SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition System DFD Whitten Bentley Dittman (see book for more readable copy) Most DFDs won’t fit on one or two pages – too many event processes. Instead they must be illustrated in a series of system diagrams that correspond to the structure originally depicted in the functional decomposition diagram. Transactions Product and Availability Products Product and Availability Relevant Transactions Member Member Order Process Member Order Inventory Commitment Inventory Commitmen t Member Subscription Order Warehouse Packing Order Process Subscription Order Packing Order Member Order Confirmation Subscription Order Confirmation New Member Ordered Products Member Updated Member from Order Members New Member Order New Member Ordered Products Address New Member Order Members Member Orders Member Ordered Products Member Orders Deleted Member Order Orders Updated Member Updated Member Order Updated Member from Updated Order Member Order Change Request Deleted Member Ordered Products Ordered Products Member Process Member Order Revision Member Order Confirmation Product and Availability Generate Order Analysis Report Process Member Order Cancelation Updated Member Ordered Products Member Order Cancelation Member Member Order Cancelation Notice End of Day Inventory Commitment Revised Packing Order Warehouse Time Order Analysis Report Club Directors Products Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
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AER Strategy Grid: Micro-Analysis of Customer Heterogeneity and Dynamics  Output of MP#2 is a microanalysis of customer heterogeneity and dynamics in the firm’s customer portfolio  The insights from MP#2 then can be inserted into the AER strategy grid to reveal highimpact strategies  Each box in this grid describes the most effective strategy for a unique persona at a single point in time AER Strategy Grid Acquisition Acquisition Strategy Strategy Expansion Expansion Strategy Strategy Retention Retention Strategy Strategy Persona Persona #1 #1 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Persona Persona #2 #2 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Persona Persona #3 #3 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 © Palmatier 39
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Connections Between AER Strategy and BOR Equity Grids AER Strategy Grid Acquisition Acquisition Strategy Strategy Expansion Expansion Strategy Strategy Retention Retention Strategy Strategy Persona Persona #1 #1 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 1 1 Persona Persona #2 #2 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 2 2 Persona Persona #3 #3 Most Most effective effective acquisition acquisition strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective expansion expansion strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Most Most effective effective retention retention strategies strategies for for Persona Persona 3 3 Personas account for customer heterogeneity AER stages account for customer dynamics BOR Equity Grid Marketing Marketing Objectives Objectives Relative Relative Advantages Advantages Sources Sources of of Sustainability Sustainability Brand Brand Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 5) 5) Brand Brand marketing marketing objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages advantages of of the the firm’s firm’s brand brand vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ brands brands Brand’s Brand’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Offering Offering Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 6) 6) Offering Offering and and innovation innovation objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages advantages of of the the firm’s firm’s offering offering vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ offerings offerings Offering’s Offering’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Relationship Relationship marketing marketing objectives objectives Relative Relative advantages advantages of of the the firm’s firm’s relationships relationships vs. vs. competitors’ competitors’ relationships relationships Relationship Relationship marketing’s marketing’s sources sources of of sustainability sustainability Environmental Trends Technology Technology trends trends Regulatory Regulatory trends trends Relationship Relationship Strategy Strategy (Chapter (Chapter 7) 7) Socioeconomic Socioeconomic trends trends © Palmatier 38
