving the data to where the app is running. HDFS provides interfaces for applications to move themselves closer to where the data is located. 2.6. Portability Across Heterogeneous Hardware and Software Platforms: HDFS has been designed to be easily portable from one platform to another. This facilitates widespread adoption of HDFS as a platform of choice for a large set of applications. 3. NameNode and DataNodes: HDFS has a master/slave architecture. An HDFS cluster consists of a single NameNode, a master server that manages the file system namespace and regulates access to files by clients. In addition, there are a number of DataNodes, usually one per node in the cluster, which manage storage attached to the nodes that they run on. HDFS exposes a file system namespace and allows user data to be stored in files. Internally, a file is 1 blocks stored in a set of DataNodes. The NameNode executes file system namespace operations like opening, closing, and renaming files and directories. It also determines the mapping of blocks to DataNodes. The DataNodes are responsible for serving read and write requests from the file system’s clients. The DataNodes also perform block creation, deletion, and replication upon instruction The NameNode and DataNode are pieces of software designed to run on commodity machines, typically run GNU/Linux operating system (OS). HDFS is built using the Java language; any machine that supports Java can run the NameNode or the DataNode software. Usage of the highly portable Java language means that HDFS can be deployed on a wide range of machines. A typical deployment has a dedicated machine that runs only the NameNode software. Each of the other machines in the cluster runs one instance of the DataNode software. The architecture does not preclude running multiple DataNodes on the same machine but in a real deployment that is rarely the case. The existence of a single NameNode in a cluster greatly simplifies the architecture of the system. The NameNode is the arbitrator and repository for all HDFS metadata. The system is designed in such a way that user data never flows through the NameNode. 4. The File System Namespace: HDFS supports a traditional hierarchical file organization. A user or an application can create directories and store files inside these directories. The file system namespace hierarchy is similar to most other existing file systems; one can create and remove files, move a file from one directory to another, or rename a file. HDFS does not yet implement user quotas or access permissions. HDFS does not support hard links or soft links. However, the HDFS architecture does not preclude implementing these features. The NameNode maintains the file system namespace. Any change to the file system namespace or its properties is recorded by the NameNode. An application can specify the number of replicas of a file that should be maintained by HDFS. The number of copies of a file is called the replication factor of that file. This info is stored by NameNode. 5. Data Replication: HDFS is designed to reliably store very large files across machines in a large cluster. It stores each file as a sequence of blocks; all blocks in a file except the last block are the same size. The blocks of a file are replicated for fault tolerance. The block size and replication factor are configurable per file. An application can specify the number of replicas of a file. The replication factor can be specified at file creation time and can be changed later. Files in HDFS are write-once and have strictly one writer at any time. The NameNode makes all decisions regarding replication of blocks. It periodically receives a Heartbeat and a Blockreport from each of the DataNodes in the cluster. Receipt of a Heartbeat implies that the DataNode is functioning properly. A Blockreport contains a list of all blocks on a DataNode
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KBTU/Sq. Ft. by Building - 2006 Building Use Monticello 4,165,029.972 KBTU Belle Plaine Ctr 380,179.646 KBTU Belle Plaine Ctr II 119,773.027 KBTU Tipton CEO 996,866.778 KBTU Cedar Rapids Campus 90,145,762.325 KBTU IC Annex 689,009.593 KBTU Marion Center 920,632.633 KBTU IC Learning Ctr 466,067.996 KBTU KTOS Center 2,710,569.569 KBTU Williamsburg Ctr 526,952.476 KBTU IC Credit Ctr 4,935,833.204 KBTU Tipton Center 240,323.623 KBTU Lincoln Ctr 1,769,757.910 KBTU Vinton Ctr 482,834.159 KBTU Washington Ctr S 268,456.155 KBTU Washington Ctr N 95,884.022 KBTU Use/ft2 121.984 105.605 99.811 91.962 89.338 78.154 78.119 77.678 76.896 75.712 65.899 62.196 57.769 48.283 41.907 17.433
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