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ArcGIS Desktop  ArcInfo ArcInfo ArcEditor ArcEditor ArcView ArcView ArcGIS Desktop is scalable to meet the needs of many types of users. It is available at three functional levels: ◦ ArcView focuses on comprehensive data use, mapping, and analysis. ◦ ArcEditor adds advanced geographic editing and data creation. ◦ ArcInfo is a complete, professional GIS desktop product containing comprehensive GIS functionality, including rich geoprocessing capabilities.
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HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System) is a distr file sys for commodity hdwr. Differences from other distr file sys are few but significant. HDFS is highly fault-tolerant and is designed to be deployed on low-cost hardware. HDFS provides hi thruput access to app data and is suitable for apps that have large data sets. HDFS relaxes a few POSIX requirements to enable streaming access to file system data. HDFS originally was infrastructure for Apache Nutch web search engine project, is part of Apache Hadoop Core http://hadoop.apache.org/core/ 2.1. Hardware Failure Hardware failure is the normal. An HDFS may consist of hundreds or thousands of server machines, each storing part of the file system’s data. There are many components and each component has a non-trivial prob of failure means that some component of HDFS is always non-functional. Detection of faults and quick, automatic recovery from them is core arch goal of HDFS. 2.2. Streaming Data Access Applications that run on HDFS need streaming access to their data sets. They are not general purpose applications that typically run on general purpose file systems. HDFS is designed more for batch processing rather than interactive use by users. The emphasis is on high throughput of data access rather than low latency of data access. POSIX imposes many hard requirements not needed for applications that are targeted for HDFS. POSIX semantics in a few key areas has been traded to increase data throughput rates. 2.3. Large Data Sets Apps on HDFS have large data sets, typically gigabytes to terabytes in size. Thus, HDFS is tuned to support large files. It provides high aggregate data bandwidth and scale to hundreds of nodes in a single cluster. It supports ~10 million files in a single instance. 2.4. Simple Coherency Model: HDFS apps need a write-once-read-many access model for files. A file once created, written, and closed need not be changed. This assumption simplifies data coherency issues and enables high throughput data access. A Map/Reduce application or a web crawler application fits perfectly with this model. There is a plan to support appending-writes to files in future [write once read many at file level] 2.5. “Moving Computation is Cheaper than Moving Data” A computation requested by an application is much more efficient if it is executed near the data it operates on. This is especially true when the size of the data set is huge. This minimizes network congestion and increases the overall throughput of the system. The assumption is that it is often better to migrate the computation closer to where the data is located rather than moving the data to where the app is running. HDFS provides interfaces for applications to move themselves closer to where the data is located. 2.6. Portability Across Heterogeneous Hardware and Software Platforms: HDFS has been designed to be easily portable from one platform to another. This facilitates widespread adoption of HDFS as a platform of choice for a large set of applications. 3. NameNode and DataNodes: HDFS has a master/slave architecture. An HDFS cluster consists of a single NameNode, a master server that manages the file system namespace and regulates access to files by clients. In addition, there are a number of DataNodes, usually one per node in the cluster, which manage storage attached to the nodes that they run on. HDFS exposes a file system namespace and allows user data to be stored in files. Internally, a file is 1 blocks stored in a set of DataNodes. The NameNode executes file system namespace operations like opening, closing, and renaming files and directories. It also determines the mapping of blocks to DataNodes. The DataNodes are responsible for serving read and write requests from the file system’s clients. The DataNodes also perform block creation, deletion, and replication upon instruction The NameNode and DataNode are pieces of software designed to run on commodity machines, typically run GNU/Linux operating system (OS). HDFS is built using the Java language; any machine that supports Java can run the NameNode or the DataNode software. Usage of the highly portable Java language means that HDFS can be deployed on a wide range of machines. A typical deployment has a dedicated machine that runs only the NameNode software. Each of the other machines in the cluster runs one instance of the DataNode software. The architecture does not preclude running multiple DataNodes on the same machine but in a real deployment that is rarely the case. The existence of a single NameNode in a cluster greatly simplifies the architecture of the system. The NameNode is the arbitrator and repository for all HDFS metadata. The system is designed in such a way that user data never flows through the NameNode. 