A LAN Alternative: Token Ring Collisions tend to exacerbate traffic problems on congested Ethernet LANs, so an alternative to the CSMA/CD approach is desirable. message Ring Computer Computer Computer Computer TOKEN Computer Computer message TOKEN message Computer Computer Computer Computer Computer Computer Computer Token Ring uses a ring topology, with a specially formatted “token” message perpetually traversing the ring. When a machine wishes to transmit, it merely waits for the token to arrive, removes it, and transmits its message. When its message returns to the transmitting machine, it’s removed from the ring, and the machine places the token back on the ring. Chapter 15 Networks Page 6
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ey permaculture principles: Everything is connected to everything else Every function is supported by many elements Every element should serve many functions                                           Just as in natural ecosystems! http://grade4pws2011-12.blogspot.com/2011_11_01_archive.html 8
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2. Compu t er Do you really need a computer? That’s a good question. The official answer is no. There are plenty of computers available in computer labs, in the libraries, in Jesup Hall (the pink building by the Science Quad), Mission Dormitory, and elsewhere. Additionally, all printing in computer labs is free within a generous quota limit (about $50 per semester). Now the unofficial answer… Most students do own personal computers. It’s extremely convenient to have a computer for many reasons: 1) You’ll be less likely to procrastinate if your computer is nearby, 2) You’ll appreciate not having to walk to a computer lab when it’s blustery cold, and 3) You’ll be able to check your email more frequently than if you didn’t have your own computer. While many students have gotten by without a computer, most students agree that it’s worth it to get one. Financial aid recipients may be eligible for a one-time increase of their student loan by up to $2,000 to help purchase a computer. If you’re interested, talk with the folks in the financial aid office. Purchasing a computer is expensive, but you’ll probably find it to be a good investment. WARNING: Be careful how you use your computer. Illegally sharing music can be an expensive proposition. In the spring of 2007, some students at Williams learned the hard way about the RIAA’s (Recording Industry Association of America) policy of prosecuting music sharers. The RIAA can track down illegal uploading and does not issue “warnings.” Instead, if you are caught illegally sharing music you will be sent a letter with the option of settling for a fee of $3,000 or else being taken to court – where litigation fees will be substantially more. Yikes! It’s also worth taking extra steps to prevent against damage or theft. The folks in Jesup Hall can engrave your laptop, increasing the chances it will be returned to you if lost or stolen.
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Popular metaphors for computers           computer as vast library (Memex, 1945) computer as giant calculator (ENIAC, 40s-50s) computer as intelligent assistant (Licklider, 1957) computer as sketchpad (Sutherland, 1962) computer as tool or typewriter (Engelbart, 1963) computer as human pretender (Weizenbaum, ‘60s) computer as network (Taylor, 1968) computer as book (portable) (Kay, Xerox PARC) computer as desktop/windows (Xerox PARC, ‘70s) with objects computers for the rest of us (Apple, 1984)
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Computer Science Jobs Computer Programmer Computer Game Developer Computer Graphics Designer Computer Networking and Communication Web Developer Computer Security, Computer Forensics Computer Architecture Robotics/Artificial Intelligence Human-Computer Interaction Database Systems High-Performance Computing Theoretical Foundations - Algorithms
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Network Computers Eliminate the need for storing the operating system and application software on desktop PCs and instead download these from a remote file server. Applications are run locally but the files are managed by a remote file server. Since all the application data and code is stored by a file server, users may migrate from one network computer to another. The processor and memory capacities of a network computer can be constrained in order to reduce its cost. If a disk is provided, it holds only a minimum of software. The remainder of the disk is used as cache storage holding copies of software and data files recently downloaded from servers. The falling PC prices have probably rendered the network computer a non-starter. Thin clients Thin client refers to a layer of software that supports a window-based GUI on the local computer while executing application programs on a remote computer. This architecture has the same low management and hardware costs as the network computer, but instead of downloading application code into the user’s computer, it runs them on a compute server - a powerful computer (typically a multiprocessor or a cluster computer) that has the processing power to run several applications concurrently. Drawback: Highly interactive graphical apps like CAD and image processing will incur both network and operating system latencies. E.g is the Citrix WinFrame product that provides a thin client process providing access to apps running in Win NT hosts.
