OUTPUT FORMATS • TextOutputFormat: It is the default output format. It writes records as lines of text. • Binary Output: • SequenceFileOutputFormat: This output format writes sequence files as the output. • SequenceFileAsBinaryOutputFormat: This output format writes keys and values in binary format into a sequence file container. • MapFileOutputFormat: This output format writes map files as the output. • Multiple Output: This output format allows the programmer to write data to files. The file names are derived from the output key-value pairs to create more than one file. • LazyOutput: It is a wrapper output format which ensures tha the output file is created only when the first record is emitted in a given partition. • Database Output: This output format writes to relational database and
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Colored Petri Net Model [x=Failed, y=Active] output (z); action (Standby); SDEP_R1_C1 output (z); action (Standby); Syn_1 x [x=Active] UNIT 1 y Fail_R1 output (y); action (Failed); x x x T1 Spare output (z); action (Active); y [x=Active] z y output (y); action (Failed); y x x x C2 [x=Failed, y=Active] x z y y z SDEP_R1_C2 u Syn_2 UNIT output (z); action (Standby); CIS Dept., UMass Dartmouth output (b); action (true); T7 y b output (z); action (Standby); BOOL [x=Active] Stop [b=true] b T6 output (y); action (Failed); colset UNIT colset BOOL colset STATE var x, y, z var u var b b System_down Fail_C2 STATE [x=Failed, y=Active] y output (z); action (Standby); x 1`Active STATE x [x=Failed, y=Active] z 1`Standby SDEP_R2_C2 11/19/2007 y output (z); action (Standby); R2 [b=true] [x=Failed orelse y=Failed] output (y); action (Failed); LSH_2 z 1 BOOL b Run Fail_C1 LSH_1 STATE T2 1 Fail_R2 [x=Active] x STATE x [x=Failed, y=Active] R1_or_R2 x [x=Active] 1`Active y [x=Active] [x=Failed, y=Standby] u u 1 b System_up z 1`Active x [x=Active, y=Active, z=Active] y C1 STATE T5 y z R1 x output (b); action (true); SDEP_R2_C1 x y u x [x=Failed, y=Active] z [x=Failed] output (b); action (true); x = unit with e; = bool; = with Active | Standby | Failed; : STATE; : UNIT; : BOOL; 16
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Deadlock in CPN [x=Failed, y=Active] output (z); action (Standby); SDEP_R1_C1 output (z); action (Standby); Syn_1 x [x=Active] UNIT 1 y Fail_R1 output (y); action (Failed); x x x T1 Spare output (z); action (Active); y [x=Active] z y output (y); action (Failed); y x x x C2 [x=Failed, y=Active] x z y y z SDEP_R1_C2 u Syn_2 UNIT output (z); action (Standby); CIS Dept., UMass Dartmouth output (b); action (true); T7 y b output (z); action (Standby); BOOL [x=Active] Stop [b=true] b T6 output (y); action (Failed); colset UNIT colset BOOL colset STATE var x, y, z var u var b b System_down Fail_C2 STATE [x=Failed, y=Active] y output (z); action (Standby); x 1`Active STATE x [x=Failed, y=Active] z 1`Standby SDEP_R2_C2 11/19/2007 y output (z); action (Standby); R2 [b=true] [x=Failed orelse y=Failed] output (y); action (Failed); LSH_2 z 1 BOOL b Run Fail_C1 LSH_1 STATE T2 1 Fail_R2 [x=Active] x STATE x [x=Failed, y=Active] R1_or_R2 x [x=Active] 1`Active y [x=Active] [x=Failed, y=Standby] u u 1 b System_up z 1`Active x [x=Active, y=Active, z=Active] y C1 STATE T5 y z R1 x output (b); action (true); SDEP_R2_C1 x y u x [x=Failed, y=Active] z [x=Failed] output (b); action (true); x = unit with e; = bool; = with Active | Standby | Failed; : STATE; : UNIT; : BOOL; 18
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Output FeedBack (OFB)  message is treated as a stream of bits  output of cipher is added to message  output is then feed back (hence name)  feedback is independent of message  So feedback can be computed in advance
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Procedures and Functions (cont.) PROCEDURE PROCEDURE decode(SIGNAL decode(SIGNAL input input :: IN IN std_logic_vector(1 std_logic_vector(1 DOWNTO DOWNTO 0); 0); SIGNAL output : OUT std_logic_vector(3 DOWNTO SIGNAL output : OUT std_logic_vector(3 DOWNTO 0)) 0)) IS IS BEGIN BEGIN CASE CASE input input IS IS WHEN "00" WHEN "00" => => output <= output <= "0001"; "0001"; WHEN "01" => WHEN "01" => output output <= <= "0010"; "0010"; WHEN "10" => WHEN "10" => output output <= <= "0100"; "0100"; WHEN "11" => WHEN "11" => output output <= <= "1000"; "1000"; WHEN OTHERS => WHEN OTHERS => output output <= <= "XXXX"; "XXXX"; END CASE; END CASE; END END decode; decode; END END logic_package; logic_package; 24/03/19 UAH-CPE528 30
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Procedures and Functions (cont.) PROCEDURE PROCEDURE decode(SIGNAL decode(SIGNAL input input :: IN IN std_logic_vector(1 std_logic_vector(1 DOWNTO DOWNTO 0); 0); SIGNAL output : OUT std_logic_vector(3 DOWNTO SIGNAL output : OUT std_logic_vector(3 DOWNTO 0)) 0)) IS IS BEGIN BEGIN CASE CASE input input IS IS WHEN "00" WHEN "00" => => output <= output <= "0001"; "0001"; WHEN "01" => WHEN "01" => output output <= <= "0010"; "0010"; WHEN "10" => WHEN "10" => output output <= <= "0100"; "0100"; WHEN "11" => WHEN "11" => output output <= <= "1000"; "1000"; WHEN OTHERS => WHEN OTHERS => output output <= <= "XXXX"; "XXXX"; END CASE; END CASE; END END decode; decode; END END logic_package; logic_package; 24/03/19 UAH-CPE528 46
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OUTPUT PROCESS: FROM APPLICATION TO HARDWARE UDP UDP Output Output TCP TCP Output Output An application calls a system routine to buffer data, and notify Control the output Control Messages Messages process. TCP Timer Process TCP TCP Output Output Port Port IP Process The output process segments the data stream, encapsulates the TCP packets, and sends them to the IP process for delivery. Queues Queues For For Outgoing Outgoing Packets Packets Net1 Device Source: Internetworking with TCP/IP, Volume II by Douglas E. Comer and David L. Stevens CS An application calls system routines to have UDP allocate an IP datagram, fill in the proper destination address, encapsulate the UDP packet, and send it to the IP process for delivery. Queue Queue For For Datagrams Datagrams Sent Sent To To IP IP TCP Output Process Application Programs Net2 Device Operating System When the IP process enqueues an outgoing datagram, a device driver routine is called to start the hardware. When the output has occurred, the interrupt handler dequeues the datagram and restarts the hardware to send the next datagram. Netn Device Operating System Hardware Net1 Hardware Net2 Hardware Chapter 3 Netn Hardware Page 3
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