Internet Users Worldwide First graphical web browser, NCSA Mosaic, released in 1993 http://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users/
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Memory How do program instructions transfer in and out of RAM? Step 1. When you start the computer, certain RAM Operating system instructions Operating system interface operating system files are loaded into RAM from the hard disk. The operating system displays the user interface on the screen. Step 2. When you start a Web browser, the Web browser instructions Web browser window program’s instructions are loaded into RAM from the hard disk. The Web browser window is displayed on the screen. Step 3. When you start a paint program, the Paint program instructions Paint program window program’s instructions are loaded into RAM from the hard disk. The paint program, along with the Web Browser and certain operating system instructions are in RAM. The paint program window is displayed on the screen. RAM Step 4. When you quit a program, such as the Web browser, its program instructions are removed from RAM. The Web browser is no longer displayed on the screen. p. 198 Fig. 4-17 Web browser program instructions are removed from RAM Web browser window is no longer displayed on desktop Next
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How do program instructions transfer in and out of RAM? Step 1. When you start the computer, certain RAM Operating system instructions Operating system interface operating system files are loaded into RAM from the hard disk. The operating system displays the user interface on the screen. Step 2. When you start a Web browser, the Web browser instructions Web browser window program’s instructions are loaded into RAM from the hard disk. The Web browser window is displayed on the screen. Step 3. When you start a paint program, the Paint program instructions Paint program window program’s instructions are loaded into RAM from the hard disk. The paint program, along with the Web Browser and certain operating system instructions are in RAM. The paint program window is displayed on the screen. RAM Step 4. When you quit a program, such as the Web browser, its program instructions are removed from RAM. The Web browser is no longer displayed on the screen. Web browser program instructions are removed from RAM Web browser window is no longer displayed on desktop
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Memory How do program instructions transfer in and out of RAM? Step 1. When you start the computer, certain RAM Operating system instructions Operating system interface operating system files are loaded into RAM from the hard disk. The operating system displays the user interface on the screen. Step 2. When you start a Web browser, the Web browser instructions Web browser window program’s instructions are loaded into RAM from the hard disk. The Web browser window is displayed on the screen. Step 3. When you start a word processing Word processing program instructions Word processing program window program, the program’s instructions are loaded into RAM from the hard disk. The word processing program, along with the Web Browser and certain operating system instructions are in RAM. The word processing program window is displayed on the screen. RAM Step 4. When you quit a program, such as the Web browser, its program instructions are removed from RAM. The Web browser is no longer displayed on the screen. p. 143 Fig. 4-12 Web browser program instructions are removed from RAM Web browser window is no longer displayed on desktop 18 Next
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• Pastoralist: http://www.newint.org/issue378/pics/life-3.jpg • Camels: http://www.thisfabtrek.com/journey/africa/mauritania/20061106-nouakchott/camels-waterhole-4.jpg • Netsilik: http://www.dreamspeakers.org/2005/images/films/through_these_eyes.jpg • Inupiat: http://images.myareaguide.com/aps/op/inup.jpg • Inupiat sled: http://assets.espn.go.com/i/eticket/20061009/photos/eticket_u_histfam_310.jpg • Bushmen: http://www.gonomad.com/lodgings/0611/namgallery-images/bushman-familyb.jpg • Bushmen hunters: http://www.gudigwa.com/images/zoom/gudigwa-bushmen-hunting.jpg • Mbuti: http://kim.uing.net/files/post_file_3980.jpg • Andaman: http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter13/pla13-5.jpg • Lakota: