Sample Student Schedule Grade 9 English Social Studies Math Science Foreign Language Intro to Engineering Design Physical Education Grade 10 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit .5 unit Grade 11 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit .5 unit Grade 12 English Social Studies Math Science Digital Electronics 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit *Computer Integrated Manufacturing 1 unit *Civil Engineer and Architecture *Biotechnical Engineering *Aerospace Engineering Physical Education English Social Studies Math Science Foreign Language Principles of Engineering Physical Education 1 unit .5 unit English Social Studies Math Science Engineering Design and Development Health Physical Education 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit .5 unit .5 unit
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21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // processing phase while ( gradeCounter <= 10 ) { cout << "Enter grade: "; cin >> grade; total = total + grade; gradeCounter = gradeCounter + 1; } // termination phase average = total / 10; // // // // // loop 10 times prompt for input read grade from user add grade to total increment counter Outline fig02_07.cpp (2 of 2) fig02_07.cpp output (1 of 1) // integer division // display result cout << "Class average is " << average << endl; return 0; // indicate } // end function main Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Class grade: 98 grade: 76 grade: 71 grade: 87 grade: 83 grade: 90 grade: 57 grade: 79 grade: 82 grade: 94 average is 81 The counter gets incremented each time the loop executes. program ended successfully Eventually, the counter causes the loop to end.  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 22
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Work Activities Custom A B C COTS A B 1. Software Project Management and Quality Planning FULL GRADE GRADE GRADE 2. Software Risk Management FULL 3. Software Configuration Mgmt FULL 4. Procurement & Vendor Mgmt FULL 5. Software Requirements Identification and Management FULL 6. Software Design & Implementation FULL 7. Software Safety Design FULL 8. Verification & Validation FULL FULL GRADE GRADE GRADE FULL FULL FULL FULL FULL FULL FULL GRADE FULL FULL FULL FULL NA FULL FULL GRADE GRADE GRADE FULL C GRADE GRADE FULL FULL GRADE FULL FULL FULL NA FULL NA GRADE GRADE GRADE 12
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49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 // display average with two digits of precision cout << "Class average is " << setprecision( 2 ) << fixed << average << endl; } // end if part of if/else else // if no grades were entered, output appropriate message cout << "No grades were entered" << endl; return 0; Outline fig02_09.cpp (3 of 3) fig02_09.cpp output (1 of 1) // indicate program ended successfully } // end function main Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Enter Class grade, -1 to end: grade, -1 to end: grade, -1 to end: grade, -1 to end: grade, -1 to end: grade, -1 to end: grade, -1 to end: grade, -1 to end: grade, -1 to end: average is 82.50 75 94 97 88 70 64 83 89 -1 setprecision(2)prints two digits past fixed forces output to print decimal in fixed point format (not point (rounded to fit precision). scientific notation). Also, that use this must include forces trailing zerosPrograms and decimal point to print. Include  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 30
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//******************************************************************** // GradeRange.java Java Foundations // // Demonstrates the use of an array of objects. //******************************************************************** public class GradeRange { //----------------------------------------------------------------// Creates an array of Grade objects and prints them. //----------------------------------------------------------------public static void main(String[] args) { Grade[] grades = { new Grade("A", 95), new Grade("A-", 90), new Grade("B+", 87), new Grade("B", 85), new Grade("B-", 80), new Grade("C+", 77), new Grade("C", 75), new Grade("C-", 70), new Grade("D+", 67), new Grade("D", 65), new Grade("D-", 60), new Grade("F", 0) }; for (Grade letterGrade : grades) System.out.println(letterGrade); } } Code\chap7\GradeRange.java Java Foundations, 3rd Edition, Lewis/DePasquale/Chase 7 - 15
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Needs Assessment: Language Arts Met state accreditation: Decreased Gap Group 2 by 11% Decreased Gap for Economically Disabled by 6% Student with Disabilities increased to 49% DRA On or Above Grade Level Below Grade Level 2016 2017 2016 2017 KG 89% 100% 11% 0% Grade 1 85% 82% 15% 18% Grade 2 86% 89% 14% 11% Grade 3 74% 84% 26% 16% Grade 4 74% 80% 26% 20% Grade 5 95% 86% 5% 14% Grades 1 – 5 84% 87% 16% 13% LA Benchmark Proficient Basic Below Basic Grade 2 16.8% 37.4% 45.8% Grade 3 40.4% 35.4% 24.2% 19/53 Grade 4 25.8% 46.8% 27.4% 43/53 Grade 5 35.9% 40.8% 23.3% 39/53 Proficient Basic Below Basic RI Advanced Prof 2016 2017 Rank 24/53 2016 2017 2016 2017 2016 2017 Grade 3 27% 31% 50% 44% 17% 16% 9% 8% Grade 4 34% 27% 36% 46% 16% 15% 15% 13% Grade 5 40% 50% 33% 25% 19% 15% 8% 10% All 34% 35% 40% 39% 17% 15% 9% 11%
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// determine the average of an arbitrary number of grades public void DetermineClassAverage() { int total; // sum of grades int gradeCounter; // number of grades entered int grade; // grade value double average; // number with decimal point for average // initialization phase total = 0; // initialize total gradeCounter = 0; // initialize loop counter // processing phase // prompt for and read a grade from the user Console.Write( "Enter grade or -1 to quit: " ); grade = Convert.ToInt32( Console.ReadLine() ); Avoid infinite loop! // loop until sentinel value is read from the user while ( grade != -1 ) { total = total + grade; // add grade to total gradeCounter = gradeCounter + 1; // increment counter // prompt for and read the next grade from the user Console.Write( "Enter grade or -1 to quit: " ); grade = Convert.ToInt32( Console.ReadLine() ); } // end while // termination phase // if the user entered at least one grade... if ( gradeCounter != 0 ) { // calculate the average of all the grades entered average = ( double ) total / gradeCounter; Avoid division by 0 // display the total and average (with two digits of precision) Console.WriteLine( "\nTotal of the {0} grades entered is {1}", gradeCounter, total ); Console.WriteLine( "Class average is {0:F}", average ); } // end if else // no grades were entered, so output error message Console.WriteLine( "No grades were entered" ); } // end method DetermineClassAverage } 40
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26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 // processing phase // get first grade from user cout << "Enter grade, -1 to end: "; cin >> grade; Outline // prompt for input // read grade from user // loop until sentinel value read from user treats total while ( grade != -1 static_cast() ) { double temporarily total = total + grade; // (casting). add grade to total gradeCounter = gradeCounter + 1; // increment counter cout << "Enter cin >> grade; } // end while fig02_09.cpp (2 of 3) as a Required because dividing two integers truncates the grade, -1 to end: "; // prompt for input remainder. // read next grade gradeCounter is an int, but it gets promoted to double. // termination phase // if user entered at least one grade ... if ( gradeCounter != 0 ) { // calculate average of all grades entered average = static_cast< double >( total ) / gradeCounter;  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 29
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Formative vs. Summative  Summative assessments measure learned knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and happen during the end of a course  Formative assessments let instructors know how to meet the needs of individual students within a course  When do you think it be most useful to use formative assessment? Summative?  How could either help us to improve our students’ learning experience? Please refer to page 5 of today’s handout.
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