We build and estimate a model of mandatebased reform and the labor market • Develop a simple model of mandate-based health reform 1. Characterize compensating differential for ESHI 2. Characterize the welfare impact of mandate-based reform relative to tax-based reform in terms of key “sufficient statistics,” which depend on the compensating differential • Rely on the Massachusetts reform to estimate the empirical analog of our theoretical model 1. Estimate the compensating differential for ESHI 2. Estimate the welfare impact of mandate-based reform relative to counterfactual tax-based reform
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Urban and Rural Problems and Attempts at Reform Both city dwellers and farmers struggled with enormous problems as America transformed itself into an urban society in the 19th century. There were, however, many attempts at reform--some fairly successful, others rather disappointing. Lots of ways to approach this material. You can follow the pattern I used in lecture, talking first about urban problems and urban reform groups then moving on to farm problems and farm reform efforts, and then finishing up with the Populists and their attempt at reform. Alternatively, you might give me a paragraph on urban problems, a paragraph on farm problems, and then paragraphs on each of the reform groups including the Salvation Army, the YMCA, the WCTU, and the Populists. It would be good to include also some discussion about the role journalists played in attempts at reform.
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Title The lived experiences of high school principals implementing the core principles of high school reform Purpose To describe the lived experiences of select principals in a large urban school district in southeastern Florida who applied transformational leadership to implement the core principles of high school reform and redesign in an urban school setting. Example 1 Hall (2017) ONE overarching question What are the lived experiences of high school principals implementing the core principles of high school reform and redesign? FOUR supporting research questions 1. What are the leadership characteristics of high school principals who implemented the core principles of high school reform and redesign? 2. What is the high school principals’ knowledge of the core principles of high school reform and redesign and how are they important to the daily work? 3. What are the educational leadership practices of high school principals who implemented the core principles in developing and retaining qualified teachers and improving best practices in the classroom? 4. What are the educational leadership practices of the principals in establishing shared leadership with their staff to implement the core principles of high school reform and redesign? Summer Institute 2018, 13 - 15 July 2018
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RENAISSANCE, REFORM, CONFLICT  REFORM:   conviction that American literature & culture = not living up to their Revolutionary or democratic promises (Enlightenment ideals) reform movements –      women’s rights temperance abolition, anti-slavery plight of the urban poor anti-Catholicism (Protestant evangelical reform)   a “protest” against Catholicism *doctrine of reform = central to American Renaissance period
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Reform and Revolution  Burke drew a distinction between reform and innovation  Change should take place gradually through reform rather than radically by starting anew with abstract proposals  Reform is safer and surer than innovation  Reform is based on “prejudice” rather than abstract reasoning  Prejudice = the traditions, habits, and dispositions that store the “latent” wisdom of society  Traditions represent the accumulated wisdom of the society  French Revolution uprooted the traditional order 5
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Conclusion III: We find DWL lower under mandatebased reform relative to tax-based reform • We translate our compensating differential into key sufficient statistics for welfare analysis – Mandate-based reform is substantially more efficient than alternative tax-based reform: 2% of DWL – This result is robust
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ONE overarching question What are the lived experiences of high school principals implementing the core principles of high school reform and redesign? Research Questions Hall (2017) FOUR supporting research questions 1. What are the leadership characteristics of high school principals who implemented the core principles of high school reform and redesign? 2. What is the high school principals’ knowledge of the core principles of high school reform and redesign and how are they important to the daily work? 3. What are the educational leadership practices of high school principals who implemented the core principles in developing and retaining qualified teachers and improving best practices in the classroom? 4. What are the educational leadership practices of the principals in establishing shared leadership with their staff to implement the core principles of high school reform and redesign? Summer Institute 2018, 13 - 15 July 2018
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American Reform, 1800s  Growing American Jewish population had large Reform component; mirrored controversies of Eur. Reform  Trefa Banquet – July, 1883 Celebration of 1st class of graduates of Hebrew Union College – Reform rabbinical seminary in Cincinnati  Multiple violations of kashrut accented split between radicals, conservatives http://www.americanjewisharchives.org/trefa1.htm 1885 Pittsburgh meeting – radical reformers prevailed with statement of principles, alienating traditionalists 1886 – traditionalists founded Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York.