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SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Primitive DFD (see book for more readable copy) Important to recognize that NOT all events require a primitive DFDInvalid Order to be drawn. This is especially true for the most reportMember writing and inquiry response event processes. Drawing detailed DFDs for such processes is usually little more than “busy work.” Irwin/McGraw-Hill Member ID and Address Member Validate Member Members Updated Member from Order Invalid Member ID Invalid Product ID Ordered Product ID Validate Ordered Product Product Valid Product Ordered Product Quantity Member Order Check Product Availability Products Product Availability Inventory Comittment Available Product Bonus Credits Claimed Product Price Calculate Order Cost Cost to Member Payment Credit Problem and Instruction Relevant Transactions Order to be Filled Member Orders Member Ordered Products Members Credit Details Check Member Credit Confirmed Member Order New Member Order New Member Ordered Products Transactions Order to be Filled Record Order Release Order Packing Order Warehouse Updated Credits Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights res
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The Contestants… Team 1: Team 2: Team 3: Team 4: Team 5: Team 6: Team 7: Team 8: Team 9: Team 10: Team 11: Team 12: Team 13: Team 14: Team 15: Team 16: Team 17: Team 18: Team 19: Team 20: Team 21: Team 22: Team 23: Team 24: Team 25: Team 26: Team 27: Team 28: Back to the Contest…
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Formative measurement example • Construct – • Team electronic communication use Indicators (question-statements answered on a Likert-type scale) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The team used e-mail to fellow team members (1 to 1). The team used e-mail to team distribution lists (1 to many). The team used team messaging boards or team discussion forums. The team used shared electronic files. The team used Lotus notes to facilitate sharing information among team members. The team used electronic newsletters that covered project information. The team used auto routing of documents for team member and management approval. 8. The team used file transfer protocols (FTP) to attach documents to e-mails and Web pages. 9. The team used a Web page dedicated to this project. 10. The team used a Web page for this project that contained project specs, market research information, and test results. 11. The team used voice messaging. 12. The team used teleconferencing. 13. The team used video conferencing 14. The team used desktop video conferencing 15. The team used attached audio files to electronic documents. 16. The team used attached video files to electronic documents.
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Date object constructor for date 7/24/1949 Date object constructor for date 3/12/1988 Employee object constructor: Bob Jones Jones, Bob Hired: 3/12/1988 Birth date: 7/24/1949 Test Date constructor with invalid values: Month 14 invalid. Set to month 1. Day 35 invalid. Set to day 1. Date object constructor for date 1/1/1994 Date object destructor for date 1/1/1994 Employee object destructor: Jones, Bob Date object destructor for date 3/12/1988 Date object destructor for date 7/24/1949 Date object destructor for date 3/12/1988 Date object destructor for date 7/24/1949 Outline Note two additional Datefig07_10.cpp objects constructed; no output output (1 of 1) since default copy constructor used. Destructor for host object Destructor Employee’s manager runsfor before member object hireDate. Destructor for Employee‘s destructors for member Destructor for Date member object birthDate. objects hireDate and object Destructor for Date object hire. birthDate. birth.  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 31
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Data Management Fire Site         Team #1 Team #2 Team #3 Team #4 Team #5 ONCE YOU HAVE YOUR CONC./GRAM DATA Conc. Cu ((µg/mL)/g) 1.179 0.643 0.712 0.689 0.972 COME UP TO THIS COMPUTER AND ENTER IT IN Conc. Fe ((µg/mL)/g) 2.032 1.298 1.052 1.708 1.135 SO EVERYONE CAN SEE IT!!!!! Conc. Zn ((µg/mL)/g) 0.774 0.772 0.791 0.787 0.805 Suspect #1 Suspect #2   Suspect #3 Suspect #4 Suspect #5 Team #1 Team #2 Team #3 Team #2 Team #6 Team #3 Team #4 Team #4 Team #5 Team #1 Team #5 Conc. Cu ((µg/mL)/g) 0.120 -0.059 0.168 0.176 xxxxxxxx 0.701 0.632 -0.042 0.276 0.120 0.649 Conc. Fe ((µg/mL)/g) 0.012 0.757 0.907 0.820 xxxxxxxx 1.048 1.399 1.661 0.703 1.812 0.868 0.000 -0.053 0.250 xxxxxxxx 0.774 0.678 0.253 0.247 0.405 0.624 G E S Conc. Zn ((µg/mL)/g) Blank #1   0.210   Blank #2   Team #1 Team #2 Team #3 Team #4 Team #5 Conc. Cu ((µg/mL)/g) 0.120 Conc. Fe ((µg/mL)/g) 0.005 0.638 0.497 0.657 0.354 Conc. Zn ((µg/mL)/g) 0.000 -0.024 -0.108 -0.078 -0.014 A -0.054 -0.047 E -0.084 R 0.008 Fire Site V Susp. #1 A Conc. Cu ((µg/mL)/g) 0.839 0.031 0.428 0.666 0.117 0.384 Conc. Fe ((µg/mL)/g) 1.445 0.385 0.559 1.223 1.182 1.340 0.380 0.505 Conc. Zn ((µg/mL)/g) 0.786 -0.027 0.210 0.726 0.250 0.514 -0.044 -0.046 Susp. #2 Susp. #3 Susp. #4 Susp. #5 Blank #1 Blank #2 0.006 -0.038
