Given any 1-hop labeled relationship (e.g., cells have values from {1,2,…,n} then there is: 1. a natural n-hop transitive relationship, AD, by alternating entities for each individual label value bitmap relationships. 2. cards for each entity consisting of the bitslices of cell values. E.g., netflix, Rating(Customer,Movie) has label set {0,1,2,3,4,5}, so in 1. it generates a bonafide 6-hop transitive relationship. R3(C,M) 4 3 2 1 A E 0 0 0 0 0 10 00 00 0 0 10 000 000 01 0 0 10 000 000 001 1 00 1 2 3 4 5 0 10 000 000 001 1 00 1 1 00 000 110 00 1 0 00 11 00 1 0 1 0 1 3 4 5 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 CD R0(M,C) C M 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 4 3 2 1 R4(M,C) R0(E,F) ... D F Below, as in 2., Rn-i can be bitslices R5(C,M) 2 M Rn-2(E,F) Rn-1(E,F) R1(C,M) 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 M 0 1 1 1 4 3 2 1 R2(M,C) C C R1(A)= "Movies rated 1 by all customers in A. R2(R1(A))= "Cust who rate as 2, all R1(A) movies" = "Cust who rate as 2, all movies rated as 1 by all A-cust". R3(R2(R1(A)))= "Movies rated as 3 by all R2(R1(A)) customers" = R4(R3(R2(R1(A))))= "Movies rated as 3 by all customers who rate as 2 all movies rated as 1 by all A-customers". "Customers who rate as 4 all R3(R2(R1(A))) movies" = "Customers who rate as 4 movies rated as 3 by all customers who rate as 2 all movies rated as 1 by all A-customers". R5(R4(R3(R2(R1(A)))))= "Movies rated as 5 by all R4(R3(R2(R1(A)))) customers" = "Movies rated 5 by all customers who rate as 4 movies rated as 3 by all customers who rate as 2 all movies rated as 1 by all A-customers". R0(R5(R4(R3(R2(R1(A))))))= R0(R5(R4(R3(R2(R1(A))))))  D "Customers who rate as 0 all R5(R4(R3(R2(R1(A))))) movies" = "Cust who rate as 0 all movies rated 5 by all cust who rate as 4 movies rated as 3 by all cust who rate as 2 all movies rated as 1 by all A-cust". E.g., equity trading on a given day, QuantityBought(Cust,Stock) w labels {0,1,2,3,4,5} (where n means n thousand shares) so that generates a bonafide 6-hop transitive relationship: E.g., equity trading - moved similarly, (define moved similarly on a day --> StockStock(#DaysMovedSimilarlyOfLast10) E.g., equity trading - moved similarly2, (define moved similarly to mean that stock2 moved similarly to what stock1 did the previous day.Define relationship StockStock(#DaysMovedSimilarlyOfLast10) E.g., Gene-Experiment, Label values could be "expression level". Intervalize and go! Has Strong Transitive Rule Mining (STRM) been done? Are their downward and upward closure theorems already for it? Is it useful? That is, are there good examples of use: stocks, gene-experiment, MBR, Netflix predictor,... 2 3 4 5 A
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Industry Market Analysis Web Entertainment Sites 2010 Sites are ranked by millions of unique visitors in August 2010. YouTube 99.00 iTunes 44.60 Glam Media 44.50 Yahoo! Sports 29.70 Gorilla Nation web sites 21.70 IMDB 21.20 Turner Sports and Entertainment 21.20 Netflix 20.60 Digital Video Streaming Market, 2010 Apple is in a three-way tie for third place with a 4% market share. % 61.00 Netflix Comcast Other 8.00 31.00 DVD Rental Market, 2009-2010 Market shares are shown in percent. DVD Sales and Rental According to the Digital Entertainment Group (www.dvdinformation.com), 2003: 2004: 2005: 2006: 2007: 2008: DVD Sales $11.6 billion $15.5 billion $16.3 billion $16.6 billion $16.0 billion $14.5 billion DVD Rental $4.5 billion $5.7 billion $6.5 billion $7.5 billion $7.5 billion $7.5 billion Total Spending $16.1 billion $21.2 billion $22.8 billion $24.1 billion $23.4 billion $21.7 billion* 2009 % Netflix 25.70 Blockbuster (traditional) Coinstar (Redbox) Other traditional Other subscription Other kiosk 2010 % 34.80 11.90 28.20 8.60 2.70 22.80 19.90 18.90 16.10 7.20 3.10 * Includes $750 million spending to Blu-ray Disc format 3/25/2013 © 2013, Tony Gauvin,UMFK 15
