Organizational Chart of a Manufacturing Firm Board Board member member Board Board member member Board Board member member Board Board member member Chief Chief Executive Executive Officer Officer Legal Legal counsel counsel President President V.P V.PSales/ Sales/ Marketing Marketing Industrial Industrial Products Products DirectorDirectorSales Sales Western Western Region Region Industrial Industrial Products Products Sales Sales Manager Manager V.P V.PHuman Human Resources Resources Industrial Consumer Industrial Consumer Products Products Products Products DirectorDirectorDirectorDirectorHuman Sales Human Sales Resources Resources Eastern Eastern Region Region Industrial Industrial Products Products Sales Sales Manager Manager Consumer Consumer Products Products DirectorDirectorHuman Human Resources Resources V.P V.P Production Production Industrial Industrial Products Products DirectorDirectorProduction Production V.P V.PResearch Research and Development and Development Consumer Consumer Industrial Industrial Consumer Consumer Products Products Products Products Products Products DirectorDirectorDirectorDirectorDirectorDirectorProduction R&D Production R&D R&D R&D Western Western Eastern Eastern Region Region Region Region Consumer Consumer Consumer Consumer etc. Products Products etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. Products Products Sales Sales Sales Sales Manager Manager Manager Manager etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc.
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Expected Counts in Two-Way Tables Finding the expected counts is not that difficult, as the following example illustrates. The overall proportion of French wine bought during the study was 99/243 = 0.407. So the expected counts of French wine bought under each treatment are: 99 99 experiment is that there’s no 99 The null: hypothesis in theFrench wine and music No music ×84 =34.22 music : ×75 =30.56 Italian music : ×84 =34.22 243 243 243 difference in the distribution of wine purchases in the store when no music, French accordion music, or Italian string music is played. To find the proportion expected counts, wewine startbought by assuming thatstudy H0 is was true.31/243 We can=see The overall of Italian during the 0.128. So two-way the expected wine bought under each treatment from the table counts that 99ofofItalian the 243 bottles of wine bought during theare: study were 31 French wines. French music : 31 ×75 =9.57 Italian music : 31 ×84 =10.72 No music : ×84 =10.72 243 243 243 If the specific type of music that’s playing has no effect on wine purchases, the proportion of French The overall proportion of Other wine bought during the study was 113/243 = wine sold under each music 0.465. So the expected countscondition of Other wine bought under each treatment are: should be113 99/243 = 0.407. 113 113 No music : 243 ×84 =39.06 French music : 243 ×75 =34.88 Italian music : 243 ×84 =39.06 12
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Expected Counts in Two-Way Tables 9 Finding the expected counts is not that difficult, as the following example illustrates. The overall proportion of French wine bought during the study was 99/243 = 0.407. So the expected counts of French wine bought under each treatment are: 99 99 experiment is that there’s no 99 The null: hypothesis in theFrench wine and music No music ×84 =34.22 music : ×75 =30.56 Italian music : ×84 =34.22 243 243 243 difference in the distribution of wine purchases in the store when no music, French accordion music, or Italian string music is played. To find the proportion expected counts, wewine startbought by assuming thatstudy H0 is was true.31/243 We can=see The overall of Italian during the 0.128. So two-way the expected wine bought under each treatment from the table counts that 99ofofItalian the 243 bottles of wine bought during theare: study were 31 French wines. 31 31 No music : 243 ×84 =10.72 French music : ×75 =9.57 Italian music : ×75 =34.88 Italian music : 243 243 ×84 =10.72 If the specific type of music that’s playing has no effect on wine purchases, the proportion of French The overall proportion of Other wine bought during the study was 113/243 = wine sold under each music 0.465. So the expected countscondition of Other wine bought under each treatment are: should be113 99/243 = 0.407. 113 113 No music : 243 ×84 =39.06 French music : 243 243 ×84 =39.06
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Expected Counts in Two-Way Tables 12 Finding the expected counts is not that difficult, as the following example illustrates. The overall proportion of French wine bought during the study was 99/243 = 0.407. So the expected counts of French wine bought under each treatment are: 99 99 experiment is that there’s no 99 The null: hypothesis in theFrench wine and music No music ×84 =34.22 music : ×75 =30.56 Italian music : ×84 =34.22 243 243 243 difference in the distribution of wine purchases in the store when no music, French accordion music, or Italian string music is played. To find the proportion expected counts, wewine startbought by assuming thatstudy H0 is was true.31/243 We can=see The overall of Italian during the 0.128. So two-way the expected wine bought under each treatment from the table counts that 99ofofItalian the 243 bottles of wine bought during theare: study were 31 French wines. 31 31 No music : 243 ×84 =10.72 French music : ×75 =9.57 Italian music : ×75 =34.88 Italian music : 243 243 ×84 =10.72 If the specific type of music that’s playing has no effect on wine purchases, the proportion of French The overall proportion of Other wine bought during the study was 113/243 = wine sold under each music 0.465. So the expected countscondition of Other wine bought under each treatment are: should be113 99/243 = 0.407. 113 113 No music : 243 ×84 =39.06 French music : 243 243 ×84 =39.06
