Entrepreneurship: is it good enough to be social? John F. McVea and Michael J. Naughton Introduction • The term Social Entrepreneurship has experienced a huge growth in influence over that last decade. The literature proposes a number of advantages to social entrepreneurship as a frame of reference: • Promoting innovation within non-profits • Leveraging and focusing scarce philanthropic resources • Faster response to strategic challenges • Infusion of business skills to non-business world • Involvement of non government assets in social problems • Creation of hybrid (blurred) organizations between for profit and non profit worlds. It is widely observed that practice has outpaced theoretical development leading to little agreement on definitions or frameworks for social entrepreneurship. We believe that widespread and unchallenged acceptance of the term Social Entrepreneurship masks some dangers and has contributed to confusion in the field. We believe that if we apply some insights from Catholic Social Teaching to the issue of social entrepreneurship we can move beyond the false dichotomy of Entrepreneurship/ Social Entrepreneurship and identify three specific entrepreneurial strategies which support a more robust discussion of the nature of the work that is entrepreneurship. We believe that the field would benefit from spending less time discussing social entrepreneurship and more time discussion the nature of the good entrepreneur. • • • • • The dangers of naïve acceptance of Social Entrepreneurship • • • The rhetorical risk: • Narrow definition: if S.E. is simply used to rebrand non-profits then much of the value of the new activities, hybrid design, stimulation of new resources and innovation is lost. • Implied dichotomy: if “good” ventures are termed “social” it can imply that other forms of entrepreneurship are “asocial” or “anti social” • Boundarylessness: In contrast, if all business activities are deemed “social”, to some degree or other, then the term loses all meaning focus on the distinctive phenomenon that is S.E. Despite these risks we are more concerned with a risk beyond rhetoric; the risk of undermining the meaning of work, particularly from the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching. While this perspective is drawn from the Catholic tradition, accepting the content of CST does not require acceptance of Catholic faith (Guitan, 2009). The three goods of social entrepreneurship • We are concerned by the side-effects of a concentration thesis that suggests that the moral responsibilities of entrepreneurship can be concentrated in a subset of businesses called social enterprises, presumably leaving other enterprise to simply concentrate on serving themselves. • We are concerned by the impact such a concentration thesis could have on the conception of the meaning of work beyond the world of social enterprise. • We are concerned with how such an approach can focus attention solely on the altruistic contributions of entrepreneurial ventures as the sole measure of their contribution to the Common Good • Instead we propose that, rather than trying to determine the difference between entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, it would be more productive to focus on the questions “What is Good Entrepreneurship? What action and activities define that goodness?” • We further propose that, by apply the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching, we can identify three specific strategies through which entrepreneurial ventures may contribute to the Common Good thus suggesting that good entrepreneurship requires a focus on: 1. Good Goods. The primary way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is by bringing into existence new products and services which are inherently good and which enrich lives and minimize any unintended harms. This can include what we call the “entrepreneurship of the mundane”, that is, the manufacture of the nuts and bolts and basic necessities of life as well as the creation of life saving treatments. However, inclusion of good goods as a primary moral contribution of entrepreneurship must also require of the entrepreneur analysis of what goods are not good, and what aspects of even good goods should be redesigned or rethought in order to minimize unintended consequences. We find, in our discussions, that this is a much under appreciated dimension of the good of entrepreneurship. 2. Good Work. The second way an entrepreneurial venture can contribute to the Common Good is through the nature of the work that is carried out by the venture. This dimension has several aspects both internal and external to the entrepreneur: • The development of good character in the entrepreneur. This aspect of the good is derived from the subjective dimension of work, that is, just as how-we-work ends up changing the world, so working-on-the-world changes us. Most professionals spend the majority of their waking hours at work. As habits, character and wisdom are developed through experience and activity, for the entrepreneur, doing good work is an important opportunity to develop character. Society as a whole is better off for having good, successful entrepreneurial leaders who, through that calling, can become leaders of character. This dimension of the entrepreneurial good is widely unappreciated even by entrepreneurs themselves • Good relations with employees, customers and other stakeholders. Value creation and trade creates opportunities for the building of social relationships. The central question is “Are you in good relation with those with whom you create value?’ Do your employees have opportunity to develop as people? 