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First “Project”Assignment (Preview) assignment (due WEEK 3 in lab): Team assignment In lab your team will specify, design, implement, and test a (java) program consisting of at least one component built by each team member. Use this mini-project to explore the planning and management concepts which you will apply to the quarter project. Based on your experiences with this mini-project, fill in DETAILED answers to the questions below. This will be CHAPTER 1, RESOURCES AND PLANNING, for your quarter project report. RESOURCES: •List all personnel and skills of each (Java experience, software project experience, good writing skills, etc.) •List the number of hours each team member has available to devote to the project over the quarter. •List all hardware and software resources that will be used for development. PLANNING: •Describe the team organization. •List who will be assigned to oversee each of the following: documentation; testing; version control and backups; productivity; overall management (number of managers depends on team organization chosen). •Describe how the team members will communicate and coordinate their work. •Give the time and place of weekly team meetings (at least one meeting per week is required). •Describe completely the process model you will follow and explain why this model is appropriate for the project and for your available resources. •Describe completely how you will handle version control and backups. •Give the formulas you will use for calculating productivity (you must measure individual and team time spent and you must measure how much you have produced—weekly and overall)—see update on next slide •Describe your plan for testing. As we will discuss later, it is important that each component be tested by someone who is not the author. It is also important that you follow an incremental plan for integrating components into your system, testing the whole system each time a new component is integrated. As you develop components, you should also be building up a set of test cases which can be run each time a change is made to the system. •Provide a RISK TABLE for your project (see lecture notes) •Provide both a GANTT CHART and TRACKING DOCUMENT for your project (see lecture notes). You can build the Gantt chart using the project development schedule given on the web page for 495. •Describe the CODING STANDARDS you will use (see lecture notes). 3 •Describe how you will produce up-to-date documentation (content and form—online?) in parallel with the project.
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Example of a Requirements Use Case Date: 10/05/2002 Author: S. Shepard Use Case Name: Submit New Member Order Actor(s): Member Description: This use case describes the process of a member submitting an order for Sound Stage products. On completion, the member will be sent a notification that 1 Actor Action the order was accepted. System response Step 1: This use case is initiated when a member Step 2: The member’s personal information such as References: MSS-1.0 submits an order to be processed address is validated against what is currently Typical2 Course recorded in member services. of Events: Step 7: This use case concludes when the member receives the order confirmation notice. Step 3: The member’s credit status is checked with Accounts Receivable to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 4: For each product being ordered, validate the product number and then check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information. Step 5: Create a picking ticket for the member order containing all ordered products that are available and route it to the warehouse for processing. Step 6: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating the status of the order and send it to the member. 32
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MEMOS MERCHANDISE & SERVICES RECEIVED BY ITCC THROUGH JUNE 30 Entry on FAAINVE Encumbrance exists in FY 2013-14 Calendar date June 1 - June 30 Pay against encumbrance with June transaction date Calendar date July 1 – July 8 Pay against encumbrance with June transaction date Merchandise & services 30 Encumbrance exists in FY 2014-15 No Encumbrance Reduce encumbrance with Pay as a direct pay July transaction date; then with June received by ITCC through June pay as direct pay with transaction date June transaction date Reduce encumbrance with July transaction date; then pay as direct pay with June transaction date Pay as a direct pay with June transaction date Rolled encumbrance or new encumbrance created in FY 2014-15 No Encumbrance Reduce encumbrance with July transaction date; then pay as direct pay with June 30 transaction date Pay as a direct pay with June 30 transaction date Pay against encumbrance with July transaction date/ Reverse FT1 JV with July transaction date. Pay as a direct pay with July transaction 26 date/Reverse FT1 JV with July transaction date. July 11: Encumbrance roll to FY 2014-15 Entry on FAAINVE Encumbrance no longer exists in FY 2013-14 (Central Office only) Calendar date July 14 & later (Regions) Calendar date July 14 & later If material amount, create FT1 JV with June 30 transaction date to accrue expense & liability
