Data Analysis Data Codes Codes Codes THEMES Codes THEMES Codes Codes THEMES Codes Codes THEMES Codes
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Should You Use Codes?  Types of Codes (Cont.) (Cont.) ◦ Alphabetic codes  Use alphabet letters to distinguish one item from another  Category codes identify a group of related items  A department store may use a two-character category code to identify the department  Abbreviation codes are alphabetic abbreviations  State codes include NY for New York, ME for Maine, and MN for Minnesota  Some abbreviation codes are called mnemonic codes because they use a specific combination of letters that are easy to remember 49
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Should You Use Codes?  Types of Codes (Cont.) (Cont.) ◦ Significant digit codes  Distinguish items by using a series of subgroups of digits  Postal codes are significant digit codes ◦ Derivation codes  Combine data from different item attributes, or characteristics ◦ Cipher codes  Use a keyword to encode a number  A retail store, for example, might use a 10-letter word, such as CAMPGROUND, to code wholesale prices, where the letter C represents 1, A represents 2, and so on. Thus, the code, GRAND, indicates that the store paid $562.90 for the item ◦ Action codes  Indicate what action is to be taken with an associated item  X (to exit the program) 51
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Should You Use Codes?  (Cont.) Designing Codes ◦ Keep codes concise ◦ Allow for expansion ◦ Keep codes stable ◦ Make codes unique ◦ Use sortable codes ◦ Use a simple structure ◦ Avoid confusion ◦ Make codes meaningful ◦ Use a code for a single purpose ◦ Keep codes consistent 53
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Types of Codes Types of codes are: • Simple sequence code. • Alphabetic derivation codes. • Classification codes. • Block sequence codes. • Cipher codes. • Significant digit subsets. • Mnemonic codes. • Function codes. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 15-6
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Guidelines for Coding • Guidelines for coding are: • Keep codes concise. • Keep codes stable. • Make codes that are unique. • Allow codes to be sortable. • Avoid confusing codes. • Keep codes uniform. • Allow for modification of codes. • Make codes meaningful. Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 15-26
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Contributions/Publicati ons  Turbo codes for the wireless channel  Use of pilot symbols for channel estimation  Performance curves for Rician channels  Wireless multimedia applications Valenti and Woerner, “Refined channel estimation for coherent detection of turbo codes over flat-fading channels,” IEE Electronics Letters, Aug. 1998. Valenti and Woerner, “Pilot symbol assisted detection of turbo codes over flat-fading channels," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, in review. Valenti and Woerner, “A bandwidth efficient pilot symbol technique for coherent detection of turbo codes over fading channels,” in Proc. MILCOM, Atlantic City, Oct./Nov. 1999, to appear. Valenti, “Turbo codes and iterative processing,” in Proc. IEEE New Zealand Wireless Communications Symposium, Auckland, New Zealand, Nov. 1998, invited paper. Valenti and Woerner, “Performance of turbo codes in interleaved flat fading channels with estimated channel state information,” in Proc., IEEE VTC, Ottawa, Canada, May 1998. Valenti and Woerner, “Variable latency Turbo-codes for wireless multimedia applications,” in Proc. International Symposium of Turbo Codes and Related Topics, Brest, France, Sept. 1997.  Publications       Combined pilot symbol-assisted and decision-directed decoding
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Summary (continued) • Coding • • • • • • • • • Sequence codes Alphabetic derivation codes Classification codes Block sequence codes Cipher codes Significant-digit subset codes Mnemonic codes Uniform character set Function codes Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 15-67
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Random Codes  Random codes achieve the best performance.   However, random codes are not feasible.   The code must contain enough structure so that decoding can be realized with actual hardware. Coding dilemma:   Shannon showed that as N approaches infinity, random codes require the theoretical minimum SNR. “All codes are good, except those that we can think of.” With turbo codes:   The codes appear random to the channel. Yet, they contain enough structure so that decoding is feasible.
