Preamble “Post-amble” Block Execution: 3 Detail Observing Block Observing Block “Post-amble” “Post-amble” 3 Observing Block Observing Block ok Measurement Set ready “Post-amble” EVLA Data Processing PDR Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Failed! Preamble “Post-amble” Preamble ok ?4 5 Preamble ready Preamble Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Observing Block Observing Block Measurement Set “Post-amble” “Post-amble” Preamble Preamble “Post-amble” Measurement Set “Post-amble” “Post-amble” “Post-amble” July 18 - 19, 2002 2 2 Observing Observing Block Block Block Observing Observing Observing Block Block ok Archive: Preamble Observing Block Observing Block 34 ready Preamble “Post-amble” 1 3 Observing Block Observing Observing Block Block Observing Block Observing Observing Block Block ready Preamble Execution: Preamble ready Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block Preamble Observing Block Observing Block 22 “Post-amble” “Post-amble” Preamble Preamble 1 “Post-amble” Preamble Input Queue: ok Measurement Set Boyd Waters 13
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Cipher Block Chaining • cipher block: if input block repeated, will produce same cipher text: t=1 … m(17) = “HTTP/1.1” t=17 • cipher block chaining: XOR ith input block, m(i), with previous block of cipher text, c(i-1) – c(0) transmitted to receiver in clear m(1) = “HTTP/1.1” block cipher c(1) block cipher c(17) m(i) c(i-1) + block cipher c(i) = “k329aM02” = “k329aM02”
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Ron’s Code or Rivest Codes Scorecard Description RC2 RC4 RC5 RC6 Timeline 1987 1987 1994 1998 Type of Algorithm Block cipher Stream cipher Block cipher Block cipher Key size (in bits) 40 and 64 1 - 256 0 to 2040 bits (128 suggested) 128, 192, or 256 Variable key-size block cipher that was designed as a "drop-in" replacement for DES. Use Most widely used stream cipher based on a variable key-size Vernam stream cipher. It is often used in file encryption products and secure communications, such as within SSL. The cipher can be expected to run very quickly in software and is considered secure. © 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. A fast block cipher that has a variable block size and key size. It can be used as a dropin replacement for DES if the block size is set to 64-bit. An AES finalist (Rijndael won). A 128-bit to 256- bit block cipher that was designed by Rivest, Sidney, and Yin and is based on RC5. Its main design goal was to meet the requirement of AES. 104
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Transparent Scalability  Hardware is free to assign blocks to any SM (processor)  A kernel scales across any number of parallel processors Device Kernel grid Device Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 0 Block 1 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 26 time Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Each block can execute in any order relative to other blocks.
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Transparent Scalability Hardware is free to assign blocks to any processor at any time  A kernel scales across any number of parallel processors Device Device Kernel grid Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 0 Block 2 Block 1 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7  Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 time Block 0 Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Block 6 Block 7 Each block can execute in any CUDA Tools and Threads – Slide order relative 69
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Substitution Cryptosystems  How many possible keys does an affine cipher on have? 7. Encrypt using a rotation cipher over with . 8. Encrypt using an affine cipher over with 9. Cipher X consists of a rotation, and then an affine cipher. What type of cipher is X? 10. Cipher Y is a substitution cipher over . Cipher consists of applying Y twenty-four times. What type of cipher is X? Be as specific as possible. 6.
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Block Execution Observing Block Observing Block 3 “Post-amble” Preamble Observing Block Observing Block “Post-amble” Preamble Observing Block Observing Block “Post-amble” EVLA Data Processing PDR Preamble Observing Observing Block Block Observing Observing Block Block “Post-amble” Observing Block Observing Block Preamble “Post-amble” 2 2 3 “Post-amble” July 18 - 19, 2002 “Post-amble” Observing Block Observing Block Preamble Preamble 1 “Post-amble” Preamble Execution: Observing Block Observing Block Preamble Observing Block Observing Block 2 “Post-amble” Preamble 1 “Post-amble” Preamble Input Queue: Observing Block Observing Block Boyd Waters 12
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Encryption Text:  Computer Security: Principles and Practice, W Stallings, L Brown  Chapter 2 Objectives: The student should be able to:         Define authentication, integrity, confidentiality and non-repudiation. Define plaintext, ciphertext, key, P-box, S-box, session key, digital signature, message digest, hash. Demonstrate operation of a simple substitution cipher, permutation cipher, stream cipher, block cipher, block chaining mode cipher. Describe why chaining is advantageous in block ciphers. Define symmetric versus asymmetric encryption algorithms and describe the differences between the two. Define the advantages of secret key and public key algorithms. Describe their functions in relation to authenticity, non-repudiation, integrity, confidentiality, and speed. Describe two methods of producing a hash. Define whether the following protocols support authentication, non-repudiation, integrity, and/or confidentiality via hashing or a type of encryption: AES, HMAC, DES, MD5, RCS, RSA.
