LinuxONE is designed for large, cacheintensive business workloads Latency introduced by Core Core (1) hop across multiple L3 rings, and (2) CPU-to-L3 frequency differences Core Core Haswell chip E5 2600 V3 (representation) Core Total Shared L3 cache Core Core Core Core Core Core Core Core Per Core Shared L3 cache Core Core Core Core 2 Core 1 Core Core 3 Total Per Core L1 cache 64 KB 224 KB L2 cache 256 KB 4 MB L3 cache 45 MB 2.5 MB http://www.anandtech.com/show/6355/intels-haswell-architecture/10 http://www.anandtech.com/show/8423/intel-xeon-e5-version-3-up-to-18-haswell-ep-cores-/4 5 Core Core 0 64 MB 8 MB Core 4 Shared L3 Cache Core 5 Core 6 Core 7 Latency is minimized – all cores have equal access to L3, no frequency boundaries LinuxONE chip (representation) LinuxONE also has 960 MB per drawer offchip L4 cache
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Introduction to the new mainframe Storage areas in an address space z/OS V1R13 BAR Problem (user) programs Run here LINE CVT (offset 16 (hex10) within PSA) All storage above 2 GB This area is called high virtual storage and is addressable only by programs running in 64-bit mode. It is divided by the high virtual shared area, which is an area of installation-defined size that can be used to establish cross-address space viewable connections to obtained areas within this area. Extended areas above 16 MB This range of areas, which lies above the line (16 MB) but below the bar (2 GB), is a kind of “mirror image” of the common area below 16 MB. They have the same attributes as their equivalent areas below the line, but because of the additional storage above the line, their sizes are much larger. Nucleus This is a key 0, read-only area of common storage that contains operating system control programs. System queue area (SQA) (2048 MBs)This area contains system level (key 0) data accessed by multiple address spaces. The SQA area is not pageable (fixed), which means that it resides in central storage until it is freed by the requesting program. The size of the SQA area is predefined by the installation and cannot change while the operating system is active. Yet it has the unique ability to “overflow” into the CSA area as long as there is unused CSA storage that can be converted to SQA. Pageable link pack area (PLPA), fixed link pack area (FLPA), and modified link pack area (MLPA) This area contains the link pack areas (the pageable link pack area, fixed link pack area, and modified link pack area), which contain system level programs that are often run by multiple address spaces. For this reason, the link pack areas reside in the common area that is addressable by every address space, therefore eliminating the need for each address space to have its own copy of the program. This storage area is below the line and is therefore addressable by programs running in 24-bit mode. CSA This portion of common area storage (addressable by all address spaces) is available to all applications. The CSA is often used to contain data frequently accessed by multiple address spaces. The size of the CSA area is established at system initialization time (IPL) and cannot change while the operating system is active. LSQA/SWA/subpool 228/subpool 230 This assortment of subpools, each with specific attributes, is used primarily by system functions when the functions require address space level storage isolation. Being below the line, these areas are addressable by programs running in 24-bit mode. User Region This area is obtainable by any program running in the user’s address space, including user key programs. It resides below the line and is therefore addressable by programs running in 24-bit mode. System Region This small area (usually only four pages) is reserved for use by the region control task of each address space. Prefixed Save Area (PSA) This area is often referred to as “Low Core.” The PSA is a common area of virtual storage from address zero through 8191 in every address space. There is one unique PSA for every processor installed in a system. The PSA maps architecturally fixed hardware and software storage locations for the processor. Because there is a unique PSA for each processor, from the view of a program running on z/OS, the contents of the PSA can change any time the program is dispatched on a different processor. This feature is unique to the PSA area and is accomplished through a unique DAT manipulation technique called prefixing. © Copyright IBM Corp., 2010. All rights reserved. Page 42 of 85