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Gross Requirements Plan Week 1 A. Required date Order release date B. Required date Order release date C. Required date Order release date E. Required date Order release date F. Required date Order release date G. Required date Order release date G. Required date Order release date 2 3 4 5 6 7 50 100 100 150 200 300 200 300 300 600 300 600 300 300 200 200 150 8 Lead Time 50 1 week 2 weeks 1 week 2 weeks 3 weeks 1 week 2 weeks Table 14.3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14 - 35
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Closed Area Checklist - Idea Closed Areas Interview Guide ___Is the media in the area marked properly? (classified, unclassified, and system software) ___Are both classified and unclassified computer equipment affixed with a label indicating their level of processing? ___ Review the visitor log. Pay close attention to the visitor’s company name. Did someone visit from an HVAC service? If so, ask the area custodian what they did. Did they put a hole in the wall or make a change affecting the area integrity or the 147? If so, is it greater than 96 square inches? Did someone visit from Xerox? If so, what did they do while they were there? Did they install a new copy machine with a hard drive? Did this get connected to the classified AIS? Did someone visit from a computer service vendor? If so, what did they do? Did they bring diagnostic equipment with them? If so, did they connect it to the AIS? Did any visitors have “keyboard” access? If so, was that authorized? Dispose of visitor logs from before the last DSS audit ____ Does the 147 note “open storage” of AIS? ____ AIS TEAM MEMBER: Dispose of system paperwork from before the last DSS audit (unless it is still relevant) ___ AIS TEAM MEMBER: Look around. Is there any new hardware connected to the AIS? If so, what is it? Does it have memory? ___ AIS TEAM MEMBER: Check the AIS system access list. Are all individuals still active employees? Balance the list against an active employee listing. Bring a list of recently terminated employees with you, too. Are all individuals on the system access list also on the Closed Area access list? If not, why not? Review the Closed Area access list. Do you see anyone who recently terminated? If so, request that they be taken off the Closed Area access list. Were they on the system access list? If so, has their account been disabled? Balance all the lists against each other. Has everyone on the system access list taken the required CBEs? (Verify.) ___ Are there Security posters in the area? ____ Are the FAX machines in the area marked to indicate “for unclassified use only”? ____ Are the shredders marked “for unclassified use only”? ___ AIS TEAM MEMBER: Do the classified printers have a sign “Output must be treated as classified until reviewed ….?” ___ Are the recycle bins labeled “for unclassified use only”? ____ Are the supplies in the area sufficient? (CD labels, classification labels, coversheets, etc.). ___ Does the area have a “marking guide” poster? ____ Does the area have an updated Security points of contact poster? __ AIS TEAM MEMBER: Before going to audit the system, read about what the system is used for and what it does. This will generate questions and help you understand what goes on in the area ___ AIS TEAM MEMBER: Have a user walk you through the steps they follow when they create classified data. What do they print out? Is it classified? If it’s not classified, do they verify that? How do they know what’s classified? (Do they refer to the program security classification guide? Do they know where the guide is located?) Where do they put the classified when it’s completed? Go look at their safe. Are things marked properly? Ask if the data in the safe is for a current contract. If not, explain the requirements for retention approval. (See NISPOM 5-701) Where does the data or hardware go from there? Is it sent to a customer? What is our relationship with the organization they send it to? Do we have DD Forms 254 in place to/from that organization? What is the classification of what they are working on? Is the system approved up to that level? ___ Do they support IR&D activities? If so, explain how IR&D documents must be marked “IR&D Document,” etc. in accordance with the NISPOM (11-304) ____ Are the above-the-ceiling checks being conducted on the required schedule? Look at the records. Dispose of records from before the last DSS audit __ AIS TEAM MEMBER: Review Trusted Download logs, ask people where the removed media is currently located (stored on a computer, CD, printout), and which method they used for the transfer. DSS is focusing on interviews with employees and may very well ask them to actually demonstrate a trusted download. Ask the employee to walk through the steps with you to prepare them for the audit.
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