Intensive Care Lab Example 6.5 The intensive care unit lab process has an average turnaround time of 26.2 minutes and a standard deviation of 1.35 minutes. The nominal value for this service is 25 minutes with an upper specification limit of 30 minutes and a lower specification limit of 20 minutes. The administrator of the lab wants to have four-sigma performance for her lab. Is the lab process capable of this level of performance? Upper specification = 30 minutes Lower specification = 20 minutes Average service = 26.2 minutes  = 1.35 minutes © 2007 Pearson Education
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Reading List 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 10 11. 12 13 Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, Ressler J, Muzzin A, Knoblich B, Peterson E, Tomlanovich M;Early Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group. Nugyen HB, Rivers EP, Havstad S, Knoblich B, Ressler JA, Muzzin AM, Tomlanovich MC:Critical care in the emergency department:Aphysiologic assissment and outcome evaluation.Acad Emerg Med. 2000 Dec;7(12):1354-61. Shoemaker WC, Wo CC, Yu S, Farjam F, Thangathurai D:Invasive and noinvasive haemodynamic monitoring of acutely ill sepsis and septic shock patients in the emergency department. Eur J Emerg Med. 2000 Sep;7(3):169-75. Truog RD, Cist AF, Brackett SE, Burns JP, Curley MA, Danis M, DeVita MA, Rosenbaum SH, Rothenberg DM, Sprung CL, Webb SA, Wlody GS, Hurford WE. Recommendations for end-of-life in the intensive care unit:The Ethics Committee of the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 2001 Dec;29(12):2332-48. Sprung CL, Geber D, Eidelman LA, Baras M, Pizov R, Nimrod A, Oppenheim A, Epstein L, Cotev S. Evaluation of triage decisions for intensive care admission.Crit Care Med. 1999 June;27(6):1073-9. Metcalfe MA, Sloggett A, McPherson K. Mortality among appropriately referred patients refused admission to intensive care units. Lancet. 1997 July 5;350(9070):7-11. Morales IJ, Peters SG, Afessa B. Hospital mortality rate and length of stay in patients admitted at night to the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2003 Marcgl31(3)L858-63, Diringer MN, Edwards DF. Admission to a neurologic/neurosurgical intensive care unit is associated with reduced mortality rate after intracerebral hemorrhage. Crit Care Med. 2001 Mar;29(3):635-40. Afessa B. Triage of patients with acute gastroinestional bleeding for intensive care unit admission based on risk factors for poor outcome. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2000 Apr;30(3):281-5. .Morales IJ, Peters SG, Afessa B. Hospital mortality rate and length of stay in patients admitted a night to the intensive car unit. Crit Care Med. 2003 Mar;31(3):858-63. Rosenberg AL, Hofer TP, Strachan C, Watts CM, Hayward RA. Accepting critically ill transfer patients:adverse effect on a referral cneter’s outcome and benchmark measures. Ann Intern Med. 2003 June3;138(11):882-90. Higgins TL, McGee WT, Steingrub JS, Rapoport J, Lemeshow S, Teres. Early indicators of prolonged intensive care unit stay:impact of illness severity, physician staffing, and pre-intensive care unit length of stay. Crit Care Med. 2003 Jan;31(1):45-51. Rocker G, Cook D, Sjokvist P, Weaver B, Finfer S, McDonald E, Marsh J, Kirby A, Levy M, Dodek P, Heyland D, Guyatt G; Level of Care Study Investigators;Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. Crit Care Med. 2004 May;32(5):114954. Nasraway SA, Button GJ, Rand WM, Hudson-Jinks T, Gustafson M. Surviors of catastrophic illness:outcome after direct transfer from intensive care to extended care facilities. Crit Care Med. 2000Jan;28(1):19-25.
