Empirical Evidence • Externalities from the peer group • Favorable peers are smart, motivated, not disruptive • Evidence that peer effects most important for grades 5-12 • Placing a high achiever in a class of low achievers: • Sund (2009) shows that low achievers have the most to gain so class average increases • Placing a high achiever in a class of medium achievers: • Burke and Sass (2008) shows that class average increases • China, Ding and Lehrer (2007) show that medium achievers gain more (suggesting an increase in class average) than low achievers from the presence of a high achiever (which results in a decline in class average)
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Example of the Maximum Allowed on Foreign Country: CHINA Publication Date: 09/01/2011 Country Name Post Name Season Begin Season End CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA CHINA Beijing Changchun Chengdu Chongqing Dalian Fuzhou Guangzhou Guilin Haikou Hangzhou Harbin Jinan Kunming Lhasa Lijiang Nanjing Nanning Ningbo Other Qingdao Sanya Shanghai Shantou Shenyang Shenzhen Suzhou Tianjin Urumqi 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 1-Jan 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec 31-Dec Maximum Lodging Maximum Per Diem M & IE Rate Rate Rate 258 115 147 99 110 161 220 168 181 152 117 121 127 131 67 139 131 138 147 157 177 237 141 97 264 152 141 146 119 92 85 83 91 114 158 100 118 111 89 85 85 52 77 78 119 100 115 88 91 93 86 81 135 110 102 79 377 207 232 182 201 275 378 268 299 263 206 206 212 183 144 217 250 238 262 245 268 330 227 178 399 262 243 225 Footnote Effective Date View N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 03/01/12 05/01/11 11/01/11 05/01/06 05/01/11 01/01/11 11/01/11 08/01/12 01/01/12 09/01/11 05/01/11 11/01/11 11/01/07 11/01/07 11/01/07 11/01/11 11/01/11 11/01/11 04/01/12 05/01/11 11/01/11 03/01/12 04/01/11 05/01/11 11/01/11 11/01/11 05/01/12 11/01/11
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VOMmean w F=(DPP-MN)/4 Concrete4150(C, W, FA, Ag) 0 1 1 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 _________[0,9) 8 4 9 1 [9,14) 10 1 11 2 12 1 13 5 14 1 [14,18) 15 3 16 3 17 4 18 1 [18,23) 19 3 20 9 21 4 22 3 23 7 24 2 [23,31) 25 4 26 8 27 7 28 7 29 10 30 3 31 1 [31,36) 32 3 33 6 34 4 35 5 37 2 [36,39) 38 2 40 1 [39,52) 42 3 43 1 44 1 45 1 46 4 ______ 49 1 56 1 [52,90) 58 1 61 1 65 1 66 1 69 1 71 1 77 1 80 1 83 1 _________[0.90) 86 1 100 1 [90,113) 103 1 105 1 108 2 112 1 e4 accuracy rate = 104/150= 69% 2 Low 1 Low 5 Medium 3 Medium 5 High 5 High CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 5 Low 2 Medium 4 High 6 Low 1 Medium 13 High CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.1.2 25 Low 4 Medium 19 High CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.2 3 Low 7 Medium 11 High CLUS_1.1.1.1.2 1 Low 1 Medium 2 High 0 Low 12 Medium 1 High 0 Low 11 Medium CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 . 0 High CLUS_1.1.1.2 CLUS_1.1.2 CLUS_1.2 43 Low 46 Medium 55 High CLUS_1 0 Low 6 Medium 0 High CLUS_2 d=e4 Conc4150 ________=0 0 17 ________=1 1 11 ________=3 3 12 ________=6 6 35 _______ ________=13 13 25 _______ 22 25 =22 24 8 =24 44 7 ________=44 67 ________=67 4 89 2 ________=89 91 4 13 Lo 2 Lo 12 Lo 13 Lo 3 Lo 0 Lo 0 Lo 0 Lo 0 Lo 0 Lo 4 Med 9 Med 0 Med 5 Med 3 Med 6 Med 8 Med 7 Med 4 Med 4 Med 0 4 STD=(101,28,99,81) d=e1 Conc4150 6 3 7 2 8 Low 7 Medium 0 High CLUS_1.1.1.1.1.2 12 10 [9,16) 13 2 14 3 CLUS_1.1.1.1.2 18 9 [16,31) 18 Low 11 Medium 0 High 20 4 22 5 23 3 24 5 27 3 1 Low 3 Medium 3 High CLUS_1.1.1.2 31 3 [31,39) . 36 4 5 Low 5 Medium 7 High CLUS_1.1.2 41 2 [39,52) 42 1 43 4 44 3 46 3 48 2 ______ 49 2 55 13 4 Low 17 Medium 38High CLUS_1.2 58 8 [52,80) 60 6 Entirely inconclusive using e ! 62 5 1 65 4 71 16 72 4 ________[0.80) 43Low 46Medium 55High CLUS_1 74 3 7 High CLUS_2 82 4 [80,101) 0 Low 7 Medium 83 7 97 2 100 1 VOM MN 0 Hi 0 Hi 0 Hi 17 Hi 19 Hi 19 Hi 0 Hi 0 Hi 0 Hi 0 Hi CLUS_11 CLUS_10 CLUS_9 CLUS_8 CLUS_7 . CLUS_6 . CLUS_5 CLUS_3 CLUS_1 CLUS_2 d=e3 Conc4150 0 15 3 2 ________ 5 4 17 3 19 8 21 1 29 3 ________ 41 28 46 3 47 8 48 3 52 4 ________ 53 15 58 3 62 4 63 4 64 1 65 7 67 3 69 4 72 3 73 12 75 2 78 5 83 1 100 4 2,4 [0.9) [9,32) 3 Low 1 Low 16 Medium 8 Medium 2 High CLUS_1.1 6 High CLUS_1.2 [0.32) 4 Low 24 Medium 8 High CLUS_1 [32,101) 39 Low 28 Medium 47 High CLUS_2 [32,55) 21 Low 12 Medium 28 High CLUS_2.1 [55,101) 1 Low 8 Medium 6 High CLUS_2.2 0 2 3 4 ________[0,5) 3 Lo 1 Med 2 Hi CLUS_2 8 4 ________=8 0 Lo 1 Med 3 Hi CLUS_3 10 2 ________=10 0 Lo 2 Med 0 Hi CLUS_4 12 8 ________[10,14) 1 Lo 4 Med 9 Hi CLUS_5 13 4 15 4 16 14 17 3 18 1 19 3 ________[14,21) 9 Lo 9 Med 15 Hi CLUS_6 20 8 22 15 ________[21,25) 3 Lo 1 Med 15 Hi CLUS_7 24 4 ________[25,28) 5 Lo 1 Med 3 Hi CLUS_8 27 9 29 3 e2 accuracy= 30 6 31 3 Inconclusive on e2! 