3. Good Wealth. The third way the good entrepreneur can contribute to the Common Good is through the creation of good wealth. Good wealth requires a balance of reward for labor/ creativity with the provision of a living wage to all. Good wealth is often captured by individual action but has social strings attached. From the CST perspective the creation of good wealth implies a particular solidarity with the poor. One way to contribute to the common good is to donate altruistically to those in need. But even here, altruism is only one of a number of possible strategies. Good entrepreneurs may also contribute by donating their time or their particular skills. Indeed, since the donation of time and work often requires physical interaction with those in need, it often generates a solidarity of far greater integrity. Finally, it must be emphasized that altruism, for the entrepreneur, is always dependent, indeed subsequent to the creation of good wealth in the first place. Literature cited Alvord, Sarah, David L. Brown, and Christine W. Letts, 2004. “Social Entrepreneurship and Societal Transformation: An Exploratory Study,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 40:260. Benedict XVI, Caritas et veritate,   Boschee, Jerr. 1998 “What does it take to be a social entrepreneur?” National Centre for Social Entrepreneurs (www.socialentrepreneurs.org/whatdoes/html), 5pp.   Cannon, Carl. 2000. “Charity for profit: how the new social entrepreneurs are creating good by sharing wealth” National Journal, June 16: 1898-1904.   Christie, Michael and Benson Honig. 2006. “Social entrepreneurship: New research findings.” Journal of World Business. 41: 1-5.   Dees, Gregory, J., 1998. “The Meaning of ‘Social Entrepreneurship,’” Original Draft: 10/3.   Drucker, P.F. 1985. Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper & Row.   Fowler, Alan. “NGDOs as a moment in history: beyond aid to social entrepreneurship or civic innovation?” Third World Quarterly, 21(4): 637-654.   Gregg, S. and G. Preece: 1999, Christianity and Entrepreneurship (The Centre for Independent Studies Limited, St. Leonards, NSW, Australia).   Hibbert, Sally A., Gillian Hogg and Theresa Quinn. “Consumer response to social entrepreneurship: The case of the Big Issue in Scotland.” International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. 7(3): 288-301.   Johnson, Sherrill, 2000. “Literature Review on Social Entrepreneurship,” Canadian Center for social Entrepreneurship. (http://www.bus.ualberta.ca/ccse/Publications/).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Laborem Exercens (On Human Work): 1981, in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   John Paul II, Pope.: 1992 Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (On Social Concern): 1987 in D. J. O’Brien and T. A. Shannon, (eds.), Catholic Social Thought (Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY).   Kennedy, R., G, Atkinson, and M. Naughton, (eds.): 1994, Dignity of Work: John Paul II Speaks To Managers and Workers (University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland).   Mair, Johanna and Ernesto Noboa, 2003. “Social Entrepreneurship: How Intentions to Create a Social Enterprise get Formed,” IESE Business School.   Mair, Johanna and Ignasi Marti, 2006. “Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight,” Journal of World Business. 41: 36-44.   Melé, D.:2001, ‘A Challenge for Business Enterprises: Introducing the Primacy of the Subjective Meaning of Work in Work Organization’, (http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/mgmt/le/papers/mele.htm) Conclusions We have argued that, while there is great promise in the contemporary social entrepreneurship movement, there are also a number of important dangers. We propose that, if we confront rather than acquiesce to these dangers, we can use the perspective of Catholic Social Teaching to broaden the scope of entrepreneurial ventures that we study, to enrich the moral dimension of entrepreneurial strategy and to deepen the teaching of entrepreneurship as a whole. We recommend the following to move toward these contributions: • Incorporate social entrepreneurship into entrepreneurship in a way that enhances the three goods of entrepreneurship. Specifically we propose replacing the questions “What is social entrepreneurship?” with the questions “What does it mean to be a Good entrepreneur?” From this perspective we can then apply what we have called the three goods of entrepreneurship as a means of supplying critical challenge and inspiration to all forms of entrepreneurship such that the true moral dimension of this critical force in our lives comes into fruition. • Encourage research within the entrepreneurship discipline that addresses traditional social entrepreneurial issues such as micro lending, fair trade products, etc. • Develop bridge courses such as Theo/Cath 306 which help students understand and experience the meaning of the good entrepreneur as well as connect students to the spiritual and moral principles of a good entrepreneur. • Expose entrepreneurship students to so-called social entrepreneurs as well so-called conventional good entrepreneurs so they can see the spectrum of entrepreneurial activities. © File copyright Colin Purrington. You may use for making your poster, of course, but please do not plagiarize, adapt, or put on your own site. Also, do not upload this file, even if modified, to third-party file-sharing sites such as doctoc.com. If you have insatiable need to post a template onto your own site, search the internet for a different template to steal. File downloaded from http://colinpurrington.com/tips/ academic/posterdesign. Acknowledgments I am indebted to Michael Naughton and Laura Dunham for their reflections and thoughts on this paper.