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Error Detection and Correction 3.2 Error codes add structured redundancy to data so errors can be either detected, or corrected. Error correction codes: • Hamming codes » • Binary convolutional codes » • Reed-Solomon and Low-Density Parity Check codes − Mathematically complex, widely used in real systems Error detection codes: • Parity » • Checksums » • Cyclic redundancy codes » CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, © Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011
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Error Correction in Communication Systems Renewed interest in LDPC LDPC Introduced 1950 1960 Hamming codes BCH codes 1970 Convolutional codes Reed Solomon codes 1980 1990 Practical implementation of codes 2000 Turbo codes LDPC beats Turbo and convolutional codes
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General Guidelines for Coding • • • • • • • • Be concise Keep the codes stable Ensure that codes are unique Allow codes to be sortable Avoid confusing codes Keep the codes uniform Allow for modification of codes Make codes meaningful Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 15-28
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MODULE 3 – Explore More Search Options tab Classification codes let you search business-targeted databases such as ABI/INFORM, Banking Information Source, and ABI/INFORM Dateline. The classification codes segment these databases into broad topical areas. When you use the codes with search words, classification codes are a fast way to precisely target a search by topic, industry or market, geographical area, or article type. Enter a classification code or click Look up classification codes to use the Look Up Classification Codes window.
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CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 5 Solving a Percent Problem In 2002, there were 301 long-distance area codes in the United States, an increase of 250% over the number when the area code plan originated in 1947. How many area codes were there in 1947? (Source: SBC Telephone Directory.) Solution: Step 1 Read the problem. What are we being asked to find? The number of area codes in 1947. What are we given? The number of area codes in 2002 and the percent increase from 1947 to 2002. Step 2 Assign a variable. Let x = the number of area codes in 1947. Then, 2.5x represents the number of codes in 2002. Step 3 Write an equation from the given information. x + 2.5x = 301 Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 2.3- 23
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Codes For Billing • Standardized codes required for healthcare transactions, such as insurance claims and remittance advice • Procedure codes assigned for services rendered and supplies used (HCPCS/CPT-4 codes) • Diagnosis codes assigned to represent disease or medical condition treated (ICD9/14/2012 571 Isabelle 27 9-CM codes) ISC471/HCI Bichindaritz
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Coding and Grouping Systems  CPT holds procedure codes  ICD holds disease codes  MEDCIN codes symptoms, history, exams, tests, diagnosis, and treatment  SNOMED provides a common language  LOINC standardizes laboratory and clinical codes  NDC codes drugs Information Technology for the Health Professions, Third Edition Lillian Burke and Barbara Weill Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
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Summary • Ethical codes do offer practical advice about issues that matter to professionals and their clients. • Ethical codes inform policy makers. • Ethical codes can be powerful instruments in the drive for professionalism and in establishing safeguards for society. • Ethical codes try to educate and inspire the members of the professional group that adapts the code. • Ethical codes also inform the public about the responsibilities that are important to a profession. 17
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B Codes in ORCHIDS and charting • Our state data system is only as good as the information entered • There can be multiple B codes with A codes • In BabiesFirst! there cannot be B codes. • In CaCoon there can be both A and B The more codes entered, the more we know about the clients in CaCoon
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Coding for Privacy & Reliability • Lots of research on using erasure codes in distributed storage systems to achieve reliability • Regenerating codes, Locally Recoverable codes etc. [Dimakis et al.], [Tamo & Barg], [Yekhanin et al.] etc. • Lots of best paper awards • Microsoft says codes saved them millions of dollars How to use codes to save on the storage cost of PIR?
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Commodity Codes • Commodity codes provide a structure for standardizing purchasing for consistency, efficiency and economy. • These commodity codes, also known as category codes, are based on professional standards and ensure proper processing, reporting and accounting of goods and services. • Category codes are also instrumental in budgeting review and funding allocation, and form the basis for future funding decisions. Requestors should take great care in selecting the most appropriate code.
