O 6 objectives of the UB grant Minimum 2.5 Grade point average Academic Performance--Grade Point Average (GPA) O O 85% of participants served during the project year will have a cumulative GPA of 2.5 or better on a four-point scale at the end of the school year. Academic Performance on Standardized Test: 77% of UB seniors served during the project year, will have achievedthat the proficient Test in Math & Reading/LA onmath. the 10 grade levelproficient on state assessments in reading/language arts and Secondary School Retention and Graduation WKCE test O 96% of project participants served during the project year will continue in school for the next to academic year, atgrade the next level grade level, or will have graduated secondary Pass the next or graduate with afrom regular school with a regular secondary school diploma. diplomaSchool Graduation (rigorous secondary school program of study) Secondary O O O 75% of all current and prior year UB participants, who at the time of entrance into the project had and expected high school graduation date the school will complete a Complete a rigorous HS curriculum (4inyears ofyear, core, 2 years rigorous secondary school program of study and graduate in that school year with a regular secondary school diploma. WL) O O Postsecondary Enrollment O 74% of all current and prior UB participants, who at the time of entrance into the project Senior willschool enroll in college (2school or 4year, year) the infall had an cohort expected high graduation date in the will enroll a program of postsecondary education by the fall term immediately following high school graduation immediately after graduation, file a deferment forschool, a from or will have received notification, by the fallor term immediately following high an institution ofdate higher (Reserves). education, of acceptance but deferred enrollment until the next spring start academic semester (e.g. spring semester) O Postsecondary Completion Complete an Associates of Bachelor’s within 6 years of HS 57% of participants who enrolled in a program of postsecondary education, by the fall term immediately following high school graduation or by the next academic term (e.g., graduation spring term) as a result of acceptance by deferred enrollment, will attain either an O associate’s or bachelor’s degree within six years following graduation from high school.
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Contrasts with Teacher-Made Tests  Level of detail covered – standardized tests are more general; they’re mostly a sampling of what was studied.  Research base – teachers rarely have the time to prepare items as extensively as a standardized test company.  Availability of norms – teachers have only their previous students for comparison, and this is mostly informal; nationally standardized tests have norms allowing wider comparisons of achievement.  Frequency of occurrence – standardized tests are infrequent although their variety and their “high stakes” nature may make them “feel” dominant. So, Does it make sense that we need both? Both have different purposes. By the way, it is interesting to note that those students who do well on teacher-made tests also do well on standardized tests. Students who don’t “like” tests tend to not like either type of testing.
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Topics: Standardized Achievement Tests     Review of the various meanings of the term “standardized” Contrasting standardized achievement tests with teacher-made assessments Six classes of standardized achievement tests Special procedures to follow when administering standardized achievement tests
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3) Licensing & Certification Exams Using the Praxis exam series as an example . . .  Basic Idea: To determine each student’s specific achievement in a single subject area with a cut-off score defining acceptable performance (government set minimal level in order to protect the public).  The Praxis series is a descendent of the National Teacher Exams. Really a series of separate exams (e.g., Praxis I - Academic Skills; Praxis II - PLT and Subject Areas; Praxis III First-Year Observation). The scores are characteristically reported as scaled scores (mean and standard deviation created). The recipient often thinks the score is criterion-based while it is really norm-based. Norms are based on whatever individuals took the exams in the most recent three-year period. Each state sets its own cut-off scores. These score are usually typically between the 10 th and 20th percentile. The Ohio Department of Education (ODE) selects the tests required and sets the qualifying scores (i.e., cut-off scores). Both the selected tests and the qualifying scores are subject to change by ODE. The State of Ohio uses the examinees’ scores as a measure of a university’s teacher education program’s adequacy (PASS/FAIL rates, not the scores themselves).      