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Reform in Germany, 1517– 1555 • The pattern of religious reform in Germany was complex. Although some territorial princes, such as the dukes of Bavaria, rejected reform, most free towns, particularly those in the southwest, adopted it. Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.
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The Stirrings of Reform • Social Darwinism • • • • Argued against usefulness of reform Applied natural selection to society Influential followers Came under increasing attack The Stirrings of Reform
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Outline I. II. III. IV. V. Massachusetts Reform and the ACA Model of Mandate-Based Health Reform Identification and Estimation Results Robustness and Implications for National Reform VI. Conclusion
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Key Provisions of Massachusetts and National Health Reform Massachusetts Reform, April 2006 • Individual mandate – Penalty is up to 50% of basic plan by months without coverage • National Reform, March 2010 • Individual mandate – Penalty is higher of 2.5% of income or $2,085 • – >50 FTEs – Penalty is $2,000 per FTE for not offering any insurance – Penalty is $3,000 per FTE for not offering affordable coverage, for all employees receiving tax credit (not assessed on first 30 employees) Employers mandated to offer coverage – >10 FTEs – Penalty is $295/worker • Medicaid expansions – Up to 100% of FPL for adults • Subsidized private plans through exchanges – Subsidies up to 300% of FPL Reference: Kaiser Family Foundation Employers mandated to offer coverage • Medicaid expansions – Up to 133% of FPL • Subsidized private plans through exchanges – Subsidies up to 400% of FPL
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Key Provisions of Massachusetts and National Health Reform Massachusetts Reform, April 2006 • Individual mandate – Penalty is up to 50% of basic plan by months without coverage • Employers mandated to offer coverage – >10 FTEs •  National Reform, March 2010 • Individual mandate – Penalty is higher of 2.5% of income or $2,085 •  Medicaid expansions – >50 FTEs • – Up to 100% of FPL for adults • Subsidized private plans through exchanges – Subsidies up to 300% of FPL Reference: Kaiser Family Foundation Employers mandated to offer coverage Medicaid expansions – Up to 133% of FPL • Subsidized private plans through exchanges – Subsidies up to 400% of FPL
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Key Provisions of Massachusetts and National Health Reform Massachusetts Reform, April 2006 • Individual mandate – Penalty is up to 50% of basic plan by months without coverage • Employers mandated to offer coverage – >10 FTEs •  National Reform, March 2010 • Individual mandate  • – Penalty is higher of 2.5% of income or $2,085  Medicaid expansions – >50 FTEs • – Up to 100% of FPL for adults •  Subsidized private plans through exchanges – Subsidies up to 300% of FPL Reference: Kaiser Family Foundation Employers mandated to offer coverage Medicaid expansions – Up to 133% of FPL • Subsidized private plans through exchanges – Subsidies up to 400% of FPL
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Key Provisions of Massachusetts and National Health Reform Massachusetts Reform, April 2006 • Individual mandate – Penalty is up to 50% of basic plan by months without coverage • Employers mandated to offer coverage – >10 FTEs •  National Reform, March 2010 • Individual mandate  • – Penalty is higher of 2.5% of income or $2,085  – >50 FTEs • Medicaid expansions – Up to 100% of FPL for adults •  Subsidized private plans through exchanges – Subsidies up to 300% of FPL Reference: Kaiser Family Foundation Employers mandated to offer coverage Medicaid expansions – Up to 133% of FPL x • Subsidized private plans through exchanges – Subsidies up to 400% of FPL
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Battle For Health Care Reform  Wasn’t Just About Health Care—For Conservatives it is About Killing a Progressive Agenda  Wanted This Policy Debate to be Obama’s “Waterloo”  If Defeated, They Could Block Climate Change Leg, Immigration Reform, Marriage Equality, Bank Reform, Educ
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Tax Reform – Highlights for Higher Education Topics: — UBTI Increased by Disallowed Fringe Benefits — Excise Tax on Excess Executive Compensation — Excise Tax on Net Investment Income (“Endowment Tax”) — UBTI Separately Calculated for Each Trade or Business — General Tax Reform Items — Modification of Deduction for Contributions in Exchange for Athletic Seating Rights — Individual Tax Reform and Potential Impact on Donor Activity