93/150=62% 32 3 33 7 34 4 d=e2 ________[28,36) 14 Lo 12 Med 8 Hi CLUS_9 35 8 0 Hi CLUS_10 5 [36.40) 7 Lo 1 Med Conc4150 37 38 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 18 19 20 21 29 30 31 32 34 35 36 62 64 93 121 125 2 5 6 12 2 1 6 6 1 4 12 11 5 3 2 9 10 4 1 4 9 4 9 4 1 2 5 4 2 4 2,4 =0 2L 0M 0H C14 =1 1L 4M 0H C13 [2,4) 11L 6M 1H C12 =4 0L 2M 0H C11 [5,9) 14L 0M 0H C10 [9,11) 3L 0 M 13H C9 =11 =12 =13 [15,25) 5L 5L 0L 2L 2 M 4H 0 M 0H 3 M 0H 4 M 19H C8 C7 C6 C5 [25,33) 0L 0 M 18H C4 [33,50) 0L 14 M 0H C3 [50,93) 0L 7 M 0H C2 [93,m) 0L 10M 0H C1 Accuracy= 127/150=85% CONCRETE
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REFLECTIVE JOURNALING TOOLS Reflective J ournalingTools LEARNING: • How is practice different from theory? Did this exercise help you to understand your theory and the application of theory better? How? Why? • Did you learn anything that helped you to better understand a theory, the use of a test that you were taught in lectures/labs? • What did you learn that were not taught in lectures (e.g. communication with patients), and how did you cope or learn more about this to improve your performance? Or how can this be incorporated into lectures? • Did this exercise help you to remember or recall later other aspects of previous experiences that you have forgotten? • Did this exercise help you identify areas that need to be changed, improved etc. in yourself/peers/staff/clinical training etc. Why and how? • What actions did you take you take and what are the results (what did you learn)? SELF ASSESSMENT: • Did you identify areas/issues that you were unclear of, or disagreed with your supervisors/peers, or different from what you have learned in your past lectures? Justify the actions taken. Did this help you in your learning? How? • Have you been open to share with others and to listen what others have to say? • Have you paid attention to both your strong and weak points? Can you identify them? What are you going to do about them? • How did faculty supervision/RW help you in your clinical experiences in relation to your professional growth? (eg. did it encourage you to be more independent, to become more confident in professional activities and behaviors etc) • What have you noted about yourself, your learning altitude, your relationship with peers/supervisors etc. that has changed from doing this exercise? COMMUNICATION: • What have you learned from interacting with others (peers/supervisors/staff etc)? • Did your peers gain anything from YOUR involvement in this exercise and vice versa? • Did this exercise encourage and facilitate communication? • Did you clarify with your supervisors/peers about problematic issues identified? Why (not)? What are the results? • How could you/your peers/staff help you overcome negative emotions arising from your work? Did your show empathy for your peers? PROFESSIONALISM: • Did you learn that different situations call for different strategies in management? • What are the good and bad practices that you have identified? How would you suggest to handle the bad/poor practices identified (if any)? • Did you learn to accept and use constructive criticism? • Did you accept responsibility for your own actions? • Did you try to maintain high standard of performance? • Did you display a generally positive altitude and demonstrate self-confidence? • Did you demonstrate knowledge of the legal boundaries and ethics of contact lens practice? EMOTION & PERSONAL GROWTH: • Did you reflect on your feelings when dealing with the case/peers/supervisor (eg. frustration, embarrassment, fear) for this exercise? If not, why not? If yes, who should be responsible — you, your patient or your supervisor? Why? • Did you find reflection (as required for this exercise) helpful, challenging, and enjoyable, change the way you learn? How? Why (not)? • How and what did you do to handle negative emotions arising from doing this subject? How could these feelings be minimized? • Did you try to find out if your feelings were different from your peers? Why? What did you do to help your peers? • Did you reflect on your learning altitude? How was it? Is there room for improvement? How? Why (not)? • What did you learn about your relationship with your peers/supervisors? What did you learn about working with others? Ideas for Reflective Journaling Writing Contributor(s): Dr. Michael Ying and Dr. Pauline Cho
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