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PLACEMENT HOW? Placement Placement Test Test Transfer Transfer Credits Credits SAT SAT or or ACT ACT Scores Scores High High School School AP AP Scores Scores (Mathematics) (Mathematics) WHAT TO DO? Take Take placement placement test test on on any any campus campus at at Testing Testing Center. Center. Accuplacer Accuplacer MATH MATH can can be be taken taken twice. twice. Students Students who who wish wish higher higher placement placement must must then then “appeal”. “appeal”. Appeal Appeal is is request to take a pencil-and-paper type test on material from the course they request to take a pencil-and-paper type test on material from the course they placed placed into. into. Bring Bring transcript transcript showing showing general general education education math math credits credits from from another another college college or or university university to to CCBC CCBC for for evaluation. evaluation. If If completed completed in in Maryland, Maryland, the the highest highest level level developmental math course, Intermediate Algebra can be used for placement. developmental math course, Intermediate Algebra can be used for placement. Placement Placement by by SAT SAT MATH MATH score score of of 500 500 or or higher higher (or (or by by ACT ACT MATH MATH score score 21 21 or or higher) places the student into an entry-level general education math course higher) places the student into an entry-level general education math course (MATH (MATH 111, 111, 125, 125, 131/2/3, 131/2/3, 135, 135, 163). 163). For For higher higher placement, placement, the the student student must must take take Accuplacer MATH. MATH. Accuplacer Students Students with with documentation documentation of of AP AP math math scores scores of of 3, 3, 4, 4, or or 5 5 from from high high school school can can be awarded college credit and placement according to this chart. be awarded college credit and placement according to this chart.
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Microprogram for MicroMIPS Fig. 14.8 The complete MicroMIPS microprogram. fetch: PCnext, CacheFetch PC + 4imm, PCdisp1 lui1: lui(imm) rt  z, PCfetch add1: x + y rd  z, PCfetch sub1: x - y rd  z, PCfetch slt1: x - y rd  z, PCfetch addi1: x + imm rt  z, PCfetch slti1: x - imm rt  z, PCfetch and1: x  y rd  z, PCfetch or1: x  y rd  z, PCfetch xor1: x  y rd  z, PCfetch nor1: x  y rd  z, PCfetch andi1: x  imm rt  z, PCfetch ori1: x  imm rt  z, PCfetch xori: x  imm rt  z, PCfetch lwsw1: x + imm, mPCdisp2 lw2: CacheLoad rt  Data, PCfetch sw2: CacheStore, PCfetch j1: PCjump, PCfetch jr1: PCjreg, PCfetch branch1: PCbranch, PCfetch jal1: PCjump, $31PC, PCfetch syscall1:PCsyscall, PCfetch Computer Architecture, Data Path and Control # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State State 0 (start) 1 7lui 8lui 7add 8add 7sub 8sub 7slt 8slt 7addi 8addi 7slti 8slti 7and 8and 7or 8or 7xor 8xor 7nor 8nor 7andi 8andi 7ori 8ori 7xori 8xori 2 3 4 6 5j 5jr 5branch 5jal 5syscall Slide 35
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Common Core Initiative FAQ 19  Who is leading the Common Core State Standards Initiative? The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center); As part of this process, they have convened a National Policy Forum composed of signatory national organizations to share ideas  How will states adopt the common core state standards? States will adopt the common core state standards through a process that respects unique state contexts. CCSSO and the NGA Center will ask states to share their adoption timeline and process in early 2010, when the K-12 common core state standards are completed. A validation committee will verify that states have accurately adopted the common core state standards  Are these national standards? No. This initiative is driven by collective state action and states will voluntarily adopt the standards based on the timelines and context in their state.  What grades will be covered in the common core state standards? The English-language arts and math standards will be K-12 standards.  
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The Reality of Organizational Change Individuals Current Current state state Future Future state state Transition Transition state state Current Current state state Transition Transition state state Future Future state state Future Future state state Transition Transition state state Current Current state state Transition Transition state state Future Future state state Current Current state state Transition Transition state state Current Current state state Future Future state state Current Current state state Future Future state state Transition Transition state state Organization Future state 12
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