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Administration Positions Systems Administration – Systems Administrator • UNIX Systems Administrator • 2000 Systems Administrator – Database Administrator • Oracle Administrator • DB2 Administrator • Informix Administrator – Mail Administrator • Exchange Administrator • Sendmail Administrator – Storage Administrator Network Administration – – – – – Network Administrator Network Engineer LAN/WAN Administrator Optical Network Engineer Network Accreditation Engineer – Security Specialists Application Administration – Netbackup Administrator – WebSphere Administrator
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Standard Deviation = SD • Standard Deviation uses all the data points, not just some like Range and Interquartile Range • Standard Deviation does not have squared units (like Variance) and is thus easier to interpret • Standard deviation has the same units as the data!! • The sample standard deviation is a point estimator of the population standard deviation • Interpretation of Standard Deviation: • • • • • • • A Numerical Measure that says how much variability there is in the data points Standard Deviation Is Like An Average Of The Deviations Standard Deviation tells us how fairly the mean represents its data points Standard Deviation tells us how clustered the data points are around the mean For financial assets standard deviation is a measure of risk or fluctuation in asset value Use STDEV.P function for population data Use STDEV.S for sample data. 56
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Readback of Error Count CDL Readback of ERROR_COUNT Block: RCA 0x1000, FC 5 COUNT DESCRIPTION LIMIT 0 No Known cause 1 Temperature Greater than Upper Limit Error. > 50.0 C. 2 28V Voltage Lower Limit Error. < 27.0 V. 3 28V Voltage Upper Limit Error. > 29.0 V. 4 Rectifier High Voltage Error. 5 Rectifier Low Voltage Error. 6 1.8V Voltage Upper Limit Error. > 2.2 V. 7 3.3V Voltage Upper Limit Error. > 3.6 V. 8 5.0V Voltage Upper Limit Error. > 5.5 V. 9 Rectifier Over Temperature Alert. 10 1.8V Current Upper Limit Error. > 60.0 A. 11 9UBPS 3.3V Current Upper Limit Error. > 50.0 A. 12 5.0V Current Upper Limit Error. > 3.0 A. 13 QCC V1.8 Lower Limit Error. < 1.6 V. 14 QCC V3.3 Lower Limit Error. < 3.0 V. 15 QCC V5.0 Lower Limit Error. < 4.5 V. 16 QCC V1.8 Upper Limit Error. > 2.2 V. 17 QCC V3.3 Upper Limit Error. > 3.6 V. ALMA Correlator Workshop, May 2016 11
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Using Interview Results To Construct Personas Step 6: Expand description of attributes and behaviors Sarah Jones (Distance Communicator) Sarah Jones is a 19-year-old freshman that has moved from Atlanta, Georgia, to attend UC Berkeley. She lives in an apartment with three other freshmen that are some of her main friends on campus. She hasn’t decided what she is going to study but she is leaning towards psychology because she enjoys social interaction—even if she is sometimes a little shy. She bought an inexpensive camera phone with a one-year contract when she first moved to the Bay Area to serve as a way to keep in touch with her friends and family back home. The camera fit in nicely since she didn’t previously own a digital camera and her parents agreed to pay the bills as long as she stayed within the minutes allowed in her service plan. Sarah feels comfortable using technology and knows how to use the Internet and her Windows notebook. She uses the Internet to communicate with her far-away friends—most of whom go to Georgia Tech—by posting pictures and observations of her new surroundings on blogger.com. The Picassa software she uses uploads her blog pictures for her. She spends an hour or two every day posting pictures, writing, and commenting on the blogs of friends. She adds ordinary things to her blog such as pictures of April, her flamboyant roommate. She is also likely to post pictures of things such as the guy she has a crush on but has barely talked to, a blouse she wants to buy, or the strange guy she saw yelling “happy, happy, happy” on campus. Sarah organizes pictures on her computer by date. She sometimes renames pictures if they contain something significant, but she doesn’t do so often or consistently. She uses Picassa to scroll through her pictures by date when she needs to find more “appropriate” pictures to email to her parents and older brother. At this point she has over 1,000 pictures since she takes pictures every day and keeps all of them. Organization is starting to become a problem because of the sheer numbers. Goals: • To take lots of photos throughout the day so she’ll have some that express her current experience and environment. • To review the photos taken most recently so she can upload the ones she likes best to her blog for the day. • To see many recent photos in one place so she can select the most appropriate ones for emailing to her family. CS 321 • To find pictures of her Berkeley friends and scenic pictures for emailing to her family. Lesson Six Personas Page 11
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Sample Student Schedule Grade 9 English Social Studies Math Science Foreign Language Intro to Engineering Design Physical Education Grade 10 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit .5 unit Grade 11 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit .5 unit Grade 12 English Social Studies Math Science Digital Electronics 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit *Computer Integrated Manufacturing 1 unit *Civil Engineer and Architecture *Biotechnical Engineering *Aerospace Engineering Physical Education English Social Studies Math Science Foreign Language Principles of Engineering Physical Education 1 unit .5 unit English Social Studies Math Science Engineering Design and Development Health Physical Education 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit 1 unit .5 unit .5 unit