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Storage Definitions and Notation Review The basic unit of computer storage is the bit. A bit can contain one of two values, 0 and 1. All other storage in a computer is based on collections of bits. Given enough bits, it is amazing how many things a computer can represent: numbers, letters, images, movies, sounds, documents, and programs, to name a few. A byte is 8 bits, and on most computers it is the smallest convenient chunk of storage. For example, most computers don’t have an instruction to move a bit but do have one to move a byte. A less common term is word, which is a given computer architecture’s native unit of data. A word is made up of one or more bytes. For example, a computer that has 64-bit registers and 64-bit memory addressing typically has 64-bit (8-byte) words. A computer executes many operations in its native word size rather than a byte at a time. Computer storage, along with most computer throughput, is generally measured and manipulated in bytes and collections of bytes. A kilobyte, or KB, is 1,024 bytes a megabyte, or MB, is 1,0242 bytes a gigabyte, or GB, is 1,0243 bytes a terabyte, or TB, is 1,0244 bytes a petabyte, or PB, is 1,0245 bytes Computer manufacturers often round off these numbers and say that a megabyte is 1 million bytes and a gigabyte is 1 billion bytes. Networking measurements are an exception to this general rule; they are given in bits (because networks move data a bit at a time). Operating System Concepts – 9th Edition 1.17 Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2013
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#include #include using namespace std; class Computer { public: virtual void Run() = 0; virtual void Stop() = 0; }; class Laptop: public Computer { public: virtual void Run() { cout << "Laptop Active" << endl; } virtual void Stop() { cout << "Laptop Hibernating" << endl; } }; class Desktop: public Computer { public: virtual void Run() { cout << "Desktop Active" << endl; } virtual void Stop() { cout << "Desktop Off" << endl; } }; class ComputerFactory { public: // This is the factory method, used // instead of a Computer constructor // in order to enable instances of // one of the Computer subclasses to // be returned. static Computer *NewComputer (const string &description) { if (description == "laptop") return new Laptop; if (description == "desktop") return new Desktop; return NULL; } }; void main() { Computer *C1 = ComputerFactory::NewComputer("laptop"); Computer *C2 = ComputerFactory::NewComputer("desktop"); C1->Run(); C2->Run(); C1->Stop(); C2->Stop(); C1->Run(); C2->Stop(); } Chapter 3 – Page 5 Computer Factory Method Code
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Computer Networking Program Mission  The Computer Network Certificate prepares students for success in the changing world of computer technology by providing both theoretical knowledge and hands-on application skills required to identify and perform multiple tasks that support computer networks.  Graduates are able to implement, manage and troubleshoot existing computer networks and servers based on the Microsoft Windows platform. In addition, graduates of the certificate are able to begin a career in Computer Networking at a number of entry-level positions.  The Computer Network Certificate program also provides a path for continuing education for graduates who decide to pursue an Associate Degree in Electronic Technology Computer System Option at NECC.
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Health Concerns of Computer Use What are some health concerns of computer use? Computer Computer vision syndrome (CVS)—eye (CVS)—eye and vision problems problems Carpal Carpal tunnel tunnel syndrome syndrome (CTS) (CTS) —inflammation —inflammation of of nerve nerve that that connects connects forearm forearm to to palm palm Repetitive Repetitive strain strain injury injury (RSI) Computer Computer addiction—when addiction—when computer computer consumes consumes entire entire Click to view Web social social life life Link, click Chapter 11, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click RSIs below Chapter 11 p. 587 - 589 Tendonitis—inflammation Tendonitis—inflammation of of tendon tendon due due to to repeated repeated motion motion Next
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Computer Crime  Computer crime is any criminal offense, activity or issue that involves computers (http://www.forensics.nl).  Computer misuse tends to fall into two categories [1]:  Computer is used to commit a crime  Computer itself is a target of a crime. Computer is the victim. Computer Security Incident.  Computer Incident Response.
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Computer Crime  Computer crime is any criminal offense, activity or issue that involves computers (http://www.forensics.nl ).  Computer misuse tends to fall into two categories [1]:  Computer is used to commit a crime  Computer itself is a target of a crime. Computer is the victim. Computer Security Incident.  Computer Incident Response.
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– Activities may include: Denial or disruption of computer, cable, satellite, or telecommunications services; Unauthorized monitoring of computer, cable, satellite, or telecommunications systems; Unauthorized disclosure of proprietary or classified information stored within or communicated through computer, cable, satellite, or telecommunications systems; Unauthorized modification or destruction of computer programming codes, computer network databases, stored information or computer capabilities; or Manipulation of computer, cable, satellite, or telecommunications services resulting in fraud, financial loss, or other federal criminal violations. 19 Kizza - Guide to Computer Network Securit y
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Ethernet Versus Token Ring ETHERNET Ethernet is the most widely used data sending protocol. Each computer listens to the cable before sending data over the network. If the network is clear, the computer will transmit. If another PC is already transmitting data, the computer will wait and try again when the line is clear. If two computers transmit at the same time a collision occurs. Each computer then waits a random amount of time before attempting to retransmit. The delay caused by collisions and retransmitting is minimal and does not normally affect the speed of transmission on the network. TOKEN RING The Token Ring protocol was developed by IBM but it has become obsolete in the face of ethernet technology. The computers are connected so that data travels around the network from one computer to another in a logical ring. If a computer does not have information to transmit, it simply passes the a token on to the next workstation. If a computer wishes to transmit and receives an empty token, it attaches data to the token. The token then proceeds around the ring until it comes to the computer for which the data is meant. Posted by Heather C Moll (Last Updated March 24 2004)