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CPU’s are rated in Gigahertz Giga = Billion Hertz = Cycle Gigahertz = Billions of Cycles per Second
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ACCJC Cycles/ Reports CPC Assessment/ Planning PBTs & College Council 2011-12 2012-13 SITE VISIT Follow-up Site Visit (Recs #1,#2,#3) Year 1 Curriculum Review Cycles Year 4 Follow-up Letter (Rec #1) MIDTERM REPORT Year 5 Year 6 Form Teams SELF STUDY Outcomes Review 2017-18 Year 1 SITE VISIT Governance Review Ongoing Assessment of Governance (annual survey) Planning & Resource Allocation (PRA) Planning & Resource Allocation (PRA) Planning & Resource Allocation (PRA) Planning & Resource Allocation (PRA) Planning & Resource Allocation (PRA) Planning & Resource Allocation (PRA) Planning & Resource Allocation (PRA) Ongoing Development and Assessment of Student Equity Plans APRU # 3 ICC/GE Assessment Cycles Outcome/ Assessment Cycles Year 3 2015-16 2016-17 Ongoing Preparation and Submission of ACCJC Reports “Quilt” Values EMP Mission Review REVIEW Review Review Governance Review Equity Assessment/ Planning Six-Year Program Review Process Year 2 2013-14 2014-15 Outcomes Assessment Cycles 5 Year cycle APRU #4 CPR CPR & & 5-Year 5-Year Plan Plan Reflect Critical Thinking GCS&E Outcomes Assessment Cycles PLOAC CLOAC DLOAC Outcomes Assessment Cycles 5 Year cycle 5 Year cycle 5 Year cycle 3rd ICC APRU #1 APRU #2 APRU #2 5th ICC Critical Thinking Outcomes Assessment Cycles CLOAC DLOAC PLOAC Outcomes Assessment Cycles 5 Year cycle 5 Year cycle 5 Year cycle 4th ICC DAC - Detailed Planning Cycle - 2011 - 2017 College Planning Committee 5/15/13
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ACCJC Cycles/ Reports CPC Assessment/ Planning PBTs & College Council Equity Assessment/ Planning Six-Year Program Review Process 2011-12 2012-13 SITE VISI T Followup Site Visit (Recs #1,#2, #3) Year 1 Governance Review Year 2 2013-14 2014-15 Year 3 Year 4 Followup Letter (Rec #1) MIDTERM REPOR T 2015-16 2016-17 Year 5 Year 6 Form Teams SELF STUD Y Ongoing Preparation and Submission of ACCJC Reports Mission “Quilt” EMP Values Review Review REVIEW Review Planning & Resource Allocatio n (PRA) Planning & Resource Allocatio n (PRA) Planning & Resource Allocatio n (PRA) Planning & Resource Allocatio n (PRA) APRU # 3 ICC/GE Assessment Cycles APRU #4 Critical Thinking Outcome/ Assessment Cycles Outcomes Assessment Cycles Curriculum Review Cycles 5 Year cycle Outcomes Assessment Cycles 5 Year cycle GCS&E APRU #1 3rd ICC APRU #2 4th ICC SITE VISI T Governance Review Planning & Resource Allocatio n (PRA) Planning & Resourc e Allocatio n (PRA) Ongoing Development and Assessment of Student Equity Plans CPR CPR & & 55Year Year Plan Plan Year 1 Outcomes Review Ongoing Assessment of Governance (annual survey) Planning & Resource Allocatio n (PRA) 2017-18 DAC - Detailed Planning Cycle - 2011 - 2017 College Planning Committee 5/15/13 APRU #3 APRU #4 5th ICC Critical Thinking PLOAC CLOAC DLOAC Outcomes Assessment Cycles Outcomes Assessment Cycles CLOAC DLOAC PLOAC Outcomes Assessment Cycles 5 Year cycle 5 Year cycle 5 Year cycle 5 Year cycle 5 Year cycle
