• Pastoralist: http://www.newint.org/issue378/pics/life-3.jpg • Camels: http://www.thisfabtrek.com/journey/africa/mauritania/20061106-nouakchott/camels-waterhole-4.jpg • Netsilik: http://www.dreamspeakers.org/2005/images/films/through_these_eyes.jpg • Inupiat: http://images.myareaguide.com/aps/op/inup.jpg • Inupiat sled: http://assets.espn.go.com/i/eticket/20061009/photos/eticket_u_histfam_310.jpg • Bushmen: http://www.gonomad.com/lodgings/0611/namgallery-images/bushman-familyb.jpg • Bushmen hunters: http://www.gudigwa.com/images/zoom/gudigwa-bushmen-hunting.jpg • Mbuti: http://kim.uing.net/files/post_file_3980.jpg • Andaman: http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter13/pla13-5.jpg • Lakota: http://www.old-picture.com/old-west/pictures/Lakota-Sioux.jpg • Bororo: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22483/22483-h/images/ill1-232a.jpg • Blackfoot: http://www.topfoto.co.uk/gallery/AlternativeHousing/images/prevs/photri1018798.jpg • Ariaal Warrior: http://photography.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/Photography/Images/POD/a/ariaal-wa rrior-525467-sw.jpg • Chukchee: http://polarhusky.com/logistics/chukotka/people/chukchi.attachment/logisticschukotkapeoplechukchi020/LogisticsC hukotkaPeopleChukchi020.jpg • Kurds: http://i.infoplease.com/images/home/kurds-sheep.jpg • Pastoralists and camels: http://mediaglobal.org/admin/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/pastoralists.camels.jpg • Pastoralists: http://www.mursi.org/news-items/meeting-of-pastoralists-in-south-omo-zone-planned-for-8-12-november/image_m ini • Masaai: http://www.kitumusote.org/sites/kitumusote.org/files/images/history%20of%20maasai%20page%201.img_assist_cu stom.JPG • Saami: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Saami_Family_1900.jpg/800px-Saami_Family_1900.jp g • Akan: http://crawfurd.dk/illu/weekly/akanking.jpg • Banyoro: http://www.ugpulse.com/images/articles/daily/20060921_100_8.jpg • Garifuna: http://www.allseasonsbelize.com/images/allgemein/garifuna.jpg • Shipibo: http://www.shamanic.net/pictures/Peru2007/carlos.jpg • Tikopia: http://www.tallshipstales.de/90s/imgs/EricMatson/boys-of-tikopia.jpg • Tzeltal: http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1092/1082248917_0e9805da6e.jpg • Yanomami: http://www.giemmegi.org/images/festa-yanomami-6.jpg • Amhara: http://en.kindernothilfe.org/en/Rubrik/Countries/Africa/Ethiopia/_Better+Future+for+children__Project.html • Bengali: http://picasaweb.google.com/dleclercq/TripMiddleEastAndTheBalkans/photo#5147508446831035218 • Thai: http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/806/50081622.JPG • Monguor: http://www.joshuaproject.net/profiles/photos/p114229.jpg • Santhal: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/20/71832446_4854285fe0_m.jpg • Lepcha: http://www.joshuaproject.net/profiles/photos/p105723.jpg • Shluh: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/37/92620708_6928efedf0.jpg • Sinhalese: http://www.joshuaproject.net/profiles/photos/p109305.jpg • Ifugao: http://www.madnomad.com/gregg/img/cordill_01.jpg • Dogon: http://saharanvibe.blogspot.com/2007/06/dogon-people-of-bandiangara.html Graphics Cited This lecture discusses how people get their food. Of all the cultural traits, this is the most important as it conditions virtually all other social institutions.
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Comparing Cache Policies One-way set associative (direct mapped) Block Tag Data 0 1 2 Two-way set associative Set 3 0 4 1 5 2 6 3 Tag Data Tag Data 7 Four-way set associative Set Tag Data Tag Data Tag Data Tag Data 0 1 Eight-way set associative (fully associative) Tag Data Tag Data Tag Data Tag Data Tag Data Tag Data Tag Data Tag Data Compared to direct mapped, give a series of references that: –results in a lower miss ratio using a 2-way set associative cache –results in a higher miss ratio using a 2-way set associative cache assuming we use the “least recently used” replacement strategy CSE 45432 SUNY New Paltz 15
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15 Example Suppose we have two implementation of the same instruction set architecture. Machine “A” has a clock cycle time of 1 ns and a CPI of 2.0 for some program, and machine “B” has a clock cycle time of 2 ns and a CPI of 1.2 for the same program. Which machine is faster for this program and by how much? Both machines execute the same instructions for the program. Assume the number of instructions is “I”, CPU clock cycles (A) = I  2.0 CPU clock cycles (B) = I  1.2 The CPU time required for each machine is as follows: CPU time (A) = CPU clock cycles (A)  Clock cycle time (A) = I  2.0  1 ns = 2  I ns CPU time (B) = CPU clock cycles (B)  Clock cycle time (B) = I  1.2  2 ns = 2.4  I ns Therefore machine A will be faster by the following ratio: CPU Performanc e (A) CPU time (B) 2.4 ´I ns = = =1.2 CPU Performanc e (B) CPU time (A) 2 ´I ns
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and regional networks may arise to connect access nets to ISPS access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net access net … … ISP A IXP access net ISP C access net regional net access net … K&R access net access net Computer Networks access net … access net access net ISP B Network Architecture access net 40
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and content provider networks (e.g., Google, Microsoft, Akamai ) may run their own network, to bring services, content close to end users access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net Content provider network IXP access net ISP B ISP B access net regional net access net access net access net … Computer Networks access net … access net … … ISP A access net K&R access net Network Architecture access net 41
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and regional networks may arise to connect access nets to ISPS access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net access net … … ISP A IXP access net ISP C access net regional net access net … K&R access net access net Advanced Computer Networks access net … access net access net ISP B access net Network Architecture 39
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and content provider networks (e.g., Google, Microsoft, Akamai ) may run their own network, to bring services, content close to end users access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net Content provider network IXP access net ISP B ISP B access net regional net access net access net access net … Advanced Computer Networks access net … access net … … ISP A access net K&R access net access net Network Architecture 40
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and regional networks may arise to connect access nets to ISPS access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net access net … … ISP A IXP access net ISP C access net regional net access net … K&R access net IoT access net access net Network Architecture … access net access net ISP B access net 39
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and content provider networks (e.g., Google, Microsoft, Akamai ) may run their own network, to bring services, content close to end users access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net Content provider network IXP access net ISP B ISP B access net regional net access net access net IoT access net access net Network Architecture … access net … … ISP A access net … K&R access net access net 40
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class Tag{ Tag(int marker){ System.out.println("Tag("+marker+")"); } } class Card{ Tag t1=new Tag(6); Card(){ System.out.println("Card()"); Tag t3=new Tag(33); } Tag t2=new Tag(3); void f(){ System.out.println("f()"); } Tag t3=new Tag(9); } public class Order{ public static void main(String[] args) { Card t = new Card(); t.f(); } } CIS 183, Fall 2000, Dr. Iren Valova, 15
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Structure of HTML files The text between and describes an HTML document The text between and provides information about the document The text between and appears in the browser tab The text between and describes the visible page content HTML tags normally come in pairs The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag The end tag is written like the start tag, but with a slash before the tag name The start tag is often called the opening tag. The end tag is often called the closing tag.
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The Machine Cycle http://cpu.pascalturbo.net/tag/cpu-machine-cycle
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