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Tax Reform – Highlights for Higher Education Modification of Deduction for Contributions in Exchange for Athletic Seating Rights Sec. 170(l) Modification Pre-Tax Reform: — Special rules applied for certain payments to or for the benefit of colleges and universities, allowing an 80% deduction for contributions made in exchange for the right to purchase tickets or seating at an athletic event in an athletic stadium of such institution. Tax Reform: — No charitable deduction is allowed for any payment to or for the benefit of a college and university in exchange for the right to purchase tickets or seating at an athletic event in an athletic stadium of such institution. — For contributions made in tax years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017. ©2018 KPMG LLP, a Delaware limited liability partnership and the U.S. member firm of the KPMG network of independent member firms affiliated with KPMG International Cooperative ("KPMG International"), a Swiss entity. All rights reserved. 15
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Land Reform Types • Expropriation - seizure of land for reform – Redistribution - parceling land out to workers or peasants (Mexico - Zapata: “Land or Death!”) – Collectivization or state farm management - no distribution of land (Russia, China) • Tenancy reform - change in rules governing rent and sharecropping – Example: Taiwan and Philippines • Re-settlement, colonization - movement of peasants (Brazil; Sumatra in Indonesia)
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Interventions: Rape Law Reform   Historically, rape has been inappropriately defined, investigated, prosecuted, and punished by male-dominated legislative and justice systems (feminist theory). Rape law reform has proceeded vigorously since the 1970s. By 1980, almost every state in the U.S. had passed some form of rape law reform.    Rape and sexual offenses are defined in gender-neutral terms that describe the specific behavior involved [replacing outdated, confusing labels that failed to distinguish the actual behavior involved]. Rape shield laws: constrain the use of prior sexual history by defense attorneys attempting to establish victim consent http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5861379/
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TxCETP Goals Course Reform • Course Reform to reflect learner-centered pedagogies • Recruit more undergraduate students (especially African-American and Hispanic) to STEM teaching • Support for Preservice and Novice Teachers to increase retention and quality • Strengthen Systemic Reform Connections to maximize alignment and impact Texas Collaborative for Excellence in Teacher Preparation
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Take a Deep Breath • Evidence from MA provides hope • Other New England states for controls • Medicare patients w/ chronic disease: – No decrease in visits to doctor pre/post reform – No decrease in quality process measures – Slight increase in health care costs • Limitations – MA had low uninsured rate pre-reform – Only looks at 65+ Medicare beneficiaries Joynt K, et al. The impact of Massachusetts health care reform on access, quality, and costs of care for the already-insured. Health Services Research. 2014. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12228
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Reform Movements Reform Era Movement Setting Focus of Reform Moral Treatment 1800-1850 Asylum Humane, restorative treatment Mental Hygiene 1890-1920 Mental hospital or clinic Prevention, scientific orientation Community Mental Health 1955-1970 Community mental health center Deinstitutionalization, social integration Community support 1975-present Community support Mental illness as a social welfare problem
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Medicaid Payment & Delivery Reform Medicaid is becoming a more sophisticated purchaser, and states are using: • Coordinated care models (ex: patient centered medical homes, health homes) • Outcomes-based incentives (ex: pay for performance) • Value-driven reimbursement (ex: bundled payments) • Continued penetration of Medicaid managed care, to more populations and with a broader range of benefits States are motivated by pressure to reduce state expenditures, the availability of federal funding and momentum toward improving quality of care States may use 1115 waivers to take advantage of flexibilities: • To craft alternatives to Medicaid expansion • To create “Delivery System Reform Implementation Pools” (funding pools) • To reform long-term care systems • To make sweeping, innovative changes to state health care systems (via State Innovation Model grants) 20