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#1 New and Replacement Positions (State) Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. (EMSI) annual new and replacement jobs at state level. Compiles data based on Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes aligned to the program’s Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) codes. Data based on annual new/replacement position projections as of Spring 2012 State position numbers are not pro‐rated. Note: In the past programs could select SOC codes and some programs had more than one. This year they are using the official CIP code assigned by IRAO. Click on the link below for a list of the CIP codes that were used to pull the labor data. The SOC codes that are associated with this CIP code is actually where the data is coming from. AY 2012 HawCC CIP Code Listing 13
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Should You Use Codes?  Overview of Codes ◦ Because codes can represent data and they are shorter than the data they represent, they save storage space and costs, reduce data transmission time, and decrease data entry time ◦ Codes can be used to reveal or conceal information ◦ Codes can reduce data input errors ◦ Coded data is easier to remember ◦ The code itself can provide immediate verification that the entry is correct 47
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Should You Use Codes?  (Cont.) Types of Codes ◦ Codes should be easy to learn and apply ◦ Sequence Codes  Numbers or letters assigned in a specific order  Contain no additional information other than an indication of order of entry into the system ◦ Block sequence codes  Use blocks of numbers for different classifications  100-level courses are freshman-level  200-level courses are sophomore-level 48
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• Direct Loan Setup (cont.) • The COD records must contain the state and nation codes from these validation tables – RTVCDST – COD State Codes – RTVCDNT – COD Nation Codes • If the institution uses other codes for states/nations, the crosswalk field on GTVSDAX can be updated to translate for COD • REREXxx process will translate the school’s codes to the correct values needed for COD
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CLASSROOM EXAMPLE 5 Solving a Percent Problem (cont’d) Step 4 Solve the equation. x + 2.5x = 301 3.5x = 301 3.5 x 301  3.5 3.5 x = 86 Step 5 State the answer. The number of area codes in 1947 was 86 and the increase in the number of area codes between 1947 and 2002 was 215 (2.5 X 86). Step 6 Check. 86 area codes in 1947 + an increase of 215 codes = total area codes by 2002 Copyright © 2012, 2008, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 301 Slide 2.3- 24
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Idea B: Return Ack codes in ballot order Each voter receives A list of candidate codes in a random, secret order A list of preference-ack codes in preference order The voter sends the candidate codes in preferenc and receives the preference-ack codes in the order the candidates appear on their code sh
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Turbo Codes  Key features:  Concatenated Convolutional Codes.     Nonuniform interleaving. Recursive systematic encoding.     PCCC: Parallel Concatenated Convolutional Codes. SCCC: Serial Concatenated Convolutional Codes. RSC: Recursive Systematic Convolutional Codes. For PCCC both encoders are RSC. For SCCC at least the inner encoder is RSC. Iterative decoding algorithm.   MAP/APP based. Log-MAP: In logarithmic domain.
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Turbo code performance  Coding dilemma: Turbo Codes   Random coding argument:    “All codes are good, except those that we can think of.” Truly random codes approach capacity, but are not feasible. Turbo codes appear random, yet have enough structure to allow practical decoding. Distance spectrum argument:  Traditional code design focused on maximizing the minimum distance.   dmin determines performance at high SNR With turbo codes, the goal is to reduce the multiplicity of low weight code words.  Even with small dmin, remarkable performance can be achieved at low SNR.
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Codes • Codes are applied to ensure the mechanical integrity of a welded member. This prevents buildings from falling and bridges from collapsing. It also keeps the welding practices the same no matter where the construction is taking place. Codes also have legal status – a biggie! • The largest organization governing welding codes is the AWSAmerican Welding Society. Two others are: ASME- American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and API – American Petroleum Institute. • Each organization has several different codes to address welding in various situations.
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Overview of Codes (continued) • Procedure modifier codes – Two-digit codes used in conjunction with HCPCS/CPT-4 codes for billing purposes • ABC codes – Used to bill for alternative medicine – Not part of the CPT or HCPCS code sets; only accepted by some payers 9/14/2012 ISC471/HCI 571 Isabelle Bichindaritz 31
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Hamming Codes • A family of linear error-correcting codes used in telecommunication that generalize the Hamming(7,4)-code invented by Hamming in 1950 • Hamming codes can detect up to two-bit errors or correct one-bit errors without detection of uncorrected errors • They are perfect codes because they achieve the highest possible transmission rate for codes of their block length • Example: Hamming(7,4) has 4 data bits and 3 parity bits for a total of 7 bits, yielding a data transmission rate of 4/7 = 0.57 2015 Research Day
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