Cipher FeedBack (CFB)    message is treated as a stream of bits or bytes result is feed back for next stage (hence name) standard allows any number of bit (1,8, 64 or 128 etc) to be feed back   denoted CFB-1, CFB-8, CFB-64, CFB-128 etc most efficient to use all bits in block (64 or 128) Ci = Pi XOR EK(Ci-1) C-1 = IV  Used for stream data encryption
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Ron’s Code or Rivest Codes Scorecard Description RC2 RC4 RC5 RC6 Timeline 1987 1987 1994 1998 Type of Algorithm Block cipher Stream cipher Block cipher Block cipher Key size (in bits) 40 and 64 1 - 256 0 to 2040 bits (128 suggested) 128, 192, or 256 Variable key-size block cipher that was designed as a "drop-in" replacement for DES. Use Most widely used stream cipher based on a variable key-size Vernam stream cipher. It is often used in file encryption products and secure communications, such as within SSL. The cipher can be expected to run very quickly in software and is considered secure. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. A fast block cipher that has a variable block size and key size. It can be used as a dropin replacement for DES if the block size is set to 64-bit. An AES finalist (Rijndael won). A 128-bit to 256- bit block cipher that was designed by Rivest, Sidney, and Yin and is based on RC5. Its main design goal was to meet the requirement of AES. 104
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• Common security tools • AES-CTR mode 1 – Confidentiality & integrity scheme 2 – Hardware security management 3 – Security cost AES-GCM: Asolution counter based 4 – End to end checking • Fast Integrity Checking with AESGCM • Confidentiality & integrity in action mode with a low with latency integrity • Comparison previous work IV || @ 32 || IV96 || 96 || @32 TS TS32 32 128 bit 128 bit TS+ TS+ 1 1 128 bit IV || @ 32 || IV96 || 96 || @32 (TS+1) (TS+1)32 32 128 bit 128-bit 128-bit AES AES 128 bit 128-bit 128-bit AES AES 128 bit Plaintext Plaintext 1 1 128 bit 128 bit Plaintext Plaintext 2 2 128 bit ENCRYPTION & DECRYPTION CIRCUITRY 128 bit Ciphertext Ciphertext 1 1 Ciphertext Ciphertext 2 2 128 bit 128 bit Mult MultHH 128 bit 0064 || Len(C) 64 64 || Len(C)64 Mult MultHH 128 bit 128 bit 128 bit AUTHENTICATION CIRCUITRY Mult MultHH 128 bit Tag Tag 12
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Crossbar 7 1-bit 16-bit 16-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 16 1-bit 16-bit iterations 16-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 16-bit 1-bit 16-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 16-bit 1-bit 16-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit 2-bit Input Neurons
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Preamble “Post-amble” Block Execution: 3 Detail Observing Block Observing Block “Post-amble” “Post-amble” 3 Observing Block Observing Block ok Measurement Set ready “Post-amble” EVLA Data Processing PDR Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Failed! Preamble “Post-amble” Preamble ok ?4 5 Preamble ready Preamble Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Observing Block Observing Block Measurement Set “Post-amble” “Post-amble” Preamble Preamble “Post-amble” Measurement Set “Post-amble” “Post-amble” “Post-amble” July 18 - 19, 2002 2 2 Observing Observing Block Block Block Observing Observing Observing Block Block ok Archive: Preamble Observing Block Observing Block 34 ready Preamble “Post-amble” 1 3 Observing Block Observing Observing Block Block Observing Block Observing Observing Block Block ready Preamble Execution: Preamble ready Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Preamble Observing Block Observing Block 22 “Post-amble” “Post-amble” Preamble Preamble 1 “Post-amble” Preamble Input Queue: ok Measurement Set Boyd Waters 13
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ADDRESS MAPPING (MULTIPLE CHANNELS) C Row (14 bits) Bank (3 bits) Column (11 bits) Byte in bus (3 bits) Row (14 bits) C Bank (3 bits) Column (11 bits) Byte in bus (3 bits) Row (14 bits) Bank (3 bits) Column (11 bits) Byte in bus (3 bits) Row (14 bits) Bank (3 bits) C Column (11 bits) C Byte in bus (3 bits) • Where are consecutive cache blocks? C Row (14 bits) High Column Bank (3 bits) C High Column Bank (3 bits) High Column C Bank (3 bits) High Column Bank (3 bits) High Column 8 bits Low Col. Byte in bus (3 bits) C Low Col. Byte in bus (3 bits) 3 bits 8 bits Row (14 bits) Byte in bus (3 bits) 3 bits 8 bits Row (14 bits) Low Col. 3 bits 8 bits Row (14 bits) Byte in bus (3 bits) 3 bits 8 bits Row (14 bits) Low Col. Bank (3 bits) Low Col. C Byte in bus (3 bits) 3 bits 47