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IEEE Std 1076.3 Packages Numeric_Bit  Comparison operators - various combinations of signed and unsigned arguments FUNCTION FUNCTION “>” “>” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION “<” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION “<” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “<=” “<=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION “>=” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION “>=” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “=” “=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “/=” “/=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean;  Shift and rotate functions FUNCTION FUNCTION shift_left shift_left (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION shift_right (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN FUNCTION shift_right (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION rotate_left (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION rotate_left (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION rotate_right rotate_right (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION sll sll (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION slr (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION slr (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION rol rol (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION ror (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION ror (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; 24/03/19 UAH-CPE528 8
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IEEE Std 1076.3 Packages Numeric_Bit  Comparison operators - various combinations of signed and unsigned arguments FUNCTION FUNCTION “>” “>” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION “<” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION “<” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “<=” “<=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION “>=” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION “>=” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “=” “=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION FUNCTION “/=” “/=” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean;  Shift and rotate functions FUNCTION FUNCTION shift_left shift_left (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION shift_right (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN FUNCTION shift_right (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION rotate_left (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION rotate_left (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION rotate_right rotate_right (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION sll sll (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION slr (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION slr (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION rol rol (arg:unsigned; (arg:unsigned; count:natural) count:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION ror (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION ror (arg:unsigned; count:natural) RETURN unsigned; 24/03/19 UAH-CPE528 24
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State Report Card (Component 1 – State Indicators . . .) 1. State Indicators - The State Indicators vary by year, but are generally based on the number of state assessments given over all tested grades. To earn each indicator, a district or school needs to have a certain percentage of students reach proficient or above a given assessment. Eighteen of the 2006-2007 State Indicators are: Meeting or exceeding the goal of 75 percent proficient or above on: • 3rd-grade achievement tests: reading, math • 4th-grade achievement tests: reading, math, writing • 5th-grade achievement tests: reading, math, science, social studies • 6th-grade achievement tests: reading, math • 7th-grade achievement tests: reading, math, writing • 8th-grade achievement tests: reading, math, science, social studies
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Units 3 -7 Type of Certificate Accomplishment 8 Accomplishment or Achievement 9 Accomplishment or Achievement 10 Accomplishment or Achievement 11 Accomplishment or Achievement 12 Accomplishment or Achievement 13 Accomplishment or Achievement 14 Accomplishment or Achievement 15.5 Accomplishment or Achievement 16+ Achievement Purpose of a Certificate of Accomplishment 1. Stackable certificates that lead to a certificate of achievement and/or degree 2. Low unit certificates that lead to employment 3. Do not garner as many “points” for the new funding formula. 4. Do not appear on students’ transcripts.
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(4) The Permanent Income Hypothesis Suggested Suggestedby byMilton MiltonFriedman Friedman(1957) (1957) •• This Thishypothesis hypothesisshares shareswith withthe thelife lifecycle cyclethe theassumption assumptionthat thatlong-term long-termincome incomeisisthe the primary determinant of consumption. primary determinant of consumption. ●● Milton MiltonFriedman Friedmanargues arguesthat thatititwould wouldbe bemore moresensible sensiblefor forpeople peopletotouse usecurrent current income, but also at the same time to form expectations about future levels income, but also at the same time to form expectations about future levelsofofincome income and the relative amounts of risk. and the relative amounts of risk. ●● Thus, Thus,they theyare areforming formingan ananalysis analysisofof“permanent “permanentincome.” income.” Permanent PermanentIncome Income==Past PastIncome Income++Expected ExpectedFuture FutureIncome Income ●● Transitory TransitoryIncome Income––Income Incomethat thatisisearned earnedininexcess excessof, of,ororperceived perceivedas asan anunexpected unexpected windfall. If you get income not equal to what you expected or to what you don’t windfall. If you get income not equal to what you expected or to what you don’t expect expecttotoget getagain. again. ●● So, So,he heargues arguesthat thatwe wetend tendtotospend spendmore moreout outofofpermanent permanentincome incomethan thanout outofof transitory. transitory. ●● InInthe theFriedman Friedmananalysis, analysis,he hetreats treatspeople peopleas asforming formingtheir theirlevel levelofofexpected expectedfuture future income based on their past incomes. This is known as adaptive expectations. income based on their past incomes. This is known as adaptive expectations. ●● Adaptive AdaptiveExpectations Expectations––looking lookingforward forwardinintime timeusing usingpast pastexpectations. expectations. InInthis thiscase, case, we use a distributed lag of past income. we use a distributed lag of past income. Copyright©2004 South-Western
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IEEE Std 1076.3 Packages Numeric_Bit  Resize functions FUNCTION FUNCTION resize resize (arg:unsigned;new_size:natural) (arg:unsigned;new_size:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION resize (arg:signed;new_size:natural) RETURN signed; FUNCTION resize (arg:signed;new_size:natural) RETURN signed;  Conversion functions FUNCTION FUNCTION to_integer to_integer (arg:unsigned) (arg:unsigned) RETURN RETURN natural; natural; FUNCTION to_unsigned (arg,size:natural) RETURN FUNCTION to_unsigned (arg,size:natural) RETURN unsigned; unsigned;  Logical operators FUNCTION FUNCTION “not” “not” (l:unsigned) (l:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “and” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN FUNCTION “and” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION “or” “or” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “nand” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN FUNCTION “nand” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “nor” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION “nor” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION “xnor” “xnor” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned;  Edge detection functions FUNCTION FUNCTION rising_edge(SIGNAL rising_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) s:bit) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION falling_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) RETURN FUNCTION falling_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) RETURN boolean; boolean; 24/03/19 UAH-CPE528 9