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Computer-Aided Tools Computer-aided design (CAD) any position, any scale Computer-aided engineering design (CAED) Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) - fabrication instructions Computer-aided support (CAS) Computer-aided design data (CADD) Computer-aided process planning (CAPP) Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Macro-CAD – link early life-cycle decisions with operational outcomes Great aid in the assignment of tolerances and interfacing. Automation 03/22/2019 rd
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Virginia Computer Crime Act §18.2-152.2 Definitions §18.2-152.3 Computer fraud §18.2-152.4 Computer trespass §18.2-152.5 Computer invasion of privacy §18.2-152.8 Property capable of embezzlement §18.2-152.9 Limitation of prosecution §18.2-152.10 Venue for prosecution §18.2-152.11 Article not exclusive §18.2-152.6 Theft of computer §18.2-152.12 Civil relief; damages services §18.2-152.13 Severability §18.2-152.7 Personal trespass §18.2-152.14 Computer as instrument of forgery by computer §18.2-152.7:1 Harassment by §18.2-152.15 Encryption used in criminal activity computer Click to view statute
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CAINE 2013 Call for Papers 26th International Conference on Computer Applications in Industry and Engineering September 25{27, 2013, Omni Hotel, Los Angles, Califorria, USA Sponsored by the International Society for Computers and Their Applications (ISCA) Provides an international forum for presentation and discussion of research on computers and their applications. The conference also includes a Best Paper Award. CAINE{2013 will feature contributed papers as well as workshops and special sessions. Papers will be accepted into oral presentation sessions. The topics will include, but are not limited to, the following areas: Agent-Based Systems Image/Signal Processing Autonomous Systems Information Assurance Big Data Analytics Information Systems/Databases Bioinformatics, Biomedical Systems/Engineering Internet and Web-Based Systems Computer-Aided Design/Manufacturing Knowledge-based Systems Computer Architecture/VLSI Mobile Computing Computer Graphics and Animation Multimedia Applications Computer Modeling/Simulation Neural Networks Computer Security Pattern Recognition/Computer Vision Computers in Education Rough Set and Fuzzy Logic Computers in Healthcare Robotics Computer Networks Fuzzy Logic Control Systems Sensor Networks Data Communication Scientic Computing Data Mining Software Engineering/CASE Distributed Systems Visualization Embedded Systems Wireless Networks and Communication Important Dates Workshop/special session proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .May 2.5,.2.01.3 Full Paper Submission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .June 5,.2.0.1.3. Notication of Acceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .July.5 , 2013. Pre-registration & Camera-Ready Paper Due . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .August 5, 2013. Event Dates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .September 25-27, 2013 The 22nd SEDE Conference is interested in gathering researchers and professionals in the domains of Software Engineering and Data Engineering to present and discuss high-quality research results and outcomes in their fields. SEDE 2013 aims at facilitating cross-fertilization of ideas in Software and Data Engineering, The conference also encourages research and discussions on topics including, but not limited to: . Requirements Engineering for Data Intensive Software Systems. Software Verification and Model of Checking. Model-Based Methodologies. Software Quality and Software Metrics. Architecture and Design of Data Intensive Software Systems. Software Testing. Service- and Aspect-Oriented Techniques. Adaptive Software Systems . Information System Development. Software and Data Visualization. Development Tools for Data Intensive. Software Systems. Software Processes. Software Project Mgnt . Applications and Case Studies. Engineering Distributed, Parallel, and Peer-to-Peer Databases. Cloud infrastructure, Mobile, Distributed, and Peer-to-Peer Data Management . Semi-Structured Data and XML Databases. Data Integration, Interoperability, and Metadata. Data Mining: Traditional, Large-Scale, and Parallel. Ubiquitous Data Management and Mobile Databases. Data Privacy and Security. Scientific and Biological Databases and Bioinformatics. Social networks, web, and personal information management. Data Grids, Data Warehousing, OLAP. Temporal, Spatial, Sensor, and Multimedia Databases. Taxonomy and Categorization. Pattern Recognition, Clustering, and Classification. Knowledge Management and Ontologies. Query Processing and Optimization. Database Applications and Experiences. Web Data Mgnt and Deep Web Submission procedures May 23, 2013 Paper Submission Deadline June 30, 2013 Notification of Acceptance July 20, 2013 Registration and Camera-Ready Manuscript Conference Website: http://theory.utdallas.edu/SEDE2013/ September 25-27, 2013 Omni Hotel, Los Angeles, California, USA The International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communications (ACC-2013) provides an international forum for presentation and discussion of research on a variety of aspects of advanced computing and its applications, and communication and networking systems. ACC-2013 will feature contributed as well as invited papers in all aspects of advanced computing and communications and will include a BEST PAPER AWARD given to a paper presented at the conference. Important Dates May 5, 2013 - Special Sessions Proposal Papers on Current FAUST Cluster (functional gap based) and on revisions to FAUST Classification. June 5, 2013 - Full Paper Submission Who will lead what? July 5, 2013 - Author Notification Aug. 5, 2013 - Advance Registration & Camera Ready Paper Due
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Everything’s a Computer!!!
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