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Reducing Memory Overhead    Sub-block 0 Protect two I-blocks with one signature Signature produced by XORing signatures of all sub-blocks Need both blocks to calculate signature, other block may or may not be in cache Miss on Condition Action Block A Block B in cache Fetch block A and Signature Block B not in cache Fetch blocks A and B (stored in IOB) and Signature Block B Block A in cache Fetch block B and Signature Block A not in cache Fetch A, B, and Signature Sub-block 1 Block A Sub-block 2 Sub-block 3 Block B Signature Instruction Opportunity Buffer Tag I-block Valid Flag 0 1 ... m-1 22
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Fully Associative Cache 5-bitoffset offsetsupports supports 5-bit 32bytes bytesper perblock block 32 Fully-associative cache does not need Set Index field. Index=0 corresponding to one set. Address Addressisispartitioned partitionedinto into • Block address • Block address • Block offset which identifies the data • Block offset which identifies the data within withinthe theblock block • Block can go anywhere in the cache • Block can go anywhere in the cache • Must examine all blocks • Must examine all blocks • Each cache block has a Tag • Each cache block has a Tag • Tag is compared to block number • Tag is compared to block number • If one of the blocks has Tag=Block # • If one of the blocks has Tag=Block # we wehave haveaahit hit • Need a comparator per cache block • Need a comparator per cache block • Comparisons performed in parallel • Comparisons performed in parallel • • Spring 2016, arz CPE555A – Real-Time Embedded Systems Stevens Institute of Technology 42
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SSL Cipher Suite • cipher suite – public-key algorithm – symmetric encryption algorithm – MAC algorithm Common SSL symmetric ciphers  DES – Data Encryption Standard: block  3DES – Triple strength: block  RC2 – Rivest Cipher 2: block  RC4 – Rivest Cipher 4: stream • SSL supports several cipher suites • negotiation: client, server SSL Public key encryption  RSA agree on cipher suite – client offers choice – server picks one Network © 2016 Kurose Security & Ross
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Criminal Background Checks • ALL Health Science Students at MGCCC MUST: 1. Comply with Mississippi Law and obtain a CBC 2. Obtain the CBC at a MGCCC Campus Police Office A. Important Information Concerning CBC      To Obtain the CBC, first visit a MGCCC Business Office for payment Take payment receipt and college I.D. to a MGCCC Campus Police Office Campus Police completes fingerprinting process and provides a receipt of confirmation Within 7 -10 days, students with “clear” results are to return to the same Campus Police Office to retrieve the official CBC results Official results that are “disqualifying” or “non-clear” are not sent to the Campus Police office but to the student’s mailing address. “Clear” results are required for all programs  “Disqualifying Event” results will be evaluated by the Health Sciences administrative team members for program acceptance according to the Mississippi CBC stature.  The student must submit the “disqualifying/non-clear” official letter to the Health Sciences Division prior to the program deadline to determine eligibility 70
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Criminal Background Checks • ALL Health Science Students at MGCCC MUST: 1. Comply with Mississippi Law and obtain a CBC 2. Obtain the CBC at a MGCCC Campus Police Office A. Important Information Concerning CBC  To Obtain the CBC, first visit a MGCCC Business Office for payment  Take payment receipt and college I.D. to a MGCCC Campus Police Office  Campus Police completes fingerprinting process and provides a receipt of confirmation  Within 7 -10 days, students with “clear” results are to return to the same Campus Police Office to retrieve the official CBC results  Official results that are “disqualifying” or “non-clear” are not sent to the Campus Police office but to the student’s mailing address. “Clear” results are required for all programs   “Disqualifying Event” results will be evaluated by the Health Sciences administrative team members for program acceptance according to the Mississippi CBC stature. The student must submit the “disqualifying/non-clear” official letter to the Health Sciences Division prior to the program deadline to determine eligibility 66
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Flow Chart Cipher Text  false false IC<=.0455 Cipher is Playfair false Cipher dist = normal dist Cipher is Vigenere false Error true IC >= .058 true IC = Index of coincidence Same freqs present Shift freq. = normal true true Cipher is Affine Cipher is Caesar true Cipher is transposition
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RECALL: Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)  CBC generates its own random numbers  Have encryption of current block depend on result of previous block  c(i) = K ( m(i)  c(i-1) ) S  m(i) = KS( c(i))  c(i-1)  How do we encrypt first block?  Initialization vector (IV): random block = c(0)  IV does not have to be secret  Change IV for each message (or session)  Guarantees that even if the same message is sent repeatedly, the ciphertext will be completely different each time 35
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Cipher Block Chaining (CBC)  CBC generates its own random numbers  Have encryption of current block depend on result of previous block  c(i) = KS( m(i)  c(i-1) )  m(i) = KS( c(i))  c(i-1)  How do we encrypt first block?   Initialization vector (IV): random block = c(0) IV does not have to be secret  Change IV for each message (or session)  Guarantees that even if the same message is sent repeatedly, the ciphertext will be completely different each time 21
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Block-Based Scheduler Telescope sees ONE BLOCK AT A TIME: Block Queue Observing Block Observing Block “Post-amble” Preamble “Post-amble” Preamble “Post-amble” Preamble Observing Block Observing Block Observing Block Observing Block Implications: “ready for next block” •Simplifies the telescope state data “here it is” “Post-amble” Preamble Telescope Observing Block Observing Block July 18 - 19, 2002 •Telescope reports block execution status back to the block queue •All “observing logic” is maintained by the Block Queue EVLA Data Processing PDR Boyd Waters 11
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