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Cipher Block Chaining • cipher block: if input block repeated, will produce same cipher text: t=1 … m(17) = “HTTP/1.1” t=17 • cipher block chaining: XOR ith input block, m(i), with previous block of cipher text, c(i-1) – c(0) transmitted to receiver in clear m(1) = “HTTP/1.1” block cipher c(1) block cipher c(17) m(i) c(i-1) + block cipher c(i) = “k329aM02” = “k329aM02”
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Transparent Scalability Hardware is free to assign blocks to any processor at any time  A kernel scales across any number of parallel processors Device Device Kernel grid Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 0 Block 2 Block 1 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7  Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 time Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Each block can execute in any CUDA Tools and Threads – Slide order relative 69
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View Policy RouterA# RouterA# show show crypto crypto isakmp isakmp policy policy Protection Protection suite suite of of priority priority 110 110 encryption DES encryption algorithm: algorithm: DES -- Data Data Encryption Encryption Standard Standard (56 (56 bit bit keys). keys). hash Message hash algorithm: algorithm: Message Digest Digest 55 authentication authentication method: method: pre-share pre-share Diffie-Hellman #1 Diffie-Hellman group: group: #1 (768 (768 bit) bit) lifetime: 86400 lifetime: 86400 seconds, seconds, no no volume volume limit limit Default Default protection protection suite suite encryption DES encryption algorithm: algorithm: DES -- Data Data Encryption Encryption Standard Standard (56 (56 bit bit keys). keys). hash algorithm: Secure Hash Standard hash algorithm: Secure Hash Standard authentication method: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman authentication method: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman Signature Signature Diffie-Hellman #1 Diffie-Hellman group: group: #1 (768 (768 bit) bit) lifetime: 86400 lifetime: 86400 seconds, seconds, no no volume volume limit limit © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 111
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Transparent Scalability  Hardware is free to assign blocks to any SM (processor)  A kernel scales across any number of parallel processors Device Kernel grid Device Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 0 Block 1 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 26 time Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Each block can execute in any order relative to other blocks.
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Storage Definitions and Notation Review The basic unit of computer storage is the bit. A bit can contain one of two values, 0 and 1. All other storage in a computer is based on collections of bits. Given enough bits, it is amazing how many things a computer can represent: numbers, letters, images, movies, sounds, documents, and programs, to name a few. A byte is 8 bits, and on most computers it is the smallest convenient chunk of storage. For example, most computers don’t have an instruction to move a bit but do have one to move a byte. A less common term is word, which is a given computer architecture’s native unit of data. A word is made up of one or more bytes. For example, a computer that has 64-bit registers and 64-bit memory addressing typically has 64-bit (8-byte) words. A computer executes many operations in its native word size rather than a byte at a time. Computer storage, along with most computer throughput, is generally measured and manipulated in bytes and collections of bytes. A kilobyte, or KB, is 1,024 bytes a megabyte, or MB, is 1,0242 bytes a gigabyte, or GB, is 1,0243 bytes a terabyte, or TB, is 1,0244 bytes a petabyte, or PB, is 1,0245 bytes Computer manufacturers often round off these numbers and say that a megabyte is 1 million bytes and a gigabyte is 1 billion bytes. Networking measurements are an exception to this general rule; they are given in bits (because networks move data a bit at a time). Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition 1.17 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
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