http://www.old-picture.com/old-west/pictures/Lakota-Sioux.jpg • Bororo: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22483/22483-h/images/ill1-232a.jpg • Blackfoot: http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/AlternativeHousing/images/prevs/photri1018798.jpg • Ariaal Warrior: http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/Photography/Images/POD/a/ariaal-wa rrior-525467-sw.jpg • Chukchee: http://polarhusky.com/logistics/chukotka/people/chukchi.attachment/logisticschukotkapeoplechukchi020/LogisticsC hukotkaPeopleChukchi020.jpg • Kurds: http://i.infoplease.com/images/home/kurds-sheep.jpg • Pastoralists and camels: http://mediaglobal.org/admin/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/pastoralists.camels.jpg • Pastoralists: http://www.mursi.org/news-items/meeting-of-pastoralists-in-south-omo-zone-planned-for-8-12-november/image_m ini • Masaai: http://www.kitumusote.org/sites/kitumusote.org/files/images/history%20of%20maasai%20page%201.img_assist_cu stom.JPG • Saami: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Saami_Family_1900.jpg/800px-Saami_Family_1900.jp g • Akan: http://crawfurd.dk/illu/weekly/akanking.jpg • Banyoro: http://www.ugpulse.com/images/articles/daily/20060921_100_8.jpg • Garifuna: http://www.allseasonsbelize.com/images/allgemein/garifuna.jpg • Shipibo: http://www.shamanic.net/pictures/Peru2007/carlos.jpg • Tikopia: http://www.tallshipstales.de/90s/imgs/EricMatson/boys-of-tikopia.jpg • Tzeltal: http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1092/1082248917_0e9805da6e.jpg • Yanomami: http://www.giemmegi.org/images/festa-yanomami-6.jpg • Amhara: http://en.kindernothilfe.org/en/Rubrik/Countries/Africa/Ethiopia/_Better+Future+for+children__Project.html • Bengali: http://picasaweb.google.com/dleclercq/TripMiddleEastAndTheBalkans/photo#5147508446831035218 • Thai: http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/806/50081622.JPG • Monguor: http://www.joshuaproject.net/profiles/photos/p114229.jpg • Santhal: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/20/71832446_4854285fe0_m.jpg • Lepcha: http://www.joshuaproject.net/profiles/photos/p105723.jpg • Shluh: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/37/92620708_6928efedf0.jpg • Sinhalese: http://www.joshuaproject.net/profiles/photos/p109305.jpg • Ifugao: http://www.madnomad.com/gregg/img/cordill_01.jpg • Dogon: http://saharanvibe.blogspot.com/2007/06/dogon-people-of-bandiangara.html Graphics Cited This lecture discusses how people get their food. Of all the cultural traits, this is the most important as it conditions virtually all other social institutions.
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UIUC/NCSA AC Cluster • 32 nodes – 4-GPU (GTX280, Tesla), 1-FPGA, quad-core Opteron node at NCSA – GPUs donated by NVIDIA – FPGA donated by Xilinx – 128 TFLOPS single precision, 10 TFLOPS double precision • Coulomb Summation: – 1.78 TFLOPS/node – 271x speedup vs. Intel QX6700 CPU core w/ SSE UIUC/NCSA AC Cluster http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/Projects/GPUcluster/ A partnership between NCSA and academic departments. © Wen-mei W. Hwu and John Stone, Urbana July 22, 2010
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References [1] - Stoilos,Simou,Stamou,Kollias,“Uncertainty and the Semantic Web”, http://www.image.ece.ntua.gr/php/savepaper.php?id=445, http://www.image.ece.ntua.gr/php/savepaper.php?id=445, 2006, IEEE [2] – 2008 Conference, “Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/index.html [3] - 2007 Conference, “Uncertainty Reasoning for the Semantic Web”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2007/index.html [4] - Stoilos,Stamou,Tzouvaras,Pan,Horrocks, “Fuzzy OWL: Uncertainty and the Semantic Web”, http://www.image.ntua.gr/papers/398.pdf [5] - Lassila, “Some Personal Thoughts on Semantic Web and “Non-symbolic” AI”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/talks/URSW2008_Keynote_Lassila.pdf, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/talks/URSW2008_Keynote_Lassila.pdf, 2008, ISWC [6] – Williams,Bastin,Cornford,Ingram, “Describing and Communicating Uncertainty within the Semantic Web”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/papers/URSW2008_F3_WilliamsEtAl.pdf [7] – Sanchez, “Fuzzy logic and semantic