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Academic Excellence -- Accreditation School School of of Education Education School School of of Pharmacy Pharmacy Accreditation Accreditation Council Council for for Pharmacy Pharmacy Education Education School of Dental Medicine National National Council Council for for the the Accreditation Accreditation of of Teacher Teacher Education (NCATE) Education (NCATE) National National Association Association of of School School Psychologists Psychologists American American Speech-Language-and-Hearing Speech-Language-and-Hearing Assn. Assn. American American Dental Dental Association Association School School of of Engineering Engineering (ABET) (ABET) Accreditation Accreditation Board Board for for Engineering Engineering Technology Technology American American Council Council for for Construction Construction Education Education 44 44 Baccalaureate Baccalaureate Degree Degree Options Options The The Graduate Graduate School School 45 45 Masters Masters Degrees Degrees Doctoral/Professional Doctoral/Professional Degrees Degrees Pharmacy Pharmacy and and Dental Dental Medicine Medicine Nursing and Education Engineering Nursing and Education Engineering School School of of Nursing Nursing CCNE CCNE Commission Commission on on Collegiate Collegiate Nursing Nursing Education Education College College of ofArts Arts and and Sciences Sciences National NationalAssociation Association of of Schools Schools of of Music, Music, Voice, Voice, and and Piano; Piano; National NationalAssociation Association of of Schools Schools of ofArt Art and and Design; Design; School of Business (AACSB) –Association Association to to American American Chemical Chemical Society; Society; Advance Collegiate Schools of Business Advance Collegiate Schools of Business American AmericanArt Art Therapy; Therapy; Association AssociationAccrediting Accrediting Council Council in in Journalism Journalism and and Mass Mass Communication; Communication; Council Council on on Social Social Work Work Education Education National National Association Association of of Schools Schools of of Public PublicAffairs Affairs and andAdministration; Administration; National NationalAssociation Association of of Schools Schools of of Theatre Theatre
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• Recommended Adult Immunizations (Figure 13.5) • Recommended for all persons who meet the age requirement and lack documentation of vaccination or past infection (all covered by the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program): – Influenza: all adults, 1 dose annually; covered by the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program – Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Td/Tdap): all adults, substitute Tdap for Td once, then Td booster every 10 years – Varicella: lifetime, 2 doses – Human papillomavirus (HPV), Female: aged 19–26, 3 doses – Human papillomavirus (HPV), Male: aged 19–21, 3 doses – Zoster: aged 60 and over, 1 dose – Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR): aged 19-47, 1 or 2 doses depending on indication; and aged 60 and over, 1 dose – Pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate (PCV13): aged 65 and older, 1 dose – Pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPSV23): aged 65 and older, 1 dose Source: “Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule for Adults Aged 19 Years and Older, by Vaccine and Age Group, United States, 2016,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, February 1, 2016, www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/imz/adult.html; “Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule—United States, 2015,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015, Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report, 64 (4). ©McGraw-Hill Education.
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Partner High Schools Embedding the Certified Production Technician Certification in the Advanced Manufacturing IDOE Pathway through Dual Credit Courses  Carroll Consolidated School Corporation – Carroll High School  Eastern Howard School Corporation – Eastern High School  Hamilton Heights Community Schools – Hamilton Heights High School  Maconaquah School Corporation – Maconaquah High School  Northwestern School Corporation – Northwestern High School  Peru Community Schools – Peru High School  Tipton Community School Corporation – Tipton High School  Tri Central Community Schools - Tri Central High School  Western School Corporation – Western High School
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Credit Student Origins High School Graduates GCC Does Regular Outreach to the Following High Schools: Hoover High School Glendale High School La Canada High School Franklin High School Eagle Rock High School Daily High School Crescenta Valley High School Clark Magnet Burroughs High School Burbank Adult School Burbank High School Belmont High School Bell-Jeff High School Los Angeles High School Marshall High School North Hollywood High School Verdugo Hills High School Downtown Magnet Miguel Contreras High School John Francis Poly Taft High School Temple City High School Garfield Campus
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LETTER OF INTENT The effect of high intensity interval training versus moderate intensity training on anthropometric and cardiovascular health in children who are overweight or obese: A pilot study. PI Name: Ashwin Agrawal, DO, MA Stony Brook Children’s Hospital HSC T-11, Room 040 Stony Brook, NY 11794-8111 631-358-6106 [email protected] Funding Path Academic Pediatric Association Resident Investigator (RIA) Primary Mentor Name Peter Morelli, MD, FACC [email protected] Residency Program Director Name Robyn Blair, MD [email protected] Department Chair Name Margaret McGovern, MD [email protected] Participation Statement If funded, I agree to participate in any conference calls and/or in-person grantee meetings WORK IN PROGRESS…. PROBLEM, BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE: Approximately 30% of children in the United States are overweight/obese leading to a public health epidemic.