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TEAMS WHITE OPAL Alpha Sigma Alpha Sigma Phi Epsilon SILVER QUARTZ Sigma Sigma Sigma Delta Chi Phi Lambda Phi Cardinal Key PURPLE AMETHYST Alpha Phi Omega Phi Kappa Tau Prim Roses EMERALD GREEN AMBER ORANGE Delta Zeta Tau Lambda Sigma Lambda Chi Alpha Alpha Gamma Rho MAP Phi Delta RUBY RED YELLOW TOPAZ Delta Phi Epsilon Sigma Kappa Tau Kappa Epsilon Phi Sigma Kappa Delta Sigma Pi Sigma Tau Gamma BLUE SAPPHIRE BLACK ONYX Alpha Gamma Delta Alpha Sigma Gamma Pi Kappa Phi ABC Beta Theta Pi Alpha Kappa Lambda
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Intensive Care Lab Assessing Process Capability Example 6.5 Cp = Cp = Upper specification - Lower specification 30 - 20 6(1.35) 6 = 1.23 Process Capability Ratio Does not meet 4 (1.33 Cp) target Before Process Modification Upper specification = 30.0 minutes Lower specification = 20.0 minutes Average service = 26.2 minutes  = 1.35 minutes Cpk = 0.94 Cp = 1.23 After Process Modification Upper specification = 30.0 minutes Lower specification = 20.0 minutes Average service = 26.1 minutes  = 1.2 minutes Cpk = 1.08 Cp = 1.39 © 2007 Pearson Education
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Sarah Jones (Typical College Day) CS 321 Lesson Six Personas Page 17 It is now the middle of the semester and Sarah is working with her study group for her Psychology class to generate discussion questions for class. During a break in studying, Sarah pulls out her phone, and demonstrates it to Jason by taking a picture of him. She shows him the picture on the phone, but offers to email it to him. During the day and on her way home Sarah takes some additional pictures: a squirrel; a friend with her mouth full at lunch; the Campanile in the rain; people with umbrellas. In all, she ends up taking 11 pictures before she gets home that night. Her pictures automatically upload to PhotoCat and she views the thumbnails when she gets home. By default, PhotoCat sorts the pictures by time so it’s easy for her to find the recent pictures she wants to include. She creates her blog for the day and writes about Jason; she knows her friends in Georgia will be interested to finally see a picture of him since they’ve read about him in her previous blogs. She inserts an image link for each thumbnail she likes from the day into her blog. When she clicks a link near each thumbnail in PhotoCat, it automatically copies the needed HTML code to the clipboard ready for pasting into her blog. Next, Sarah makes sure Jason gets a few pictures in his email. She sees the picture of him that she wants to share towards the top of the thumbnails and she also shares a few of her more artistic pictures. She remembers one picture she took of Alcatraz that she especially liked. She searches for “Alcatraz” and finds a picture from her trip there. It isn’t the exact picture she wants, but she quickly spots the correct one since the thumbnail is only a few lines below. After selecting the pictures to share, she enters Jason’s email address and composes an email to him (on the PhotoCat site) that will notify him of the photoss he can look at online. Now Jason can follow a link automatically included in his email to view the pictures she has shared. She decides to send some pictures to her family while she’s using PhotoCat since she hasn’t been in touch with them for a few days. She selects some recent pictures, enters the email address and sends them a note with a link to the photos from PhotoCat. She doesn’t include the picture of Jason since she’s not sure what they would think of her crush. She isn’t worried, though, since PhotoCat only shares the photos are selects doesn’t allow browsing of other photos unless she intentionally shares them. She finishes up for the day and logs out of PhotoCat.
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Excel Methods to Create Frequency Distribution • COUNTIFS Excel function with two criteria • Count between the lower and upper limit • Because you have control over the comparative operators, you can create any type of Upper and Lower Limit. • This is different than with the PivotTable Grouping feature and the FREQUENCY Array Function. • PivotTables and the Grouping feature • When Grouping in a PivotTable: • Integer data yields unambiguous labels • Decimal data yields ambiguous labels • Remember: when you are counting between an upper and lower limit, the Upper Limit is NOT included and the Lower Limit IS included; unlike formulas we do not have control over how the upper and lower limits work when grouping. • FREQUENCY Array Function: • Next slide has full details about this function • One note here: For FRQUENCY Array Formula when you are counting between an upper and lower limit, the Upper Limit IS included and the Lower Limit is NOT included; unlike formulas we do not have control over how the upper and lower limits work when grouping. • FREQUENCY Array Function and Data Analysis Tools, Histogram yield the same answer. • Data Analysis Tools, Histogram • You must add this feature in: File tab, Options, Add-ins, Manage: Excel Ass-ins, Click Go, Check box for Analysis Toolpak, Click OK • This feature will create the Frequency Table (just like the FREQUENCY Array Function), a Histogram and a Cumulative Distribution. If Gap Width in Chart is not zero, you must change it!! • FREQUENCY Array Function and Data Analysis Tools, Histogram yield the same answer. 33
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