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11 Example A program runs in 10 seconds on a computer “A” with a 400 MHz clock. We desire a faster computer “B” that could run the program in 6 seconds. The designer has determined that a substantial increase in the clock speed is possible, however it would cause computer “B” to require 1.2 times as many clock cycles as computer “A”. What should be the clock rate of computer “B”? CPU clock cycles CPU time (A) = Clock rate (A) 10 seconds = CPU clock cycles of program 400 ´ 106 cycles/second CPU clock cycles of program = 10 seconds ´ 400 ´ 106 cycles/second = 4000 ´ 106 cycles   To get the clock rate of the faster computer, we use the same formula 1.2 ´ CPU clock cycles of program 1.2 ´ 4000 ´ 10 6 cycles 6 seconds = = clock rate (B) clock rate (B) 1.2 ´4000 ´10 6 cycles clock rate (B) = =800 ´10 6 cycles/second 6 second
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Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Cycle 4 Cycle 5 Instr cache Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file Instr cache Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file Reg file ALU Data cache Instr 3 Instr 5 Instr 4 Instr cache Cycle 7 Cycle 8 Cycle 9 Cycle 2 Cycle 3 Writes into $8 Bubble Reg file Task dimension Cycle 4 ALU Bubble Instr cache Reg file Cycle 5 Cycle 6 Reg file Data cache Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file Cycle 8 Cycle 9 Cycle 7 Without data forwarding, three bubbles are needed to resolve a read-after-write data dependency Reads from $8 Time dimension Instr cache Instr 3 Instr 2 Instr 1 Bubble Instr cache Cycle 1 ALU Data cache Reg file Instr cache Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file Reg file ALU Data cache Reg file Instr cache Reg file ALU Data cache Bubble Reg file Instr cache Task dimension Writes into $8 Reg file Instr cache Instr 4 Instr 5 Cycle 6 Time dimension Instr 2 Instr 1 Inserting Bubbles in a Pipeline Bubble Two bubbles, if we assume that a register can be updated and read from in one cycle Reads from $8 Reg file Computer Architecture, Data Path and Control Slide 48
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Former FBI Director James B. Comey (01/07/15)   “Let me start by telling you what you know, which is that everything has changed in World ways that is arechanging so fundamentalbecause that it’s difficult to describe The of cyber what it means when we say the world is changing because of cyber. Now, find thatthere in all things cyber there’s a lot ofhuman nodding and I worry InI 2003 were 6.3 billion beings there’s not a lot of understanding behind the nodding at times. And so I on the earth 500 million devices always look for ways toand describe just how fundamental the connected tostanding the Internet. persons per transformation we’re in the middle(12.6 of is. And Cisco provided some stats that I saw recently that I just wanted to device) In 2010 there were 6.8 billion people on the mention as I start. In 2003 there were 6.3 billion human beings on the earth and 12.5 billion devices connected earth and 500 million devices connected to the Internet. In 2010 to there were 6.8Internet. billion people on the earth and 12.5 billion devices connected the In 2020, just five years away, there will to the Internet. now One-point-eight-four per person. be projects seventhat billion onyears theaway, earth and 50seven Cisco in 2020,people now just five there will be billion peopledevices on the earth and 50 billion devices to the billion connected to theconnected Internet Internet. Six-and-a-half devices on average per person. (7.14 devices per person)
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Terminology & Units of Measure • Processor speed is usually given in terms of cycles per second (hertz) or instructions per second – 1 MHz = 1 megahertz, or 1000 hertz – 1 gigahertz = 1 million hertz – 1 mips = 1 million instructions per second • Common units of time: – 1 ms = 1 millisecond (1/1000) – 1 s = 1 microsecond (1/1,000,000) – 1 ns = 1 nanosecond (1/1,000,000,000) 7
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