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IEEE Std 1076.3 Packages Numeric_Bit  Resize functions FUNCTION FUNCTION resize resize (arg:unsigned;new_size:natural) (arg:unsigned;new_size:natural) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION resize (arg:signed;new_size:natural) RETURN signed; FUNCTION resize (arg:signed;new_size:natural) RETURN signed;  Conversion functions FUNCTION FUNCTION to_integer to_integer (arg:unsigned) (arg:unsigned) RETURN RETURN natural; natural; FUNCTION to_unsigned (arg,size:natural) RETURN FUNCTION to_unsigned (arg,size:natural) RETURN unsigned; unsigned;  Logical operators FUNCTION FUNCTION “not” “not” (l:unsigned) (l:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “and” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN FUNCTION “and” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION “or” “or” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “nand” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN FUNCTION “nand” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; unsigned; FUNCTION “nor” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION “nor” (l,r:unsigned) RETURN unsigned; FUNCTION FUNCTION “xnor” “xnor” (l,r:unsigned) (l,r:unsigned) RETURN RETURN unsigned; unsigned;  Edge detection functions FUNCTION FUNCTION rising_edge(SIGNAL rising_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) s:bit) RETURN RETURN boolean; boolean; FUNCTION falling_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) RETURN FUNCTION falling_edge(SIGNAL s:bit) RETURN boolean; boolean; 24/03/19 UAH-CPE528 25
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GDP Calculation 2. Income approach All final goods and services are produced using factors of production. By summing up the factor payments, we can find the value of GDP. Some adjustments are required to balance the account. Compensation of employees includes the wages, salaries, fringe benefits, Social Security contributions, and health and pension plans. Rent is the income of the property owners. Interest is the income of the money capital suppliers. Proprietor’s Income is the income of incorporated business, sole proprietorships, and partnerships. Corporate Profits is the income of the corporations’ stockholders whether paid to stockholders or reinvested. Sum of the above items is the National Income (NI). Adjustments: Indirect business Taxes (general sales taxes, business property taxes, license fees etc.) should be added to NI. They are not considered to be payments to a factor of production, but they are part of total expenditures. Depreciation is another cost, which should be added. Net foreign factor income (income earned by the rest of the world – income earned from the rest of the world) should be added to adjust GNP to GDP. Computing GDP: GDP = Compensation of employees + Rent + Interest + Proprietor’s Income + Corporate Profits + Indirect business taxes + Depreciation + Net foreign factor income Some statistical discrepancy should be considered to balance expenditure and income approach.
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The Most Important Policies Every Student Must Know! The 2.0 Graduation Policy Want to graduate? First, You Must Apply For Graduation. Pick up the “Intent to Graduate” form in the Office of Admissions/Records and submit it by the deadline below: Semester Month of Graduation Intent Form Due Summer Graduation August July 1 Fall Graduation December October 1 Spring Graduation May February There is no computer in the sky that automatically knows you have completed all your coursework since programs of study change from year to year. Secondly, there are several requirements for graduation. One that we’d like for you to especially be aware of is the 2.0 Graduation Policy. You must have successfully completed all required courses for the Associate and/or Certificate desired and have the required minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.0. Further, you must have taken at least 16 hours of academic coursework at IVCC to graduate with an Associate Degree from IVCC, and/or you must have completed at IVCC at least 25% of the coursework required of your certificate program to graduate from IVCC. In doubt about CGPA? See the “Your GPA section” of this orientation! back | home | next
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Education Production Function How to measure achievement? Lifetime income Scores on standardized tests Graduation rates
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2) Single Area Achievement Tests Typically high school and beyond . . .  Basic Idea: To determine each student’s specific achievement standing with respect to regional or national group performance in a single subject area. May include criterion-referenced interpretations. Typically used in high school or diagnostically K-12.  There are single area achievement tests related to nearly all high school subjects. Check out the Educational Testing Service website: ETS Test Link Overview  Notice that there appears to be a wide range of quality. Check dates.  They even ask if you would like to submit your tests to the Test Collection at ETS (What does this suggest?). Two Example Areas:  Diagnostic Tests are highly detailed (and therefore long to take) achievement tests with extensive subscores. These tests are administered individually and are used for formative evaluation. Reports may include criterion-referenced interpretations to aide intervention.  Advanced Placement (AP) Exams and SAT Subject Tests fall into this category and the outcome emphasis is on the final total score. These are most often used for summative assessment. 
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1) Achievement Batteries A system of interrelated K-12 tests . . .  Basic Idea: To determine each student’s general achievement standing with respect to regional or national group performance over time and across subject areas. Typically used K-12.  The test battery is a group or system of interrelated tests that contain a fairly limited sample of questions covering many subject areas, many grade levels. The direct comparability of normed scores across content areas and grade levels is one the greatest values of these achievement batteries. These tests are based on high quality sources of information for their content (e.g., National Learned Societies, Professional Organizations, State Curricular Guides from large states). The original intent was to monitor individual progress in the major areas of the school curriculum, with the school and the teacher being the intended score recipient. This reporting has been expanded to parents. Methods of assessment found in a test battery include more than multiple-choice items (e.g., writing exercises, open-ended questions, performance measures). Major batteries are more alike than they are dissimilar (e.g., Stanford Achievement Test Series: Metropolitan Achievement Tests; Iowa Test of Basic Skills).    
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