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Curriculum  Readings are drawn from a variety of materials, both CFA Institute-developed and other  Each reading has learning outcome statements (LOS): “The candidate should be able to…”  Each LOS has one or more command words, which indicate type of learning expected: “discuss, calculate, contrast”  LOS are NOT a proxy for examination questions, but ARE the best guide for candidate study CFA Institute
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When dealing with the practical implementation of RF applications, there are always some nightmarish  tasks. One is the need to match the different impedances of the interconnected blocks. Typically these  include the antenna to the low-noise amplifier (LNA), power-amplifier output (RFOUT) to the antenna,  and LNA/VCO output to mixer inputs. The matching task is required for a proper transfer of signal and  energy from a "source" to a "load." At high radio frequencies, the spurious elements (like wire inductances, interlayer capacitances, and  conductor resistances) have a significant yet unpredictable impact on the matching network. Above a  few tens of megahertz, theoretical calculations and simulations are often insufficient. In-situ RF lab  measurements, along with tuning work, have to be considered for determining the proper final values.  The computational values are required to set up the type of structure and target component values. There are many ways to do impedance matching, including: Computer simulations: Complex but simple to use, as such simulators are dedicated to differing  design functions and not to impedance matching. Designers have to be familiar with the multiple data  inputs that need to be entered and the correct formats. They also need the expertise to find the useful  data among the tons of results coming out. In addition, circuit-simulation software is not pre-installed  on computers, unless they are dedicated to such an application. Manual computations: Tedious due to the length ("kilometric") of the equations and the complex  nature of the numbers to be manipulated. Instinct: This can be acquired only after one has devoted many years to the RF industry. In short, this  is for the super-specialist. Smith chart: Upon which this article concentrates.
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