web”, http://books.google.com/books? id=Cidej8b4ESIC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=monotonic+bivalent+language&source=bl&ots=mtbZcZfaO7&sig=VtGqKXurrzl5HOw36UBTeTpdoE&hl=en&ei=sBIASpuJFonItgeKnpyTBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#PPP1,M1 [8] – Klinov, Parsia, “Demonstrating Pronto: a Non-monotonic Probabilistic OWL Reasoner”, http://www.webont.org/owled/2008dc/papers/owled2008dc_paper_2.pdf [9] – Klinov, “Introducing Pronto: Probabilistic DL Reasoning in Pellet“, http://clarkparsia.com/weblog/2007/09/27/introducing-pronto/ [10] – Wikipedia Fuzzy Set theory, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuzzy_set [11] – Wikipedia Probability Theory, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probability_theory [12] – Straccia, “A Fuzzy Description Logic for the Semantic Web”, http://www.win.tue.nl/~aserebre/ks/Lit/Straccia2006.pdf [13] – Mazzieri, Dragoni, “A Fuzzy Semantics for Semantic Web Languages”, http://ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol-173/paper2.pdf [14] – Wikipedia Description Logic, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Description_logic [15] – Ding, Peng, Pan, “BayesOWL: Uncertainty Modeling in Semantic Web Ontologies”, http://ebiquity.umbc.edu/_file_directory_/papers/217.pdf [16] – Martin-recurerda1, Robertson2, “Discovery and Uncertainty in Semantic Web Services”, http://ftp.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/Publications/CEUR-WS/Vol173/paper4.pdf [17] – “Semantic Web Services Framework (SWSF) Overview”, http://www.w3.org/Submission/SWSF/ [18] – Nagy,Vargas-Vera,Motta, “Uncertain Reasoning for Creating Ontology Mapping on the Semantic Web”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2007/files/papers/URSW2007_P2_NagyVeraMotta.pdf [19] – Ceravolo, Damiani,Leida, “Which Role for an Ontology of Uncertainty?”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/papers/URSW2008_P6_CeravoloEtAl.pdf [20] – Laskey, Laskey, “Uncertainty Reasoning for the World Wide Web: Report on the URW3-XG Incubator Group”, http://c4i.gmu.edu/ursw/2008/papers/URSW2008_FX_LaskeyLaskey.pdf [21] – Costa, Laskey, “PR-OWL: A Framework for Probabilistic Ontologies”, http://volgenau.gmu.edu/~klaskey/papers/FOIS2006_CostaLaskey.pdf [22] – Wang, “Integrating Uncertainty Into Ontology Mapping”, http://iswc2007.semanticweb.org/papers/955.pdf
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Visit these links for more helpful information: Read reviews from our graduates: http://www.teflworldwideprague.com/graduate-testimonials/tefl-worldwide-reviews Watch video testimonials of our graduates: http://www.teflworldwideprague.com/graduate-testimonials/video-gallery-testomonials See where some of our graduates have gone on to teach: http://www.teflworldwideprague.com/graduate-testimonials/graduates-where-are-they-now See what our graduates are doing now in our “Life after TEFL Worldwide Prague Blog: http://tefl-prague.blogspot.cz/ TEFL Worldwide Prague – The Blog! - http://www.tefl-worldwide-prague.blogspot.cz/ TEFL Worldwide Reviews Blog managed by graduates http://teflworldwidepraguereviews.wordpress.com/ Our TEFL Worldwide Prague Facebook Page http://www.facebook.com/pages/TEFL-Worldwide-Prague/53355370684 Follow us on Twitter - https://twitter.com/teflworldwide
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References [1] http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/07/13/sports/auto600.gif [2] http://www.vw.com/newbeetle/ [3] http://img.dell.com/images/global/products/resultgrid/sm/latit_d630.jpg [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X64 [5] Richard Gerber, The Software Optimization Cookbook: High-performance Recipes for the Intel Architecture. Intel Press, 2002, pp. 161-168. [6] http://www.anandtech.com/showdoc.html?i=1460&p=2 [8] http://www.toshiba.com/taecdpd/products/features/MK2018gas-Over.shtml [9] http://www.toshiba.com/taecdpd/techdocs/sdr2002/2002spec.shtml [10] ftp://download.intel.com/design/Pentium4/manuals/24896606.pdf [11] http://www.pricewatch.com/ [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/POWER7 [13] http://www.kingston.com/branded/image_files/nav_image_desktop.gif 14] M. Wolfe, High Performance Compilers for Parallel Computing. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Redwood City CA, 1996. [15] http://www.visit.ou.edu/vc_campus_map.htm [16] http://www.storagereview.com/ [17] http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/netcdf/ [18] http://hdf.ncsa.uiuc.edu/ [23] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itanium [19] ftp://download.intel.com/design/itanium2/manuals/25111003.pdf [20] http://images.tomshardware.com/2007/08/08/extreme_fsb_2/qx6850.jpg (em64t) [21] http://www.pcdo.com/images/pcdo/20031021231900.jpg (power5) [22] http://vnuuk.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/itanium2.jpg (i2) [??] http://www.anandtech.com/cpuchipsets/showdoc.aspx?i=2353&p=2 (Prescott cache latency) [??] http://www.xbitlabs.com/articles/mobile/print/core2duo.html (T2400 Merom cache) [??] http://www.lenovo.hu/kszf/adatlap/Prosi_Proc_Core2_Mobile.pdf (Merom cache line size) [25] http://www.lithium.it/nove3.jpg [26] http://cpu.rightmark.org/ [27] Tribuvan Kumar Prakash, “Performance Analysis of Intel Core 2 Duo Processor.” MS Thesis, Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Louisiana State University, 2007. [28] R. Kalla, IBM, personal communication, 10/26/2010. [29] Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Optimization Reference Manual http://www.intel.com/Assets/en_US/PDF/manual/248966.pdf Supercomputing in Plain English: Storage Hierarchy Tue Jan 29 2013 99
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References [1] http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/07/13/sports/auto600.gif [2] http://www.vw.com/newbeetle/ [3] http://img.dell.com/images/global/products/resultgrid/sm/latit_d630.jpg [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X64 [5] Richard Gerber, The Software Optimization Cookbook: High-performance Recipes for the Intel Architecture. Intel Press, 2002, pp. 161-168. [6] http://www.anandtech.com/showdoc.html?i=1460&p=2 [8] http://www.toshiba.com/taecdpd/products/features/MK2018gas-Over.shtml [9] http://www.toshiba.com/taecdpd/techdocs/sdr2002/2002spec.shtml [10] ftp://download.intel.com/design/Pentium4/manuals/24896606.pdf [11] http://www.pricewatch.com/ [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/POWER7 [13] http://www.kingston.com/branded/image_files/nav_image_desktop.gif 14] M. Wolfe, High Performance Compilers for Parallel Computing. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Redwood City CA, 1996. [15] http://www.visit.ou.edu/vc_campus_map.htm [16] http://www.storagereview.com/ [17] http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/netcdf/ [18] http://hdf.ncsa.uiuc.edu/ [23] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itanium [19] ftp://download.intel.com/design/itanium2/manuals/25111003.pdf [20] http://images.tomshardware.com/2007/08/08/extreme_fsb_2/qx6850.jpg (em64t) [21] http://www.pcdo.com/images/pcdo/20031021231900.jpg (power5) [22] http://vnuuk.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/itanium2.jpg (i2) [??] http://www.anandtech.com/cpuchipsets/showdoc.aspx?i=2353&p=2 (Prescott cache latency) [??] http://www.xbitlabs.com/articles/mobile/print/core2duo.html (T2400 Merom cache) [??] http://www.lenovo.hu/kszf/adatlap/Prosi_Proc_Core2_Mobile.pdf (Merom cache line size) [25] http://www.lithium.it/nove3.jpg [26] http://cpu.rightmark.org/ [27] Tribuvan Kumar Prakash, “Performance Analysis of Intel Core 2 Duo Processor.” MS Thesis, Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Louisiana State University, 2007. [28] R. Kalla, IBM, personal communication, 10/26/2010. [29] Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Optimization Reference Manual http://www.intel.com/Assets/en_US/PDF/manual/248966.pdf Supercomputing in Plain English: Storage Hierarchy Tue Jan 27 2015 102
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Works Cited "American Burn Association Burn Treatment Facts." The University of New Mexico, 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Artificial Skin." Advameg, Inc., 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Artificial Skin." N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Artificial Skin." Wikipedia, 17 Oct. 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . Baker, Chris. "New "artificial Skin" Product Launched." William Reed Business Media, 24 July 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . DERMAGRAFT® - P000036. FDA, 13 Sept. 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . Geldhard, Katie. "Artificial Skin." OpenWetWare, 18 Jan. 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Greiner Bio-One Launches Artificial Skin to Replace Animal Testing." Zenopa Ltd, 15 July 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . Halim, Ahmad S., Teng L. Khoo, and Shah J. Yussof. Biologic and Synthetic Skin Substitutes: An Overview (n.d.): n. pag. Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . Shingledecker, Leon. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . Shire Regenerative Medicine, In, 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Skin Grafts." WebMD LLC, 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. . "Understanding Differences Types of Burns." Shriners Hospitals for Children, 2013. Web. 19 Oct. 2013. .