4. The File System Namespace: HDFS supports a traditional hierarchical file organization. A user or an application can create directories and store files inside these directories. The file system namespace hierarchy is similar to most other existing file systems; one can create and remove files, move a file from one directory to another, or rename a file. HDFS does not yet implement user quotas or access permissions. HDFS does not support hard links or soft links. However, the HDFS architecture does not preclude implementing these features. The NameNode maintains the file system namespace. Any change to the file system namespace or its properties is recorded by the NameNode. An application can specify the number of replicas of a file that should be maintained by HDFS. The number of copies of a file is called the replication factor of that file. This info is stored by NameNode. 5. Data Replication: HDFS is designed to reliably store very large files across machines in a large cluster. It stores each file as a sequence of blocks; all blocks in a file except the last block are the same size. The blocks of a file are replicated for fault tolerance. The block size and replication factor are configurable per file. An application can specify the number of replicas of a file. The replication factor can be specified at file creation time and can be changed later. Files in HDFS are write-once and have strictly one writer at any time. The NameNode makes all decisions regarding replication of blocks. It periodically receives a Heartbeat and a Blockreport from each of the DataNodes in the cluster. Receipt of a Heartbeat implies that the DataNode is functioning properly. A Blockreport contains a list of all blocks on a DataNode
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Important Legal Information for Adolescents and Parents According to Iowa law, a minor (an individual younger than 18 years) may seek medical care for the following without the permission or knowledge of his parents: • Substance abuse treatment; • Sexually Transmitted Infection(STI) testing and treatment; • HIV testing – if test is positive, Iowa law requires parent notification; • Contraceptive care and counseling, including emergency contraception; and Even though teenagers young • Blood donation if 17and years of age or adults can receive these treatments older. without their parent’s knowledge, it is important to remember parents are a key part of all aspects of your life. We encourage parents and teens to be open and honest with each other when it comes to health care decisions. It is important for teens to know that if they are covered by their parents’ medical insurance and want it to cover their treatment, they will need to consent to their medical records being shared – possibly even with parents. A minor may also consent for evaluation and treatment in a medical emergency or following a sexual assault. However, treatment information can not be kept confidential from parents. Bill of Rights for Teens and Young Adults • The things you tell us in confidence will be kept private. • We will speak and write respectfully about your teen and family. • We will honor your privacy. YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO: Emotional Support • Care that respects your teen’s growth and development. • We will consider all of your teen’s interests and needs, not just those related to illness or disability. Respect and Personal Dignity • You are important. We want to get to know you. • We will tell you who we are, and we will call you by your name. We will take time to listen to you. • We will honor your privacy. Care that Supports You and Your Family • All teens are different. We want to learn what is important to you and your family. Information You Can Understand • We will explain things to you. We will speak in ways you can understand. You can ask about what is happening to you and why. Care that Respects Your Need to Grow and Learn • We will consider all your interests and needs, not just those related to your illness or disability. Make Choices and Decisions • Your ideas and feelings about how you want to be cared for are important. • You can tell us how we can help you feel more comfortable. • You can tell us how you want to take part in your care. • You can make choices whenever possible like when and where you YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO: receive your treatments. Bill of Rights for Parents Respect and Personal Dignity • You and your teen will be treated with courtesy and respect. Make Decisions About Your Teen’s Care • We will work in partnership with you and your teen to make decisions about his care. • You can ask for a second opinion from another healthcare provider. Family Responsibilities YOU HAVE THE RESPONSIBILITY TO: Provide Information • You have important information about your teen’s health. We need to know about symptoms, treatments, medicines, and other illnesses. • You should tell us what you want for your child. It is important for you to tell us how you want to take part in your teen’s care. • You should tell us if you don’t understand something about your teen’s care. • If you are not satisfied with your teen’s care, please tell us. Provide Appropriate Care • You and the other members of the health care team work together to plan your teen’s care. • You are responsible for doing the things you agreed to do in this plan
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