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Podcasting Software We create our podcasts with open-source software, including: 1. Audacity, which is freely downloadable from http://audacity.sourceforge.net; 2. Lame, an MP3 encoder that you download freely from http://audacity.sourceforge.net/download/lame; and 3. Sakai, which has a Podcasting tool that uploads the recording to your course feed. Students can subscribe to your course feed from iTunes or from the latest versions of Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Safari. Thus, you can tune in to the feed without necessarily having an iPod.
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Wireless Network Tools  MAC Spoofing  http://aspoof.sourceforge.net/  http://www.gorlani.com/publicprj/macmakeup/macmakeup.asp  http://www.klcconsulting.net/smac/  WEP Cracking tools  http://www.backtrack-linux.org/  http://www.remote-exploit.org/articles/backtrack/index.html  http://wepattack.sourceforge.net/  http://wepcrack.sourceforge.net/  Wireless Analysers  http://www.kismetwireless.net/  http://www.netstumbler.com/ Wireless Network Security 33
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and regional networks may arise to connect access nets to ISPS access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net access net … … ISP A IXP access net ISP C access net regional net access net … K&R access net access net Computer Networks access net … access net access net ISP B Network Architecture access net 40
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and content provider networks (e.g., Google, Microsoft, Akamai ) may run their own network, to bring services, content close to end users access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net Content provider network IXP access net ISP B ISP B access net regional net access net access net access net … Computer Networks access net … access net … … ISP A access net K&R access net Network Architecture access net 41
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and regional networks may arise to connect access nets to ISPS access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net access net … … ISP A IXP access net ISP C access net regional net access net … K&R access net access net Advanced Computer Networks access net … access net access net ISP B access net Network Architecture 39
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and content provider networks (e.g., Google, Microsoft, Akamai ) may run their own network, to bring services, content close to end users access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net Content provider network IXP access net ISP B ISP B access net regional net access net access net access net … Advanced Computer Networks access net … access net … … ISP A access net K&R access net access net Network Architecture 40
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and regional networks may arise to connect access nets to ISPS access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net access net … … ISP A IXP access net ISP C access net regional net access net … K&R access net IoT access net access net Network Architecture … access net access net ISP B access net 39
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks … and content provider networks (e.g., Google, Microsoft, Akamai ) may run their own network, to bring services, content close to end users access net … … access net access net access net access net IXP access net Content provider network IXP access net ISP B ISP B access net regional net access net access net IoT access net access net Network Architecture … access net … … ISP A access net … K&R access net access net 40
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks But if one global ISP is viable business, there will be competitors …. which must be interconnected Internet exchange point access access access net … … net net access net access net IXP access net access net … … ISP A IXP access net ISP C … K&R access net peering link access net access net access net Computer Networks access net … access net access net ISP B Network Architecture access net 39
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks But if one global ISP is viable business, there will be competitors …. which must be interconnected Internet exchange point access access access net … … net net access net access net IXP access net access net … … ISP A IXP access net ISP C … K&R access net peering link access net access net access net Advanced Computer Networks access net … access net access net ISP B access net Network Architecture 38
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Internet Structure: Network of Networks But if one global ISP is viable business, there will be competitors …. which must be interconnected Internet exchange point access access access net … … net net access net access net IXP access net access net … … ISP A IXP access net ISP C … K&R access net peering link access net access net IoT access net access net Network Architecture … access net access net ISP B access net 38
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