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Conclusion: Counterpoint on Reform • Reform encountered perceptive critics  Nathaniel Hawthorne allegorically refuted perfectionist movements suggesting the world was inherently an imperfect place • Reform prompted necessary changes in American life
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Income Taxes Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA) TRA was a remarkable bi-partisan reform that closed loopholes (favored by liberals) and lowered marginal rates (favored by conservatives). These two are linked—broadening the base makes lower rates possible. This reform also shifted the burden from individuals to corporations. Since TRA loopholes have been added at a
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State and Local Public Finance Lecture 9: State and Local Sales and Income Taxes Tax Reform Act Of 1986 (TRA)  Remarkable bi-partisan reform that closed loopholes (favored by liberals) and lowered marginal rates (favored by conservatives).  These two are linked—broadening the base makes lower rates possible.  Since then loopholes have been added at a furious pace.  This reform also shifted the burden from individuals to corporations.
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Corporate Governance Reform The debate regarding what needs to be done about corporate governance reform depends on which systems and regimes are deemed superior To date, reform in the United States has been largely regulatory Sarbanes-Oxley Act Board structure and compensation Transparency, accounting, and auditing Minority shareholder rights 11
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What’s Important to Remember?  The final leg of this 11-year odyssey to NSR reform is far from over  The D.C. Circuit is reviewing the 2003 reform  Review of Duke 2005 by the Supreme Court is being sought  States and environmental groups will fight the proposed 2005 reform  Will State resistance overwhelm the system?  How long will it take EPA Regional Offices to approve SIP revisions implementing the reforms in State PSD and NANSR regulations? 34
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Immigration Immigration Reform Reform and and Control Control Act Act (IRCA) (IRCA) • Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)  Prohibits employment discrimination against persons legally permitted to work in the United States.  Requires employers to document (I-9 form) eligibility for employment.  Provides penalties for knowingly employing illegal workers. Copyright © 2005 Thomson Business & Professional Publishing. All rights reserved. 4–22
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES • • • • • How did the tax system work prior to reform? How did it work after reform? What were the key elements of the 1994 Tax Reform? What impact did these changes have on the Chinese economy? How has the Chinese fiscal system affected the different areas of the country? • What is the difference between the center-local split in revenues versus expenditures? • What has been the impact of the fiscal system currently in place on local government indebtedness? P.V. Viswanath 2
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2010 List of Proposed Legislation  Bank and Savings Association Holding Company and Depository Institution  Regulatory Improvements Act of 2010  Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010  Enhancing Financial Institution Safety and Soundness Act of 2010  Expand and Preserve Home Ownership Through Counseling Act  Federal Insurance Office Act of 2010  Financial Stability Act of 2010  Improving Access to Mainstream Financial Institutions Act of 2010  Investor Protection and Securities Reform Act of 2010  Mortgage Reform and Anti-Predatory Lending Act  Nonadmitted and Reinsurance Reform Act of 2010  Pay It Back Act  Payment, Clearing, and Settlement Supervision Act of 2010  Private Fund Investment Advisers Registration Act of 2010  Wall Street Transparency and Accountability Act of 2010 © 2013 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 2 | Slide 23
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(1) First contact = justice system - difficult = reform measures - treatment / rehabilitation (2) Difficult = reform measures - money = local level - local politics - avoid state / federal reform laws - 40 to 1 ratio F. Rehabilitation programs - qualified staff = sufficient numbers
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