[1] Pediatric obesity is linked to numerous acute and chronic health conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancers, hypertension, and significant increase in all-cause mortality.[2, 3] Diet and exercise decrease the risk of obesity.[4] However, only 27% of children perform the recommended 60 minutes of daily exercise. [5] The American Academy of Pediatrics endorses that pediatricians assist children and their families with lifestyle modification such as diet and exercise to improve the physical, cognitive and mental state of children.[4] Fit Kids for Life (FKFL) is a 10 week lifestyle modification program developed and offered by Stony Brook Children’s since 1998 which incorporates nutritional guidance, wellness and a supervised exercise regimen for obese children in our community. Efficacy of pediatric obesity interventions is equivocal with many studies noting high attrition rates and poor long term adherence.[6-8] Factors that contribute to high attrition include: difficulty of exercise, repetitiveness/boredom from exercise routine or that weight loss was not visible. [6] Therefore, it is important to develop a novel, time efficient modality that will motivate, captivate and promote exercise and healthy nutrition for children to help reduce rates of pediatric obesity. Ideal intensity and duration of exercise programs for effective weight loss and improved health in pediatric populations is unclear.[6] Most pediatric obesity programs, including FKFL, have utilized moderate intensity training (MIT) which consists of exercise in 60 minute circuits.[6, 7] High intensity interval training programs (HIIT) have emerged and are effective at reducing weight and cardiovascular risk markers in adults.[9] Less is known abou the role of HIIT in the overweight/obese pediatric population. Early studies suggest that HIIT may have improved health benefits for children and adolescents. [10] Compared to MIT, HIIT programs employ short bursts of near maxim exercise intensity (HR ≥75% HR max) followed by brief rest periods and have a shorter duration (generally 30minutes). [10] HIIT programs have been found to be attractive to children and adolescents for several reasons including: 1) HIIT more closely mimics typical movements of children - short bouts (< 15 seconds) and high intensity, 2) HIIT can be delivered in a shorter timeframe, and 3) HIIT paradigms are more like playing a game which may decrease boredom, increase enjoyment and promote higher adherence.[11-13] Currently used outcome measures in pediatric obesity studies (such as height, weight, waist to hip ratio, Body mass Index [BMI], heart rate [HR] and blood pressure [BP]) may not be ideal. For example, BMI is influenced by linear growth and ineffective at quantifying body composition; waist circumference, while promoted by the WHO as a valid predictor of cardiovascular disease, is fraught with measurement reliability issues; and vascular health may not be reflected by BP and HR changes alone. Three dimensional (3D) body imaging is a new technique which may offer greater reliability in measuring body circumferences and inferring body composition. In addition, bio-electrical impedance has shown to evaluate fat content and muscle mass fairly accurately. In terms of cardiovascular health, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) is a safe, non-invasive technique which correlates strongly with coronary endothelial function and predicts cardiovascular disease.[14, 15] In the adult literature, FMD has revealed improved vascular health following exercise and diet, even in the absence of weight loss. Therefore, FMD may be a strong indicator of cardiovascular improvement following the FKFL program, and this outcome may reflect program success despite lack of change in anthropometric measures. Studies show improved vascular health (FMD) in adults even when body composition and weight have not changed, thus FMD may potentially be a more sensitive measure of exercise (and overall program) effect.[15] SPECIFIC AIMS: Specific Aim 1: To determine if high intensity interval training (HIIT) is a better alternative to moderate intensity training (MIT) for improvements in a) BMI and weight loss, b) body composition by a novel 3D body scanning method and bioelectric impedance and and, c) cardiovascular health measured by FMD and heart rate variability in children and adolescents who are overweight and obese. Specific Aim 2a: To determine if children/adolescents who complete HIIT program have better attendance and long term adherence to lifestyle changes compared to the MIT group. Specific Aim 2b: To determine if children in the HIIT program report higher enjoyment and satisfaction compared to the MIT group. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Children who complete the FKFL HIIT protocol will have greater improvements in CV health (as measured by BMI, body composition, vital signs, and FMD) as compared Commented [1]: I would remove this line. BIA is not
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Introduction to heritage schools  NCACLS – 15 regional associations • Association of Chinese Schools (New England to Virginia) • Houston Chinese Schools Association • Association of Chinese Schools in Southeastern United States (Georgia and Alabama) • Association of Northern California Chinese Schools • Colorado Association of Chinese Language Schools • Dallas Fort Worth Chinese School Association • Midwest Chinese Language Schools Association (Illinois, Ohio, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Indiana) • Michigan Chinese Teachers Association • Northwestern Association of Chinese Language Schools (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Alaska, Wyoming, Montana) • Southern California Council of Chinese Schools • AMCSA (Kansas) • Hawaii Chinese School Association • Florida Chinese School Association • Washington Metropolitan Area Chinese School Association • Association of New Jersey Chinese Schools – 6 officers 1st International Conference on Heritage/Community Languages
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