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References [1] http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/07/13/sports/auto600.gif [2] http://www.vw.com/newbeetle/ [3] http://img.dell.com/images/global/products/resultgrid/sm/latit_d630.jpg [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X64 [5] Richard Gerber, The Software Optimization Cookbook: High-performance Recipes for the Intel Architecture. Intel Press, 2002, pp. 161-168. [6] http://www.anandtech.com/showdoc.html?i=1460&p=2 [8] http://www.toshiba.com/taecdpd/products/features/MK2018gas-Over.shtml [9] http://www.toshiba.com/taecdpd/techdocs/sdr2002/2002spec.shtml [10] ftp://download.intel.com/design/Pentium4/manuals/24896606.pdf [11] http://www.pricewatch.com/ [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/POWER7 [13] http://www.kingston.com/branded/image_files/nav_image_desktop.gif 14] M. Wolfe, High Performance Compilers for Parallel Computing. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Redwood City CA, 1996. [15] http://www.visit.ou.edu/vc_campus_map.htm [16] http://www.storagereview.com/ [17] http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/netcdf/ [18] http://hdf.ncsa.uiuc.edu/ [23] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itanium [19] ftp://download.intel.com/design/itanium2/manuals/25111003.pdf [20] http://images.tomshardware.com/2007/08/08/extreme_fsb_2/qx6850.jpg (em64t) [21] http://www.pcdo.com/images/pcdo/20031021231900.jpg (power5) [22] http://vnuuk.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/itanium2.jpg (i2) [??] http://www.anandtech.com/cpuchipsets/showdoc.aspx?i=2353&p=2 (Prescott cache latency) [??] http://www.xbitlabs.com/articles/mobile/print/core2duo.html (T2400 Merom cache) [??] http://www.lenovo.hu/kszf/adatlap/Prosi_Proc_Core2_Mobile.pdf (Merom cache line size) [25] http://www.lithium.it/nove3.jpg [26] http://cpu.rightmark.org/ [27] Tribuvan Kumar Prakash, “Performance Analysis of Intel Core 2 Duo Processor.” MS Thesis, Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Louisiana State University, 2007. [28] R. Kalla, IBM, personal communication, 10/26/2010. NCSI Parallel & Cluster: Storage Hierarchy U Oklahoma, July 29 - Aug 4 2012 83
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Sources              "2010 Will be Changing for PepsiCo." Medill Reports Chicago. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2012. . "Coke vs Pepsi." Coke vs Pepsi. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . " Google Image Result for http://41minds.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/bcggrowthsharematrix.png."Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. . "PEP: Summary for Pepsico, Inc. Common Stock- Yahoo! Finance." Yahoo! Finance - Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes, News. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . "Pepsi History." Sirpepsi. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . "PepsiCo 2009 annual report." PepsiCo. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. . "PepsiCo Brands | PepsiCo.com." PepsiCo Home | PepsiCo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. . "PepsiCo Investors | PepsiCo.com." PepsiCo Home | PepsiCo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . "PepsiCo MORE | PepsiCo.com." PepsiCo Home | PepsiCo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. . Reppo, Ilya, and Michelle Yan. "PepsiCo Valuation." Leeds-faculty Colorado. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2012. . segment. "PepsiCo Valuation." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. Steve. " Global Cola: 10 Pepsi-Cola Flavors You Can’t Get Here | WebUrbanist ." WebUrbanist | From Urban Art & 3D Graffiti to Abandoned Cities . N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
