Education Production Function Factors affecting achievement: H: Home environment P: Peer group C:Curriculum E: Education resources T: Teacher quality Marginal gains in achievement will decrease with an increase in a single factor, holding other factors constant
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DGAP Summary DGAP Summary Positive Positive Change in Interest Rates Increase Decrease Decrease > Decrease → Decrease Increase > Increase → Increase Negative Negative Increase Decrease Decrease < Decrease → Increase Increase < Increase → Decrease Zero Zero Increase Decrease Decrease = Decrease → Increase = Increase → DGAP Assets Liabilities Equity None None
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A Matrix Organization Functional authority Project authority President President Farm FarmMachinery Machinery Division Division Production Production department department Legal Legal department department Engineering Engineering department department Accounting Accounting department department Project Project Alpha Alpha manager manager Production Production support support group group Legal Legal support support group group Engineering Engineering support support group group Accounting Accounting support support group group Project Project Beta Beta manager manager Production Production support support group group Legal Legal support support group group Engineering Engineering support support group group Accounting Accounting support support group group Project Project Gamma Gamma manager manager Production Production support support group group Legal Legal support support group group Engineering Engineering support support group group Accounting Accounting support support group group
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Loss of Particles: Cyclotron Resonance and Scattering into the Loss Cone • When circularly polarized waves resonate with the cyclotron motion of a charged particle, the interaction exchanges energy between the wave and the particle. • The resonance also changes the pitch angle of the particle. If the change in pitch angle forces the particle into the loss cone, it will hit the atmosphere and be lost. This maintains the pitch angle anisotropy despite the scattering that otherwise would lead to isotropy. • The maintenance of the anisotropy can lead to sustained wave growth by the “loss cone instability” mechanism. Particle Type Energy Change in Resonance with Right-Hand Cyclotron Waves Resonance Particle Wave Parallel Perpendicular Pitch Energy Energy Energy Energy Angle Electron Head-on Positive Ion Decrease Increase Increase Decrease Decrease Overtaking Decrease Increase Decrease Increase Increase Electron Head-on Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Increase Positive Ion Overtaking Increase Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease An analogous relationship exists for resonance with left-handed waves. 19
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• The Education Production Function (1 of 2) The education production function shows the relationship between the inputs and outputs of the educational process. • For a school year, the production function is where Achievement is the change in skills (cognitive, social, physical) over the course of the school year. • Achievement depends on the student’s home environment (H), the classroom peer group (P), teacher input (T), and other inputs (Z) such as the curriculum and equipment (books, computers, lab equipment). • The teacher variable incorporates both the quality of the teacher (productivity in terms of improving student skills) and the quantity of teacher input per student, which is determined by class size. ©McGraw-Hill Education.
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Peer-to-peer systems         Decentralized architecture without a trusted intermediary. Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model where servers supply, and clients consume. Peer-to-peer systems often implement an Application Layer overlay network on top of the native or physical network topology. Such overlays are used for indexing and peer discovery. Content is typically exchanged directly over the underlying IP network. Anonymous peer-to-peer systems implement extra routing layers to obscure the identity of the source or destination of queries. In structured peer-to-peer networks, connections in the overlay are fixed. They typically use distributed hash table-based (DHT) indexing, such as in the Chord system developed at MIT Unstructured peer-to-peer networks do not provide any algorithm for organization or optimization of network connections. Advantages    use of spare resources at many sites difficult to censor content Disadvantage  Finding information in a large peer-to-peer network is hard. Lecture 16 8
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Signatures of Intermittent Turbulence in Hinode Quiet Sun Photosphere Valentina Abramenko, Big Bear Solar Observatory, USA, www.bbso.njit.edu/~avi Plasma turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysics in general and in the solar photosphere, in particular. It is a fundamental physical process that plays an important role in the near-surface turbulent dynamo and plasma heating through dissipation. Turbulence acquires intermittent nature when extremely high fluctuations (in both temporal and spatial domains) become not rare and they thus determine the energy release dynamics: significant contribution to the traditional turbulent energy cascade appears in the intermittent medium. We estimated signatures of intermittent turbulence in the quiet sun photosphere utilizing Hinode/SOT data. We found that at scales below 1 Mm the QS structures are highly intermittent, which open possibilities for enhanced energy release dynamics at small scales. What is the Intermittency How to measure the degree of intermittency Intermittency of the magnetic field from SOHO/MDI high resolution data Structure functions were first introduced by Kolmogorov (1941). r The ratio of the squared second structure function, S2( r ) (red), over the forth structure function, S4( r ) (blue), gives us the Filling Factor, f(r ) . The Filling Factor does not depend on the scale, r, For non-intermittent (or, monofractal) structures and time series. Quiet sun For intermittent structures, the filling factor decreases as the scale decreases. For non-intermittent structures (like a Gaussian process) the filling factor does not depend on scale. A turbulent medium can display a property of intermittency: a tendency to concentrate into strong blobs (sometimes in a shape of sheets , or tubes) of all scales intermittent with vast areas of low intensity, a presence of extremely strong fluctuations and a burst-like behavior in time evolution. Intermittent structure is a multufractal. Generally, intermittency and multifractality are two different terms for the same phenomenon. Historically, the former term (intermittency) is usually applied to time series Analysis, whereas the later one (multifractality) is used for spatial objects (Takayasu, 1989; Frisch, 1995). In scale intervals, where intermittency presence, it can reinforce the energy release dynamics. The steeper the slope of decrease, the more intermittent the structure is. In the multifractal terminology, the steeper the filling factor means the more complex multifractal, which is a superposition of a set of monofractals. For example, in the solar wind turbulence, the presence of interminnency implies the presence of magnetic field discontinuities, shocks and current sheets of various scales. All these phenomena contribute significantly into the energy release dynamics, along with the usual turbulent cascade. We first applied the filling factor technique to magnetograms from SOHO/MDI obtained in the high resolution mode. Areas of three types we analyzed: Active Region (AR) area ( red), Plage area (green) and two areas in the quiet sun, which were mostly located inside small coronal holes (blue and turquoise). Middle figure – the filling factor function (linear axes) for the AR data. The interval of decreasing filling factor is well pronounced: 5 – 30 Mm. Below 5 Mm the filling factor increases, which is caused by the noise influence and poor resolution of the magnetogram. Right figure – the filling factor as a function of a spatial scale (double logarithmic plot) for three types of magnetic structures. For all of then, the filling factor function starts to increase at small scales as a result of insufficient data resolution. Note that while both the AR and the plage data display an intermittent nature of the magnetic field at scales above 2 Mm, the quiet sun data seems to display no intermittency at these scales. If we ignore the noise-related hooks and contunuously extend the AR and plage curves (dotted curve with the arrow) below the base lane of the quiet sun plateu, we may conclude that at scales below 1000 km one may expect the decreasing behavior of the filling factor in the quiet sun areas, i.e., the intermittent property of the QS magnetic field. Note, that here a special type of the filling factor formula was used: f( r ) = S 6( r ) /( S3 ( r ) )2 , which is more sensitive to intermittency.
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