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 Use of caching and replication Systems often overcome performance problems by using data replication and caching. An example is the web-caching protocol used by HTTP to keep caches consistent. Web-caching protocol Both browsers and proxy servers cache responses to client requests from the web servers. Thus a client request may be satisfied by either a response cached by the browser or a by a proxy server between the client and the web server. The cache consistency protocol needs to ensure that the browsers with fresh (or reasonably fresh) copies of the resource held by the web server. The protocol works as follows. A browser does not validate a cached response with the web server to see whether the cached copy is still up-to-date if the cached copy is sufficiently fresh. Even though the web server knows when a resource is updated, it does not notify the browsers and proxies with caches – to do that the web server would need to keep state (i.e. a record of interested browsers and proxies and HTTP is a stateless protocol). To enable browsers and proxies to determine whether their stored responses are stale, web servers respond to a request by attaching the expiry time of the resource and the current time at the server to the response. Browsers and proxies store the expiry time and server time together with the cached response. This enables a browser or a proxy to calculate whether a cached response is likely to be stale. It does so by comparing the age of the response with the expiry time. The age of a response is the sum of the time the response has been cached and the server time. This calculation does not depend on the computer clocks on the web server and browsers or proxies agreeing with each other. If the response is stale, the browser validates the cached response with the web server. If it fails the test, the web server returns the a fresh response, which is cached instead of the stale response.
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1.3 Web Browsers - Mosaic - NCSA (Univ. of Illinois), in early 1993 - First to use a GUI, led to explosion of Web use - Initially for X-Windows, under UNIX, but was ported to other platforms by late 1993 - Browsers are clients - always initiate, servers react (although sometimes servers require responses) - Most requests are for existing documents, using HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) - But some requests are for program execution, with the output being returned as a document 1.4 Web Servers - Provide responses to browser requests, either existing documents or dynamically built documents - Browser-server connection is now maintained through more than one request-response cycle Chapter 1 © 2009 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 4
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Reasoning Capabilities Buildfile: build.xml init: compile: Finding Transitive Closures (RDFS reasoning) dist: [jar] Building jar: /home/aks1/software/eclipse/workspace/ontojena/dist/lib/ontojena.jar Inferred Triples vehicle run: [java] MODEL OK [java] Resource: http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine Land-vehicle [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#all) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#physical-object) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#inanimate) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#wheeled-vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#engine-propelled-vehicle) Engine-propelled--vehicle Wheeled--vehicle [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#wheeled-engine-vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#artifact) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#object) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#land-vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#vehicle) [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:subClassOf http://ontosem.org/#truck) Wheeled-engine-vehicle [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdfs:label ' "a truck with equipment for fighting fires"') [java] - (http://ontosem.org/#fire-engine rdf:type owl:Class) [java] fire-engine recognized as subclas of vehicle BUILD SUCCESSFUL Total time: 10 seconds real 0m11.144s user 0m9.530s sys 0m0.190s [[email protected] ontojena]$ Truck Fire-engine
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